Complex method and processing device for blasting air and flue gases

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: processing blasting air and flue gases occurs in the device, which includes a heat exchange and absorptive-heat exchange sections. Water vapour condenses during the cooling of flue gases lower than the dew-point. The cooled flue gases are mixed up with the ozone-air mixture. Oxides of nitrogen and sulfur (NOx and SOx) are oxidized to NO2 and SO3 and absorb the obtained condensate in the plate-type heat exchanger 1st step 27. In the lower block of gas cleaning 28 filled with a crumb of slaked lime, neutralizes NO and NO2. In the upper block of the gas cleaning 29 filled with a crumb of activated coal, adsorbs carbon monoxide and unburned fuel. After the heat exchanger of the 2nd step 11 heated air in the block of regeneration 5 is desorbed from the activated coal CO and the unburned fuel. Enriched gases heated air is directed to the furnace of a boiler.

EFFECT: declared invention provides an increase ecological and economic efficiency of process of cleaning of flue gases.

2 cl, 7 dwg

 

The invention relates to a power system and can be used in the purification of flue gases from harmful impurities.

A known method of cleaning flue gases from harmful impurities (oxides of nitrogen and sulphur oxides (NOxand SOx)), includes cooling the flue gases to a temperature below the dew point, condensation of water vapor in a tubular heat exchanger, the saturation of the condensate recirculation of ozone and oxygen and rise in lifting the pipe airlift mixing with ozonopause mixture distribution of saturated condensate in the absorption section, the oxidation and absorption of oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur in the flue gases, saturated condensation with the formation of acidic condensate flowing into the sump, after which the cleaned flue gases are vented to atmosphere, the removal of the acidic condensate from the sump to anonimowy filter for removal of acidic components, which take in the process of regeneration unionicola filter in the form of a salt solution.

A device that implements this method contains a treatment area in the duct (the duct) placed in her heat exchange section, made in the form of a vertical tubular heat exchanger, absorber section, made in the form of a vertical tubular heat exchanger with Padano and placed them in coaxial lifting pipe airlift the separation section, made in the form of a vertical tubular heat exchanger, and the pallet is connected by a pipeline with Uniontown filter [1].

The main disadvantages of this method lie in the impossibility of flue gas from carbon dioxide (CO2) and its utilization, the need to use expensive anion exchange resin as filler unionicola filter for the disposal of the acidic condensate from the flue gases from harmful impurities (oxides of nitrogen and sulphur oxides (NOxand SOx)), resulting in reduced environmental and economic efficiency of flue gas contaminants.

The main disadvantages of the known device is the lack of equipment for cleaning and flue gas from the CO2and its utilization, utilization of acidic condensate unionicola filter regeneration which involves the use of additional specialized equipment, which increases the working space heat and power plant as a whole, using as the main equipment in the sections of the treatment area of the tubular heat exchangers, the design of which is too cumbersome and high aerodynamic resistance, which limits the possibility of using the Oia device in thermal generating plants of small capacity and reduces its effectiveness.

Closer of the present invention is an integrated method of cleaning and recycling of flue gases, which comprises heating the blast air, cooling the flue gases to a temperature below the dew point, condensation of water vapor, mixing the cooled flue gas with ozonopause mixture, oxidation and absorption of oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur obtained by condensation in the gas channels of the plate heat exchanger-heater 1st stage, further oxidation and absorption of NOxand SOxpartially purified from the flue gas in the gas channels of the gaps between the perforated tapes, coated with a layer of slaked lime (CA(Oh)2), in block vertical perforated tape with parallel interaction of NO and NO2with (CA(Oh)2) with the formation of calcium nitrate (CA(NO3)2), carbon dioxide (CO2with CA(Oh)2with the formation of calcium carbonate (caso3), which interacts with nitric acid, in carry out the drops of condensation with the formation of calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2), separation of flue gases from the condensate drops, and then peeled from most of the harmful impurities (NOx, SOx, CO2), carry out the drops of condensate, they are displayed in the atmosphere, and the condensate is saturated acid components, flows into the from from the separation of the plates, additionally feasting upon the acid components, and falls on the surface of the block horizontal perforated tape, covered with a layer of hydrated lime on the surface of which it is cleared from acid components, and then flows into the sump, from where it is sent for feeding the boiler unit.

