Microprofile structure with removal of local stress from groove
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to a foil, meant to be used mainly for carrying catalytic active materials for neutralisation or reduction of toxicity of waste gases. Description is given of the foil (1), which has at least, one groove (2), which is tone in the inner part (3) of the foil sheet (1) and at least, partially borders the microprofile structure of the foil (1), which protrudes from the profile structure (5) of its surface. At least one groove (2) has at least one cut (7) on at least one of its end parts (6). Description is also given of a carrier (21) meant for neutralisation or reduction of toxicity of waste gases of a component, made from a number of at least partially profiled sheets of foil (1), which are gathered in a packet and/or rolled in such a way that they provide for passage of a flowing medium through the carrier, and at least one of which is mate in the form of sheet of the foil (1) described here above (fig.1). Description is also given of the use of carrier (21) in a system of releasing waste gases (35).
EFFECT: prevention of crack propagation from bordering microprofile structures of agroove in a foil and longer life service of the carrier.
16 cl, 9 dwg
The present invention relates to a foil, intended primarily for use as a carrier for the catalytically active material to neutralize or reduce the toxicity of exhaust gases produced by the automotive internal combustion engines (ice), and having at least one slot, which is located only within the inner part of the foil sheet and at least partially restricts microprofiling the foil structure, protruding from the core structure of its surface.
To neutralize or reduce the toxicity of (processing) of the EXHAUST gas produced by the automotive internal combustion engines, such as engines with positive ignition mixture and diesel engines, the EXHAUST system, as is known, have components, respectively, of the profile patterns, which provide a relatively large surface area with which the contact of the EXHAUST gas. Such components are usually supplied with absorbent, catalytically active or similar coating and due to the large area of its surface provides effective contact with them flow along them OG. Such components are, for example, filter elements for filtering present in the EXHAUST gas particulate adsorbers for at least the exhaust gas is Anikanova time savings contained in the EXHAUST gas of harmful substances (for example, NOx), catalytic converters (for example, three-way catalytic converters EXHAUST gas catalytic Converter with catalyst oxidation catalytic Converter with catalyst recovery or reduce the content of NOxcatalytic converters), and so on), diffusers for influencing the flow of the EXHAUST gas, respectively, for turbulence passing through them flow EXHAUST, or heating elements that directly after a cold start of internal combustion engine heated EXHAUST gas to a predetermined temperature. To work in prevailing in an automobile EXHAUST system operating conditions is well established mainly the following media (substrate): ceramic honeycomb elements, extruded cellular elements and mobile elements of the sheets of foil. Given the fact that such media must always agree with their duties as source material for their manufacture the most well proven foil heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant grades.
A known method of manufacturing cellular elements from multiple sheets at least partially profiled foil, which is then placed in the housing or casing and thereby form a carrier that can provide one or more of the above coatings. The sheet is at least partially profiled foil at the same time have so they form mainly located in parallel channels. For the formation of channels, for example, the part used for this foil sheets provide primary core structure, respectively, attached to their surface profile structure, the characteristic feature of which among other things is that she has a regularly recurring profile is primarily a kind of sinusoidal corrugation, the sawtooth profile of the corrugation with the corrugations of rectangular profile of the corrugation of the ribbed triangular profile of the corrugation to corrugation omegabrite profile or other similar core structure. Further, these sheets are provided with primary profile foil structure type in the package (alternating in some cases with a smooth intermediate sheets)connect with each other and are placed in the casing. In this way receive cell element passing mainly parallel channels.
We know next supply of such foil-second (or so-called secondary) core structure, the purpose of which consists primarily in preventing the formation of a laminar flow of the EXHAUST gas immediately after their entry to the cell element, as in laminar for gas exchange does not occur between the moving center of such a channel zone of a partial stream of the EXHAUST gas and supplied voltage is emer, the catalytically active coating areas of the channel walls. In accordance with this such secondary core structure, respectively microprofiling structure has a front (entrance) surface, which receives the flow of EXHAUST gas and which provide a kind of turbulence partial flow of the EXHAUST gas within such channel. This ensures intensive mixing of these partial flows of the EXHAUST gas and as a result effective, close contact contained in the EXHAUST gas of harmful substances with the wall of the channel. In addition, such a secondary profile patterns allow you to create passageways for flow of the EXHAUST gas in the transverse to the longitudinal length of the channel direction and in this way to provide gas exchange between the partial EXHAUST gas flows in adjacent channels. To perform this function, known secondary profile structures can represent, for example, the guiding surfaces, microprofile patterns, bumps, ribs, wings, tabs, holes, or other similar items. In this regard, in the manufacture of such metal cell elements are much more diverse opportunities for profiling walls of their channels compared to ceramic honeycomb elements, because the execution of the walls of their channels so complicated forms or do nevoso is but or is possible only if very high technical costs.
