Shpadi propeller (versions) and development of its blades

FIELD: transportation, engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: propeller has the blades everyone of which incorporates an initial section of direct acinaciform and the final section of reverse acinaciform. In compliance with first version, the propeller incorporates three and more double-fastening blades the ends of which are linked by means of a ring packing. The second version proposes the propeller with two blades forming a Mobius surface. The blade swept area features an oval rotation shape elongated along the propeller axis. The blades can be made by bending a flat sheet material into coils. The two-blade propeller has its the blades made integral. The surface sections of every propeller located on the propeller rotation axis are developed relative to each other by 90 degrees. The blades are either interconnected directly, or by means of a ring packing, or on the drive shaft extension. The development of the propeller blades represents a flat integral unit made up of spiral-shape elements.

EFFECT: set of inventions simplifies manufacturing the propeller.

22 cl, 12 dwg

 

The invention relates to devices for converting mechanical energy into fluid, in particular liquid and gas, and can be used as a rowing and propellers engines and propulsion of ships, aircraft (Zeppelin), wind turbines, household fans and other household items; toys, etc.

Known impeller motor fluid containing elastic tape blade with one-sided surface möbius, mounted on the radial rods perpendicular to the drive shaft [USSR author's certificate No. 1305430, IPC F03D 1/06, 30.09.85,].

However, such a device inherent design complexity, high enough efficiency and noise due to the presence of radial rods or Mach, who do not participate in the creation of useful aerodynamic forces.

The most effective presently considered to be multi-blade screws with the saber blades mounted console. The loose ends of the blades bent backward relative to the direction of rotation and relative to the plane of rotation [USSR author's certificate No. 1711664, IPC VS 11/00, 24.10.86,].

A significant drawback of such screws is low reliability and complexity of manufacturing, due to one-sided cantilever mount saber blades with high aspect ratio and to what ivisei; a significant level of noise during operation; low efficiency per unit area of the blade; a large mass and dimensions of the structure.

An object of the invention is the simplification of the manufacture of the blades of the propeller, reducing the size of the blades and, accordingly, the metal consumption while increasing they were creating traction without compromising durability and efficiency.

Claimed propeller (option 1), containing saber blades mounted on the hub shaft and bent backward relative to the direction of rotation and relative to the plane of rotation, characterized in that the propeller has three blades with double-sided mounting; the initial part of each blade has a direct tablewidget at which the front edge of the blade bent backward relative to the direction of rotation and relative to the plane of rotation, and segues into the final stretch back tablewidget at which the front edge of the blade bent forward relative to the direction of rotation and relative to the plane of rotation; end the blades are connected to each other through an annular nozzle with the possibility of strengthening the ends of the blades at a given angle of attack and the location of the endings of the blades in close proximity to each other.

A set of blades PR is pellera forms an axisymmetric shape.

The angle of attack α the initial section of the blade straight tablewidget may be greater than the angle of attack β the end of the blade opposite tablewidget, for example, a turbine. But also the angle of attack α the initial section of the blade straight tablewidget may be less than the angle of attack β the end of the blade opposite tablewidget, for example, a propeller.

During the rotation of the propeller swept surface has an oval shape rotation, elongated along the axis of the propeller.

Flat scan the surface of the propeller blades has a spiral shape.

Technology blades any well-known, but also the blades can be made by bending a flat sheet of material sweep spiral shape.

Propeller (option 2), containing saber blades mounted on the hub shaft and bent backward relative to the direction of rotation and relative to the plane of rotation, characterized in that the propeller has two blades closed end sections to each other; the initial part of each blade has a direct tablewidget at which the front edge of the blade bent backward relative to the direction of rotation and relative to the plane of rotation, and segues into the final stretch back tablewidget at which the front edge of the blade bent forward over napravlenii of rotation and relative to the plane of rotation; the end blades coupled into a single unit with ensuring a smooth transition between the surfaces of both blades so that the two blades form a single spiral surface möbius, characterized by a single inflection of a surface; the surface of each blade located on the axis of rotation of the propeller, deployed in relation to each other by 90 degrees and the axis of the propeller and the surface of the end sections of the two blades along the axis of the propeller are in one plane.