The device in which this method contains a box with gas and air nozzles, placed in it in the direction of the flue gas, made of corrosion-resistant material, a heat exchange section in which is placed the plate heat exchanger-heater 2nd stage, and reported through the window of absorption heat exchange section provided with a tray which is placed from the bottom up the condensate treatment unit consisting of a horizontal perforated tape, covered with a layer of slaked lime (CA(Oh)2and closed with a lid, a hollow mixing chamber placed in her perforated distribution pipe, which is connected via a duct to the inlet of cold air and equipped with ozone, heat exchanger-heater 1st stage, the gas purification unit consisting of a vertical perforated tape, a similar design to the horizontal tapes, also closed with a lid, separating plates (items) [2].

OS is the ESD of the disadvantages of the known comprehensive method are the inability of flue gas carbon monoxide (CO), unburned residual fuel (CH4and others), the lack of efficiency of flue gas from other contaminants (nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides (NOxand SOx), due to the small area of mass transfer, created the total surface of the block perforated vertical tapes, as well as a short active cycle of their work, because of the small number (CA(Oh)2) in the coating layer of the tapes, which reduces its ecological and economic efficiency

The main disadvantages of the known device is the lack of equipment for the purification and recycling of flue gases from CO, unburned residual fuel and their disposal, the inability to increase the area of mass transfer in a known design of perforated vertical tapes and the increase in the number of (CA(Oh)2) in the coating layer cassettes, which reduces its efficiency and environmental safety.

The technical result for the solution of which the present invention is directed, is to increase the ecological and economic efficiency of the process of flue gas not only from oxides of nitrogen, sulfur, carbon dioxide, water vapor (NOx, SOx, CO2N2About) and their utilization, but also from carbon monoxide (CO), unburned residual fuel (CH4and others) and their utilization in the blast air is e directly in the boiler unit.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that the proposed integrated method of processing the blast air and flue gas includes heating the blast air, cooling the flue gases to a temperature below the dew point, condensation of water vapor, mixing the cooled flue gas with ozonopause mixture, oxidation and absorption of oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur obtained by condensation in the gas channels of the plate heat exchanger 1-th stage further oxidation and absorption of NOxand SOxin the gas channels of the gaps between the vertical perforated containers filled with crumbs of slaked lime (CA(Oh)2), and the lower cleaning unit NO and NO2interact with it inside a container with the formation of calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2), carbon dioxide (CO2with CA(Oh)2with the formation of calcium carbonate (caso3), which interacts with nitric acid, in carry out the drops of condensation with the formation of calcium nitrate (CA(NO3)2), the upper cleaning unit consisting of the same containers, but filled with crushed activated carbon, carbon monoxide (CO), unburned fuel (CH4and others) adsorbed to them inside the containers, after which the flue gases pass through the separating grate, where are exempt from carry out drops to the of densata and purified from most of the impurities are vented to atmosphere; condensate saturated acid components, flows down from the separation of the lattice, additionally taking acid components, and falls on the surface of the block horizontal perforated tape, covered with a layer of slaked lime (CA(NO)3)2on which surface flow above reaction, flowing from one tape to another through the holes, cleaned from acid components, and then flows into the sump, from where it is sent for feeding the boiler unit, and the heated air after heater 2nd stage enters the regeneration unit, consisting of a vertical perforated containers filled with crushed activated carbon saturated with harmful contaminants and residues of unburned fuel passes through the air channels between them, getting inside the container, heating the rich crumb and desorber from this, unburned fuel (CH4and others), mixed with them and enriched them is sent to the boiler furnace.

The technical problem is solved also by the fact that the device for processing the blast air and flue gas contains a box with the gas and air pipes, which are placed in the direction of the flue gas is made of corrosion-resistant material: Teploobmennik-regeneration section, which includes the em in myself regeneration unit, consisting of vertical perforated bins so that they are formed air channels made with perforated walls, rectangular openings are flanged on the side opposite the direction of the airflow guiding flange at an angle of 45°filled with crushed activated carbon saturated with harmful contaminants and residues of unburned fuel, heat exchanger-heater 2nd stage: absorption-heat-exchange section, soamsawali with him through the window, equipped with a pallet which is placed in a bottom-up block horizontal perforated tape, covered with a layer of slaked lime (CA(Oh2), closed with a lid, a hollow mixing chamber placed in her perforated distribution pipe connected to the inlet of cold air and ozone, heat exchanger-heater 1st stage, gas purification units, consisting of a vertical flat containers, similar in design to the containers of the regeneration unit and installed so that between them form gas channels, and the containers of the lower block filled with crumbs of slaked lime (CA(Oh)2and closed the lid, and the upper block - crumbs from fresh (regenerated) activated charcoal and also akriti its cover, the separating grate.