Furthermore, neutralization or reduction of emissions of particular interest is the creation of conditions for transformation contained in the EXHAUST gas of harmful substances into harmless substances almost immediately after starting the engine. However, this transformation is contained in the EXHAUST gas of harmful substances into harmless substances should occur with particularly high efficiency in accordance with legislative acts, respectively directives. For this reason, previously was constantly tended to reduce the thickness used for the manufacture of cellular elements of the foil. Very thin foil has an extremely low specific heat capacity in terms of unit surface area. In other words, such a foil selected from flowing along the EXHAUST gas is comparatively small amount of heat, respectively, itself relatively quickly heats up. Such a property of a thin foil is important for the reason that currently used in the EXHAUST system of catalytically active coatings provide the transformation contained in the EXHAUST gas of harmful substances into harmless substances only upon reaching a certain initial operating temperature, which is approximately 230 to 270°C. to ensure that at me the e 98%efficiency of conversion of harmful substances within a few seconds after starting the engine for the manufacture of cellular elements began to use thick foil, for example, less than 20 microns.
However, the solution of the above described problems associated with a variety of technological and operational and technical problems. The implementation of such a filigree specialized structures, primarily secondary specialized structures, respectively microprofiling structures require the use of precision working tools that typically have high cost and therefore should have a long service life. This should take into account the fact that in addition to forming the foil in some cases you will also want it cutting into individual pieces. To reduce the cost of the tools one tool sought to make an extremely versatile to perform with it the maximum possible number of different technological operations, however, due to the special form of secondary specialized patterns observed increased tool wear. Another problem is connected with the necessity of filing a relatively thin foil processing with acceptable high a speed as possible without undesirable hardening. The hardening may have a negative impact on the behavior of the foil material handling pressure.
In addition, due to the small thickness of the foil material, there is a danger of increasing the tendency of the foil to creasing (education jammed folds), its curl, roll, and/is whether the gap. Such undesirable deformation of the foil can occur, respectively increase, already in the process of its production, as well as during transportation or when it is used in an automobile EXHAUST system. For example, the creasing of the foil may lead under certain conditions to blockage of channels in the cell element, respectively, to the formation of gaps, which are then subjected to high thermal and dynamic loads prevailing in an automobile EXHAUST system, begin to grow and thereby violate the structural integrity of the cell element. In addition, you should take into account the fact that jammed or deformed in this way the primary and/or secondary profile structures create unwanted obstacles to the passage of EXHAUST gas through the cell element, which is at the entrance, under certain conditions, creates an increased dynamic pressure, which in some cases can result in reduced engine power.
Based on the foregoing, the present invention was used to develop the media, primarily for the catalytically active material capable of long-term withstand the high thermal and dynamic loads prevailing in an automobile EXHAUST system. It is necessary, in particular, will solve the above technical problems, offering profiled foil, which despite its complex shape and a relatively hard surface of a large area would have high durability. Thus to obtain a particularly effective device for EXHAUST aftertreatment profile structures such foil must first keep in operation the shape imparted to them inside the media for the longest period of time.
This is accomplished by using foil to the distinctive features presented in claim 1 of the claims, respectively, using fabricated using such a foil carrier with distinctive features presented in paragraph 10 of the claims. Various preferred embodiments of the invention are provided in the respective dependent claims. While the individually distinctive features can be combined together in any valid combinations.
In accordance with this proposed invention the foil has at least one slot, which is located within the inner part of the foil sheet and at least partially restricts microprofiling the foil structure, protruding from the core structure of its surface. Such foil is characterized by the fact that minicamera one slot has a notch on at least one of its end sections.