In the invention two propeller blades represent a single surface in the form of a one-sided surface möbius, characterized by a single inflection of a surface; the surface of each blade located on the axis of rotation of the propeller, deployed in relation to each other by 90 degrees, and the axis of the propeller and the final section along the axis of the propeller, belonging to both blades are in the same plane.

The propeller according to the second variant also forms an axisymmetric shape. Also in the two-bladed propeller flat scan the surface of the blade has a spiral shape. Accordingly, a two-bladed propeller can be obtained by bend thin sheet material flat spiral shape.

In the present propeller end of the blades are connected to drugs other directly, or through an annular nozzle, or on the extension shaft.

The applicant is not known to the flat sweep of the blades of impellers, turbines, propellers complex aerodynamic profile.

Applying a flat scan of the blades of the propeller, which is characterized by the fact that scan the entire set of blades of the propeller is a single integral flat shape consisting of spiral elements forming a symmetrical shape with one or more holes for planting the size of the hub of the drive shaft of the propeller. For example, three spiral element form an axisymmetric shape with an axial hole for planting the size of the hub shaft three-bladed propeller.

For a two-bladed propeller presents different scans: two spiral elements:

- scan a two-bladed propeller is a single integral flat shape consisting of two spiral elements forming an axisymmetric shape with the holes on the open ends of the spiral elements under the seat size of the hub of the drive shaft of the propeller;

- scan a two-bladed propeller is a single integral flat shape consisting of two spiral elements forming an axisymmetric shape with an axial hole Posad is CNY the size of the hub of the drive shaft of the propeller;

- scan a two-bladed propeller is a single integral flat shape consisting of two spiral elements of dvukhpolosnoi spiral, symmetric with respect to a line perpendicular to the tangent to the edge of a planar shape in its middle part, with the holes on the open ends of the spiral elements under the seat size of the hub of the drive shaft of the propeller.

The invention is illustrated by figures 1-12.

The figure 1 shows the three-bladed propeller in the first embodiment, figure 2 is a view of a three-bladed propeller axis. In figures 3-6 shows a two-bladed propellers (the second option) different types of Association endings blades. In figure 7 - view of a two-bladed propeller axis. In figures 8 to 12 show examples of flat sweeps of the blades of the propeller in its both versions.

The proposed propeller engines and propulsion fluid contains the hub 1 to the drive shaft 2, the fastening screw 3 and saber blades 4. The hub or the blades of the axial hole 5 is installed on the shaft 2 with providing direct tablewidget the initial part 6 of the blade and the angle of attack α. Direct tablewidget characterized by the fact that the front edge 7 of the blade bent backward relative to the direction of rotation and relative to the plane of rotation and corresponds to the traditional the mu production saber blades. Section 6 straight tablewidget moves to the end section 8 of the reverse tablewidget, i.e. with the provision of this form of the blade, whereby the front edge of the blade bent forward relative to the direction of rotation and relative to the plane of rotation (figures 1 and 2). The blades of their endings belonging to the end sections are rigidly connected with each other by any known method depending on the technological possibilities (threaded connection through holes 9 on the ends of the blades; welding; riveting; with auxiliary ring packing 10). These methods of fastening the blades are identical to the functioning of the claimed propeller.

The fastening of the end sections 8 of the blades is different and leads to the implementation of the propeller in two versions.

In the two-bladed propeller initial sections 6 of the blade holes 5 mounted on the hub and secured by the screw 3. The surface 12 of the blades at the place of mounting on the hub is perpendicular to the axis of the propeller. The end 13 of the blades deployed on 90° towards the beginning of the blade, are in one plane with the axis of the propeller and rigidly connected to each other with the formation of axisymmetric shapes. For example, the end of the blades overlap and are interconnected by spot welding (figures 3, 7).

Bond endings of Lopes is it provides a rigid and sturdy construction, including with the use of thin steel sheet material, plastic, composite materials. The shape of the blades with a smooth transition between their surfaces smoothly changes the angle of attack and the resistance to flow of fluid from maximum to minimum at the end of the blades. This redistribution of flow provides increased efficiency in a wide range of speeds in comparison with the known devices of the same purpose.

When assembling the two-bladed propeller end of the blades can be attached via the ring packing 10 or extension of the shaft 11 along the axis of the propeller, which facilitate access to the fastening of the blades on the hub 1. The size of the fasteners does not change the aerodynamics of the blades (figures 4, 5).