Implementation of the proposed integrated method of processing the blast air and the flue gases is carried out in the device represented in figure 1-7, where figure 1 shows a General view, figure 2 - cross section, figure 3, 4 - longitudinal sections, figure 5 - site treatment unit condensate 18, 6, 7 sites gas purification units 28 and 29. The proposed device consists of a box 1, in which in the direction of flue gases placed Teploobmennik-regenerator section 2 with pipes entrance of hot combustion gases and hot air outlet 3 and 4, respectively, which is arranged in the regeneration unit 5 consisting of a vertical perforated containers 6 installed so that they are formed air channels made with perforated walls, a rectangular hole 7 which is flanged on the side opposite the direction of the airflow guiding flange 8 at an angle of 45°filled with crushed activated carbon 9 saturated with harmful contaminants and residues unburned fuel, and closed by a cover 10; a vertical plate heat exchanger-heater 2nd stage 11, box 12; absorption heat exchange section 13, provided with a nozzle exit of the cleaned flue gases and the entrance of cold air 14 and 15, respectively, of the pallet 16 with fitting lyrics by the VA condensate 17, in which placed upward the condensate treatment unit 18 consisting of a horizontal perforated tape 19 with round holes 20 made of rough material, covered by a layer of slaked lime (CA(Oh)2) 21, stacked on top of each other with a gap between a staggered their openings 20 and closed by a cover 22 of the cleaning unit condensate 18; perforated distributing pipe 23 connected through a duct 24 with ozonizer 25, with a pipe of cold air 15, placed in a hollow mixing chamber 26; plate heat exchanger-heater 1st stage 27; two gas purification unit 28, and 29, consisting of a vertical perforated containers 6 installed so that between them form gas channels, and the container 6 of the lower unit 28 is filled with crumbs of slaked lime (CA(Oh)2) 30 and closed by a cover 31, and the upper block 29 - crumbs from fresh (regenerated) activated carbon 9 and also closed its lid 32; separation grating 33.

We offer a comprehensive way of handling the blast air and the flue gases is carried out in the proposed device, as follows. Flue gases from the pipe 3 comes in Teploobmennik-regenerator section 2, which distributes gas channel plate heater 2nd stage 1, design is compared with the tube allows to intensify the heat transfer process [3, pp.272], [4, s], moving from top to bottom, being cooled to a temperature close to the temperature of condensation in them of water vapor due to heat transfer through the wall with the heated air moving along the air channels from the bottom up, fall through the window 12 in the mixing chamber 26 of absorption and heat transfer section 13, where it is mixed with ozonopause the mixture flowing from the perforated distribution pipe 23, after which the gas mixture is distributed on the gas channels of the plate heater 1st stage 27, moving from the bottom up, is cooled by heat exchange through the wall of the heated cold air moving in its air ducts to the temperature (40÷50)°at which condensation occurs mostly located in the flue gases of water vapor on the surface of the walls of the gas channels in the form of a film of condensate flowing under the action of gravity down and communicate with her. In parallel to the process of condensation in the gas phase due to the presence of ozone and oxygen is quite intensive oxidation of harmful impurities (NOxand SOx) to soluble in water nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO3), their absorption Conde is satoi film in countercurrent, which increases the driving force for absorption [5, C; 6, C], then saturated acid components of the condensate flows down into the mixing chamber 26, interacting similarly with the above gas mixture, and partially purified from the NOxand SOxflue gases rise in the gas channels - the gaps between the vertical perforated container 6 of the lower cleaning unit 28, which also occur above oxidation reaction and the absorbance of the remaining nitrogen oxides in the gas and liquid phases and, in addition, flue gases against the guide flange 8 through the holes 7, fall inside the container 6 filled with crumbs of slaked lime (CA(Oh)2) 29 on the surface of which are the reaction mixture of NO and NO2with CA(Oh)2with the formation of calcium nitrate (Ca(NO2)2), carbon dioxide (CO2with CA(Oh)2with the formation of calcium carbonate (caso3), which, in turn, interacts with nitric acid, in carry out the drops of condensation with the formation of calcium nitrate (CA(NO3)2) [7, C; 8, C; 9, C; 10, C], after which the flue gases pass into the upper cleaning unit 26, where, falling on the surface of the crumb activated charcoal 31, similarly to the above, purified from CO and unburned residual fuel adsorbed to them [11, p.289], and then pass the via separation grating 33, where are exempt from carry out drops of condensate through pipe 14 finally peeled removed to the atmosphere. The heated air after vozduhopodogrevatelja 2-tier 8 enters the regeneration unit 5 consisting of a vertical perforated container 6 filled with crushed activated carbon 7 saturated with harmful contaminants and residues of unburned fuel passes through the air channels between them, getting inside the container 6 is the same as described above, heating the thus saturated crumbs 9 and desorber from this, unburned fuel (CH4and others) mixed with them and enriched these components, resulting in increased energy value of fuel combusted, podavaemogo in the furnace of the boiler unit. Condensate saturated acid components, dripping down from the separation grid 33 through the gaps between the vertical perforated cassettes 6 is mixed with the condensate flowing in the form of a film on the walls of the gas channels of the heater 1st stage 27, passes through the mixing chamber 26, additionally taking acid components, and falls on the surface of the condensate treatment unit 18 horizontal perforated tape 19, covered with a layer of slaked lime 21, flowing from one cassette 19 to the other through the holes 20, which cleans it from acid components is having on the above described chemical reactions [10, s], and then flows into the sump 16, where through the fitting 17 it is sent for feeding the boiler unit.

