Filtering material

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the removal of solid particles from liquids and gases, in ecological processes of treatment of sewage and smoky gases in cases of oil spills from tankers, oil pipelines and oil tanks and also for collecting petroleum products from the surface of water. The filtering material, consists of synthetic threads in the form of the tubular jersey having a piled surface with comminuted rubber placed in it, the piled surface on the back side of the tubular jersey consisting of two layers, and the lower layer is made from binder thread, consisting of inextensible and elastic yarn, and the top layer is made of plating inextensible cord, in this case the height of the top layer is 0.5-3.2 times more than bottom.

EFFECT: improvement of quality of filtering during the cleaning liquids and gases and improvement of a degree of removal of petroleum products stormy and industrial discharges.

3 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the purification of liquids and gases from solid particles and can be used in chemical, petrochemical, metallurgical, automotive, and other industries that use filters in the main and auxiliary production, ecological processes wastewater and flue gases, and for cleaning the surface of the water from the hydrocarbons.

Known filter materials from polymer filaments in the form of knitwear loop which is formed by the through pores weave eraser 1+1, in which one of the elastomeric filaments and between the loops of the front and the reverse sides are at least two weft threads, the thickness of the weft yarn 1.1-1.3 times the diameter of the through pores (Patent of Russia №1438826, 01D 39/08, BI No. 43, 1988).

However, such filter materials do not provide the necessary degree of purification and time-consuming in operation.

Known means for cleaning the surface of the water from oil and oil-containing layer of a porous sorbent in the form of a two-layer plate, consisting of a layer of porous material based on the composition of crumb rubber size from 0.2 to 2.5 mm and powdered polyethylene at a ratio of mass parts: crumb rubber - 100, polyethylene - 5-20 and polyethylene film, which is connected with the porous material at the roar (a utility model Certificate No. 6165 RF, IPC6WV 25/00 BPM, 1998, No. 3).

However, the drawbacks of such tools are the low degree of absorption of oil and oil products, as well as the complexity and fabrication.

Known filter material consisting of synthetic fibers in the form of a tubular knitted fabric, and the inside of the tubular knitted fabric is placed crumb rubber size of 0.4-0.75 mm, and the Jersey is made of polymer filaments, one of which is elastomeric, and loops of elastomeric yarn form inside the filter material of the elastic skeleton and the pore size of the tubular knitted 1.2-1.5 times smaller than crumbs (Patent of Russia №2198717, 01D 39/08, D04 1/14, BI No. 5, 2003).

However, such filter materials are of low quality filtration in the process of purification of liquids and gases, and can not withstand the pressure of the liquid.

Known filter material made in the form of single top crafted from polymer filaments, one side of the filter surface is made of pile elements in the form of increased sinker and needle arcs from planirovochnoj yarn, alternating each other along the hinge line, and the reverse side of the pile elements in the form of bent rods of the skeleton of the loop formed relative to ground loops from polyurethane filament spandex, the length planirovochnoj threads 2-4 times bol is above the length of the ground wire (Patent of Russia №1437076, 01D 39/08, BI No. 42, 1983).

However, such filter materials are of low quality filtration in the process of purification of liquids and gases, as crumb rubber under pressure of liquid or gas scores through the pores of the filter material.

Closest to the claimed object on a set of attributes selected for the prototype filter is a material consisting of synthetic fibres in the form of a tubular knitted fabric, of synthetic fibres, made plated weave in which dirt thread made of synthetic filaments, and planirovochnaja from rubber thread forming on the front side of the pile surface, and the length of the rubber strands in the loop 1.2-1.8 times greater than the length of a synthetic fiber in the loop, and inside the tubular knitted posted by: pulp fiber material, fiber or rubber crumb rubber and polyurethane foam crumb in a volume ratio of 1:(2-4):(1.5 to 3), respectively (Patent of Russia №2256483, 01D 39/08, 04F 1/28, BI No. 20, 2005).

However, such filter materials are of low quality filtration in the process of purification of liquids and gases, as crumb rubber under pressure of liquid or gas scores through the pores of the filter material.

The objective of the invention is to create a new filter material, which is capable of the TEW filtration of liquids and gases, as well as purification of water from petroleum products under pressure.

Using the proposed filter material receive the following technical result: increased quality of filtration in the process of purification of liquids and gases, as well as improve the degree of purification from oil products stormwater and industrial wastewater.

The technical result is achieved in that the filter material consists of synthetic fibers in the form of a tubular knitted fabric with the pile surface and placed in it the rubber crumb in which the pile surface on the rear side of the tubular knitted fabric consists of two layers, where the lower layer is made of a ground yarn consisting of inextensible and elastomeric yarns, and the top - of planirovochnoj inextensible filaments, the height of the upper layer 0.5-3.2 times lower.

Performing a filtering material in the form of a tubular knitted fabric allows to obtain a uniform two-layer pile of filter surface, which improves the quality of the filter and allows you to create a shell with additional hold rubber crumb. In addition, pile the porous structure of the knitted fabric provides a capillary effect in the collection of petroleum products in the industrial effluents.

The use of synthetic fibres in the manufacture of tubular knitted fabric allows jet to operate in the aquatic environment, and in a hostile environment.