When bond endings of both blades declared propeller blades form the surface of Mobius. On this basis both propeller blades can be obtained by a single bending a single flat spiral parts with holes at the ends for fastening parts on the hub to form two lobes (figure 6). A clear explanation of the design of this blade is flat drill in figures 8 and 9. In figure 8, the flat figure consists of two spiral elements forming an axisymmetric shape with holes 5 at the open ends of the spiral cell battery (included) the LLC under the seat size of the hub of the drive shaft of the propeller. The figure 9 presents a flat scan of a two-bladed propeller, consisting of two spiral elements of dvukhpolosnoi spiral, symmetric with respect to a line perpendicular to the tangent to the edge of a planar shape in its middle part, with holes 5 at the open ends of the spiral elements under the seat size of the hub of the drive shaft of the propeller. Similar propeller design can be obtained from a flat part having a scan, shown in figure 10. The scan consists of two spiral elements forming an axisymmetric shape with an axial hole 5 under seat size hub of the drive shaft of the propeller, and the holes 9 at the ends of the figures serve for fastening the ends of the blades with each other.

Compared to tape the rudder to the author's certificate of the USSR No. 1305430 spiral surface of the blade enables the blade shape with smooth change of angle of attack; the structural strength of the blade; reduced size and weight of the propeller with a significant increase efficiency and provide virtually noiseless operation; reduced diameter under the surface. Bandsaw blades unattainable receiving the blades of the claimed form and, as a consequence, unattainable above mentioned advantages.

A variant of the invention is triglobal the second propeller (figure 1). The end of the blades also are combined coaxially near the axis of the propeller via the ring packing 10, which, on the one hand, facilitates the access to the fastening hub (figure 2), on the other hand, it virtually does not change the aerodynamics of the blades, and also allows you to secure the end of the blades at a certain angle of attack, which is consistent with accepted practice. The three-bladed propeller with the type of energy conversion, for example, from the blades on the shaft as the turbine, or transmission of rotation of the blades can have the angle of attack α>β or β>αwhere α is the angle of attack of the initial section of the blade, and β - the angle of attack of the end of the blade.

Work claimed propeller in two versions as the propeller is as follows.

During the rotation of the drive shaft 2 and the hub 1 with a fluid medium interact with lots of straight blades sweep 6 in which the angle of attack is less than that of the blades reverse sweep 8 (α<β). This results in a smooth acceleration of the surrounding fluid medium, which is gaining maximum speed only at the output of the device at the ends of the blades. The set of trajectories of the outer edges of the blades forms mostly oval shape, elongated along the axis of the propeller. H is m greater elongation along the axis of the propeller, the more gradual acceleration environment is carried out by the propeller. Because the blade is secured at both ends: on the hub 1 and endings with each other, the design is quite easy and hard, despite the large elongation along the rotation axis 0-0', which provides a small distributed pressure gradient in the fluid, and therefore, small noise, cavitation and turbulence, which significantly increases efficiency and positively affect the overall technical efficiency of the proposed device.

The propellers can be produced by any known technique, such as casting, forging. Technologically easy three-bladed propeller can be bent from a flat thin sheet material, such as steel (figures 11, 12), in the form of details which is an integrated one-piece flat shape consisting of spiral elements forming an axisymmetric shape, with one axial hole 5 under seat size hub of the drive shaft of the propeller and mounting holes 9.

As a form of spirals can be used Archimedes ' spiral, hyperbolic and logarithmic spiral, evolvent, cycloid and other suitable curves, which are selected depending on the specific purpose of the proposed device.

The data were p is doriden field tests of prototypes of residential fan-based flat reamers Fig.9, 10, 11, which provided a narrowly focused air flow with low noise up to 6000 rpm and small production costs, available to any private workshop, and consequently, the factories that manufacture low-noise propellers submarines, wind turbines, aircraft, etc.