First, it should be noted that the sheet of foil may be executed more than, respectively, the set of slots, at least one of which is located in the inner part. Said, in particular, means that the slot does not reach the edges of the foil, i.e. completely surrounded by a foil material. However, the slot may be not only straightforward, but also more complex form, i.e. can be carried out not only in one direction (for example, you may have an I-beam, a V-, W-, T-, X-shaped or other similar form), and in this case, however, at least two, and preferably all of the end portions of the slits such complex forms must be provided on the hollow. Such a slot running in the foil material and the first fully disposable in the inner part of the sheet of foil, on the one hand, enables the passage of fluid through the foil, and on the other hand, is used to form the foil mentioned in the beginning of the description microprofiling structures, respectively secondary specialized structures. Under "microprofile structures" in this case refers primarily bulges, kinks, bends, or other similar irregularities, which usually take on the foil, the foil is locally limited area. Microprofile patterns which may also be represented as, for example, the bumps, "wings", edges, or other similar core structure. Microprofiling structure serves inter alia for the impact of moving along the surface of the foil fluid flow and turbulent, respectively soothing areas where there is a kind of turbulent flow, respectively, decreases the speed of the fluid flow. The principle of operation, respectively, the form, such microprofiling structures are described, for example, in the publication WO 01/80978 A1, which in this relationship fully included in the present description by reference.
Along with this microprofiles structure foil also has so-called core structure of the surface (curved surface), respectively, of the primary core structure. This implies that the foil itself is not smooth, and made of shaped profile structure, larger in relation to microprofiles structure. The surface of the foil that is used as a carrier for the catalytically active material in an automobile EXHAUST system, give the profile structure that creates multiple channels in a carrier made from a sheet of such foil and other sheet of foil. Typically, such a profile of the surface structure have wavy (corrugated) is the same zig-zag profile. Among the specialized structures wavy profile of the most well known, for example, corrugation with a sort of sinusoidal or preformed profile. Similar to the profile of the surface structure are usually along the length of the foil sheet, respectively made of her carrier, and in some cases may also be continuously or discontinuously varying along their length, height, width respectively of the individual corrugations. In summary, this case should proceed from the fact that the core structure of the surface of the foil is intended for the education of flow for the fluid channels in the axial direction of the carrier, and microprofiling structure is designed, primarily, for influencing the fluid flow within these formed the core structure of the surface of the foil channels. In line with this, should proceed from the fact that microprofile patterns are designed so that they are inside of the channel and that itself is obvious, its size cannot be greater than, respectively, above the values that allow the dimensions of the orifice channel. Depending on the shape of the channel microprofiling structure may be inside the channel from anywhere, i.e. from the bottom surface of the channel from its lateral surfaces (walls is to or from restricting its top surface.
According to the invention the slot serves to provide a recess on at least one of its end sections. It is preferable to use at all the end portions of the slot recess, first of all the same shape. Typically, the slot has the shape of a straight line (I-shaped). It means that usually the edges of the opening converge on its end section at an acute angle, respectively, at a very small radius (for example, less than 0.05 mm). This slot is usually performed by stamping straight (I-shaped) form.
To perform microprofiling structures that part of the foil, which is directly adjacent to the slots, unbend with suitable for this purpose instrument with education, for example, the guide surfaces. In the process of such a flexible foil material is exposed in the area of the end portion of the slot to effect a significant burden, under the action of which may, for example, be a hardening, which can cause changes in the properties of the foil material surrounding the slot area and change in response to thermal and dynamic loads. Affecting such guide surface, respectively, on the foil, when used in an automobile EXHAUST system load, which partly can reach significant levels, can lead to being the resultant increase in local stresses in the zone of the end portion of the slot. Crack, which would extend from this end portion of the slot next to the foil material can lead to the deterioration of all the health carrier and the separation from the foil small pieces that can be captured through the media stream of the EXHAUST gas to be purchased under its action significant acceleration and hit on the subsequent system components neutralize or reduce the toxicity of EXHAUST gas. Such small pieces of foil and in these components would block their channels, to create pores, rip off the material, to destroy cover or have other negative impacts.
Supply the same slotted recess on at least one of its end section allows to reliably prevent such unwanted effects. Such grooves have a relatively large radius of curvature, eliminating the stress concentration even partly subjected to significant deformation of the parts of the foil. In a preferred embodiment of such excavation provide on each of the end sections of the slot. The foil may also be performed, for example, intersecting slots on end parts each of which is provided by such excavation. In other words, the recess forms an extension of the rectilinear slits, which are therefore at their end parts like switch is in the slot of greater width (takes a dumbbell shape). This recess in the projection plane may be in the form of round holes, extended grooves with rounded bottom profile, undercut, or other similar form. In addition, the recess may be made in the form of one or more bent, respectively, bent, end sections of the slot. While it is possible to provide on the end parts of one slot recesses of various shapes. Such notches with the notches can be performed by simple technological methods of processing by removal of material, such as, for example, (laser) cutting, stamping, extrusion, or other similar methods of processing metal sheets, based on the removal of their material.