Upon completion of the active cycle crumbs slaked lime 30 and crumbs of activated carbon 9, located in the containers 6 gas purification units 28 and 29, which can be identified by increased leakage of harmful impurities in the atmosphere, waste containers 6 replaced without stopping the boiler unit on regenerated. The regeneration process container 6 with waste chips 30 containing a mixture of calcium carbonate (caso3), calcium nitrite (Ca(NO2)2), calcium nitrate (CA(NO3)2), is that waste containers are exempt from it and fill with fresh crumb slaked lime, and the container 6 with the crumb of activated carbon 9, a busy monoxide (CO) and unburned remnants of the fuel (CH4and others), placed on regeneration in the regeneration unit 5 (the regeneration process described above), after which they can be reused. For the regeneration of horizontal tapes 19 them clear of the coating layer 21 consisting of a mixture of calcium carbonate (caso3), calcium nitrate (CA(NO2)2), calcium nitrate (CA(NO)3)2), which are azotosodyerzhascimi fertilizers used in agriculture [10, s], and again cover slimvia slaked lime (CA(Oh) 2), then re-used for cleaning flue gases.

Thus, the proposed integrated method makes it possible to heat the blast air using waste heat of flue gases, to provide clear not only from oxides of nitrogen, sulfur, carbon dioxide, water vapor (NOxand SOx, CO2N2O) and dispose of them in a single compact device, but also from carbon monoxide (CO), unburned residual fuel (CH4and others) and their disposal by burning directly in the boiler furnace, which allows to increase the environmental and economic efficiency of the cleanup process, and to increase the efficiency of the boiler unit.

Sources of information

1. RF patent №2186612, M CL4. 01D 53/60, 2000.

2. RF patent №2254161, M CL4. 01D 53/60, 53/14, 2005.

3. Maechee and other fundamentals of heat transfer. - M.: Energy, 1973, 320 S.

4. Water heat network. Handbook / Edited. edit Nkhoma and others - M.: stroiizdat, 1988, 376 S.

5. Plonowski A.N., Nikolaev P.I. Processes and apparatuses of chemical and petrochemical technology. - M.: Chemistry, 1987, 496 S.

6. Kafarov V.V. fundamentals of mass transfer. - M.: Higher school, 1962, 655 S.

7. Nenitzescu K. General chemistry. - M.: Mir, 1968, 816 S.

8. Kutepov A.M. and other General chemical technology. - M.: Vysshaya SHKOLA, 1985, 448 S.

9. Abramov NN. and other Water. - M.: Gosstroiizdat Is, 1960, 579 S.

10. Posin ON the Technology of mineral fertilizers. - L.: Chemistry, 1983, 360 S.

11. A.I. Boldyrev Physical and colloid chemistry. - M.: Higher school, 1983, 406 S.

1. A comprehensive way of handling the blast air and flue gases, including air heating, cooling the flue gases to a temperature below the dew point, condensation of water vapor, mixing the cooled flue gas with ozonopause mixture, oxidation and absorption of nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides (NOxand SOx) obtained by condensation in the gas channels of the plate heat exchanger and gas purification units, interaction of NO and NO2flue gases with slaked lime (CA(Oh)3) with the formation of calcium nitrate (CA(NO3)2), carbon dioxide (CO3with CA(Oh)2with the formation of calcium carbonate (caso3), which interacts with nitric acid, in carry out the drops of condensation with the formation of calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2), clearing of condensate drops in the separating element, the output of the cleaned flue gases in the atmosphere, the clean condensate from acid components when interacting with slaked lime, covering horizontal perforated tapes, with the formation of these components, the removal of the pure condensate, characterized in that the lower unit gas cleanup, consisting the m of vertical perforated containers, filled crumb slaked lime (Ca(OH)2), NO and NO2interact with her within the container, the upper portion of the gas purification consisting of such containers, but filled with crushed activated carbon, carbon monoxide (CO), unburned fuel (CH4and others), located in the flue gases, adsorbed to them inside the containers, and the heated air after heater 2nd stage enters the regeneration unit, consisting of a vertical perforated containers filled with crushed activated carbon saturated with harmful contaminants and residues of unburned fuel passes through the air channels between them, getting inside the container, heats the rich crumb, desorber from this, unburned fuel (CH4and others), mixed with them and enriched them is sent to the boiler furnace.