1. Propeller containing saber blades mounted on the hub shaft and bent backward relative to the direction of rotation and relative to the plane of rotation, characterized in that the propeller has three blades with double-sided mounting; the initial part of each blade has a direct tablewidget at which the front edge of the blade bent backward relative to the direction of rotation and relative to the plane of rotation, and segues into the final stretch back tablewidget at which the front edge of the blade bent forward relative to the direction of rotation providing a smooth change of the angle of attack of the blade, the end of the blades are connected to each each other through an annular nozzle, ensuring the location of the endings of the blades in close proximity to each other and with the possibility of strengthening the ends of the blades at a selected angle of attack βdifferent from the angle of attack α initial sections l of the jaws.

2. The propeller according to claim 1, wherein the set of blades forms an axisymmetric shape.

3. The propeller according to claim 1, characterized in that the engine angle of attack α the initial section of the blade straight tablewidget more angle of attack β the end of the blade opposite tablewidget.

4. The propeller according to claim 1, characterized in that the propeller angle of attack α the initial section of the blade straight tablewidget less angle of attack β the end of the blade opposite tablewidget.

5. The propeller according to claim 1, characterized in that the set of trajectories of the outer edges of the blades forms a swept surface, mostly oval-shaped rotation, elongated along the axis of the propeller.

6. The propeller according to claim 1, characterized in that the flat surface scan of the blade has a spiral shape.

7. The propeller according to claim 1, characterized in that the blades are made by bending a thin sheet of material is a flat spiral shape.

8. Propeller containing saber blades mounted on the hub shaft and bent backward relative to the direction of rotation and relative to the plane of rotation, characterized in that the propeller has two blades closed end sections to each other; the initial part of each blade has a direct tablewidget at which the front edge of the blade bent back is against the direction of rotation and relative to the plane of rotation, and segues into the final stretch back tablewidget at which the front edge of the blade bent forward relative to the direction of rotation and relative to the plane of rotation; the end of the blades coupled into a single unit with ensuring a smooth transition between the surfaces of both blades so that the two blades form a single surface möbius, characterized by a single inflection of a surface; the surface of each blade located on the axis of rotation of the propeller, deployed in relation to each other by 90°and the axis of the propeller and the surface of the end sections of the two blades along the axis of the propeller are in the same plane.

9. The propeller of claim 8, wherein the two blades are a single surface as the surface of Mobius, characterized by a single inflection of a surface; the surface of each blade located on the axis of rotation of the propeller, deployed in relation to each other by 90°and the axis of the propeller and the final section along the axis of the propeller, belonging to both blades are in the same plane.

10. The propeller of claim 8, wherein the set of blades forms an axisymmetric shape.

11. The propeller of claim 8, wherein the set of trajectories of the outer edges of the blades forms with yemou surface, mainly oval-shaped rotation, elongated along the axis of the propeller.

12. The propeller of claim 8, wherein the flat surface scan of the blade has a spiral shape.

13. The propeller of claim 8, wherein the end of the blades are connected to each other directly.

14. The propeller of claim 8, wherein the end of the blades are connected to each other through an annular nozzle or extension of the shaft.

15. The propeller of claim 8, wherein the blades are made by bending a thin sheet of material is a flat spiral shape.

16. The sweep of the blades of the propeller according to any one of claims 1 to 15, characterized in that scan the entire set of blades of the propeller is a single integral flat shape consisting of spiral elements forming a symmetrical shape with one or more holes for planting the size of the hub of the drive shaft of the propeller.

17. Scan on item 16, characterized in that the spiral elements form an axisymmetric shape with an axial hole for planting the size of the hub of the drive shaft of the propeller.

18. Scan on item 16, characterized in that it consists of three helical elements.

19. Scan on item 16, characterized in that it consists of two spiral elements.

20. Scan on item 16, characterized t is m, that scan a two-bladed propeller is a single integral flat shape consisting of two spiral elements forming an axisymmetric shape with an axial hole for planting the size of the hub of the drive shaft of the propeller.

21. Scan on item 16, characterized in that the scan of a two-bladed propeller is a single integral flat shape consisting of two spiral elements forming an axisymmetric shape with the holes on the open ends of the spiral elements under the seat size of the hub of the drive shaft of the propeller.

22. Scan on item 16, characterized in that the scan of a two-bladed propeller is a single integral flat shape consisting of two spiral elements of dvukhpolosnoi spiral, symmetric with respect to a line perpendicular to the tangent to the edge of a planar shape in its middle part, with the holes on the open ends of the spiral elements under the seat size of the hub of the drive shaft of the propeller.



 

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