The presence of crumb rubber inside the tubular filter material helps to keep the oil inside the structure by swelling of rubber crumb.

When the swelling of the rubber crumb, increasing in size, stretch Jersey in both longitudinal and transverse directions, and thus further increases the pores Jersey. This increases the degree of absorption.

Use the bottom of the pile layer, obtained from ground threads by simultaneous promazyvanija inextensible and elastomeric yarns, reduces permeability, which improves the quality of filtering.

The top of the pile layer of planirovochnoj thread allows to increase the thickness of the filter material by creating additional przefiltrowaniu surface that helps prevent clogging of the lower layer of large mechanical particles and to increase the quality of filtering.

The use of the filter material, in which the height of the top of the pile layer is less than the lower vorovannogo layer 0.5 times, does not ensure the quality of the filtering process as a result of rapid filling of the pores of the filter material and greatly decreases the degree of purification.

The use of the filter material, in which the height of the top of the his NAP layer is longer than the bottom vorovannogo layer 3.2 times, it is difficult to manufacture in view of the limitations of the design knitting machine.

Figure 1 shows the cross section of the filter material, and figure 2 is a graphical record of the weave.

Figure 1 shows the filter material in the form of a tubular knitted fabric 1, consisting of two layers, the bottom 2, a top layer 3, and the rubber crumbs 4, located inside the tubular knitted fabric 1.

Figure 2 presents a graphic account of the tubular knitted material, consisting of the bottom of the pile layer 2 of inextensible 5 and elastomeric 6 threads and the upper layer 3 consisting of planirovochnoj inextensible filament 7.

The filter material in the form of a tubular knitted fabric is produced on troglotrematoid car 14-28 class. Bottom felted layer is formed by simultaneous promazyvanija inextensible and the elastomeric yarn as a ground yarn during stretching inextensible thread 2,3-3,4 N and elastomeric strands of 1.6 to 2.5 H at a depth of edema 1,5-4,2 mm Povezivanje planirovochnoj pile yarns of the upper layer is in tension of 4.5-5.6 N using platinum, forming an additional striker surface, allowing to obtain the pile loops of the upper layer. Inside the finished filter material poured rubber crumb 4 and fix the edges of a tubular knitted fabric 1 by means of clamps. G is a Hilbert filter material mounted on the moving path of industrial fluid or gas flow. With the passage of the filtered liquid or gas is cleaned. At high pressure industrial waste crumb rubber 4 is pressed against the upper layer 3 with the pile surface of the tubular filtering material. The pile loops of the upper layer 3 do not allow rubber crumb 4 to fill the pores of the bottom layer. When installing the filter material in the path of the filtered stream containing waste oil is cleaned due to the swelling of rubber crumb 4. Swelling, crumb rubber 4 stretches the bottom layer 2 of the filter material, providing additional amount to collect oil from the water surface.

For clarity, table tests of a filtering material in comparison with the prototype. The diameter of the rubber crumb was established experimentally, by determining the largest average diameter crumbs on the electron microscope EM - 9.

The filtering process was carried out for 8.0 per cent of the suspension with the presence of from 18-32% oil wastewater repair shop enterprise. The particle size varied from 8 to 100 μm at a pressure drop of 2-3,5 ATM and at a speed of filtered stream from 2.6 to 4.8 m/s To determine the degree of absorption of the oil filter material was placed in a moving layer of liquid fraction and kept for 25 min, and stengsiuosi.

Example 1.

The filtering process was performed using a filtering material with rubber crumb, in which the height of the pile layer is 0.5 times the bottom of the pile layer.

Example 2.

The filtering process was performed using a filtering material with rubber crumb, in which the height of the pile layer is 3.2 times more than the bottom of the pile layer.

Example 3.

The filtering process was performed using a filtering material with rubber crumb, in which the height of the pile layer is 1.5 times more than the bottom of the pile layer.

The test results are summarized in table.

Table
MaterialSpecific capacity (l/m2minThe degree of purification of the suspension, %The degree of absorption of oil, %
Filter material made prototype20,88087
The proposed filter material of example 130,28592
The proposed filter material according to example 238,89298
The proposed filter material according to example 3 9097

From the table it is seen that the specific performance of the filtration process slightly increases, improving the quality of filtration and absorption of petroleum products due to the swelling of the rubber crumb.

Thus, the above data confirm that the implementation of the use of the claimed invention the following cumulative conditions:

tools embodying the claimed invention in its implementation, can be used in chemical, petrochemical, machine-building, automotive and other industries that use filter materials in the ecological processes of wastewater treatment and industrial gases, as well as for collecting oil;

for the claimed invention in the form as it is described in the independent clause following claims, confirmed the possibility of its implementation using the above described in the application or known before the priority date tools and methods.

The filter material consisting of synthetic fibers in the form of a tubular knitted fabric having a pile surface that holds the rubber crumb, characterized in that the pile surface on the rear side of the tubular knitted fabric consists of two layers, where the lower layer is made of dirt thread consisting of inextensible and elastomeric yarns and the top of planirovochnoj inextensible filaments, the height of the upper layer 0.5-3.2 times lower.



 

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