2. Device for the complex processing of the blast air and flue gases containing a box with a gas and air nozzles, which are placed in the direction of the flue gas is made of corrosion-resistant material: heat transfer and absorption of heat exchange with the pallet sections, which are placed in the plate heat exchangers-heaters, condensate treatment unit consisting of a horizontal perforated tape, covered with a layer of slaked lime (CA(Oh)2 and closed the lid, mixing chamber with a perforated distribution pipe, the ozonizer unit gas cleanup, separator element, characterized in that Teploobmennik-regeneration section includes a regeneration unit consisting of a vertical perforated bins so that they are formed air channels made with perforated walls, rectangular openings are flanged on the side opposite the direction of the airflow guiding flange at an angle of 45°filled with crushed activated carbon saturated with harmful contaminants and residues of unburned fuel, absorber-heat exchanger section - blocks gas purification, consisting of vertical perforated containers, similar in design to the containers of the regeneration unit and installed so that between them form gas channels, and the containers of the lower block filled with crumbs of slaked lime (CA(Oh)2), and the upper block - crumbs from fresh (regenerated) activated carbon, separating the bars.



 

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8 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: fluidics; methods of cleaning vapor-and-gas mixtures from hydrocarbons.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes delivery of liquid medium to liquid-and-gas jet apparatus by means of pump, scavenging of vapor-and-gas mixture from reservoir being filled with oil or gasoline and compression of this medium in liquid-and-gas jet apparatus. Mixture of vapor-and-gas and liquid media formed in liquid-and-gas jet apparatus is fed to separator. Liquid medium is removed from separator to reservoir being filled with oil or gasoline. Oil or gasoline is fed to pump inlet or to separator. Gaseous phase from separator is fed to the second liquid-and-gas jet apparatus; liquid phase fed to this apparatus by means of pump compresses gaseous phase. Mixture of gaseous phase and liquid medium formed in the second vapor-and-gas jet apparatus is fed to the second separator. Liquid medium from the second separator is discharged to reservoir being filled with oil or gasoline and simultaneously oil or gasoline is fed to the inlet of the second pump or to the second separator. Gas mixture from the second separator is fed to the third liquid-and-gas jet apparatus to which adsorbent is fed by means of the third pump and hydrocarbons are absorbed by this absorbent from gas medium. Mixture of gas medium and absorbent formed in the third liquid-and-gas jet apparatus is fed to the third separator where pressure is maintained within 0.7-2.5 Mpa and mixture is divided into gas medium cleaned from hydrocarbons and absorbent saturated with hydrocarbons of gas medium; this absorbent is directed to the desorber where pressure is maintained below pressure in the third separator; hydrocarbons of gas medium contained in saturated absorbent are separated from it and absorbent from desorber is directed to the third pump inlet. Plant may be provided with additional liquid-and-gas jet apparatus and preliminary desorber.

EFFECT: reduced losses of oil or gasoline; reduced power expenses; high degree of cleaning vapor-and-gas mixture discharged into atmosphere from hydrocarbons.

21 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: industrial organic synthesis and gas treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention is directed to treatment of emission gases in the cumene process-mediated phenol and acetone production. Treatment process comprises continuous-mode absorption of cumene from emission gases in a plant comprised of absorber, cooler, and pump. Cumene is removed from absorbent and reused in the phenol-acetone production process circuit. As absorbent, cumene production by-product, namely polyalkylbenzenes, is used at temperature below 10°C. Content of cumene in purified emission gases does not exceed 158 mg/m3.

EFFECT: simplified gas treatment procedure, eliminated complicated equipment and waste, and reduced cost.

1 dwg, 1 tbl, 17 ex

FIELD: gas treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for fine purification of gases with removal of carbon dioxide at elevated pressures, in particular in hydrogen or ammonia production processes. Absorbent is an aqueous solution containing N-methyldiethanolamine, piperazine, potassium carbonate, and morpholine. Invention achieves reduced equilibrium pressure and increased carbon dioxide absorption at low degrees of carbonization (as low as 0.1 mole CO2 per mole tertiary amine) without appreciable N-methyldiethanolamine degradation rate.

EFFECT: enhanced carbon dioxide absorption efficiency.

2 dwg, 6 tbl, 2 ex

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