In a preferred embodiment, the profiled surface structure proposed in the invention, the foil has a wavy or corrugated profile with passing in the longitudinal direction of the sheet of foil tops of the corrugations and the depressions between them. Under such a wavy or corrugated profile is meant, in particular, a sinusoidal profile, which you can see if you look at the foil from one of its edges. The tops of the corrugations, respectively hollows between them, in the preferred embodiment, pass through the entire axial length of the foil, preferably generally parallel to each other.
Wavy or Gapirov the config profile in the most preferred embodiment is characterized by the step of corrugations and the height of the corrugations with respect to the step of corrugations to their height in the range from 3.0 to 1.0, first of all, from 2.5 to 1.1, or preferably from 2.0 to 1.3. Under the top of the corrugation, respectively, the cavity between two adjacent corrugations usually means the highest, respectively lowest point wavy or corrugated profile. Under the step of the corrugations thus refers to the distance between the two closest to each other, facing in one direction the extremes of the profile structure of the surface of the foil, for example between two closest to each other vertices adjacent corrugations or between two closest to each other cavities between adjacent corrugations. The height of the ribs corresponds to the difference between the levels at which there are two facing in different directions extremum, i.e, for example, the difference between the level at which is located the top of the corrugation, and the level at which there is the depression between the corrugations. Typically, the step of corrugations and their height is measured in mutually perpendicular directions. It should be noted that in principle the height of the corrugations and their step may be unavoidable for technical reasons deviation from the nominal values. In accordance with that specified in the description of the figures represent the average statistic, from which the actual values may deviate in one direction or another within process tolerances.
Specified in the present description, the step of the corrugation is in to their height also reflects the degree of deformation of the foil. When making the surface of the original smooth corrugated foil embossed patterns, for example, by rolling the foil, similar to the rolling corrugated sheets, small value, the step of corrugations to their height, for example, less than 2.0, means that the tops of the corrugations, respectively depressions between the corrugations are relatively close to each other, and the height of the corrugations, equal to the difference between the level at which is located the top of the corrugation, and the level at which is located a trough between two adjacent corrugations, has a relatively large value. Foil with similar geometric parameters forms the carrier of relatively narrow channels, limited steep side walls. It is in foil with such a high degree of deformation in the process of its production, there is a danger of the appearance of signs of fatigue, which in foil, for example, due to the increasing degree of wear of the tool already at this stage can be formed and distributed in subsequent cracks. So, first of all, it is in such a foil is appropriate to provide the notches on end parts running slots.
In the following embodiment, the proposed invention the foil her microprofiling structure has a guide surface protruding from the party of the faceted structure of the surface of the foil, first of all, protruding obliquely to its longitudinal direction, preferably at an angle, comprising from 10 to 35°. Such guide surface is most suitable for "detachment" (or separation) partial flows moving along the surface of the foil, the surface of the foil and their deviations in the specified parties. This guide surface is described in the publication DE 20117873 U1, which in this relationship fully included in the present description by reference.
In the following embodiment, the proposed invention the foil it has two slots, each of which is at least partially constrains one microprofiling structure. It means that at least one of microprofiling structures is limited on two sides by a pair of slits and located between the area of the foil curves, squeezed or otherwise deformed and above the surface of the foil. This usually formed surface, which, for example, inclined not at too great an angle to the direction of flow of the EXHAUST gas and therefore less reject it in this place. A related advantage is the reduction of the pressure loss caused by the presence of such microprofiling structures, because they create less resistance to flow.
In the following embodiment, the offer is in the invention of the foil at least one recess has a rounded shape, first of all, has the shape of a circular arc, preferably with a radius of curvature, comprising at least 0,1 mm On the results of the conducted experiments, it was found that the implementation of the notches rounded with a radius of curvature greater than 0.1 mm, especially at least 0.2 mm, can significantly reduce the possibility of cracking, respectively, to prevent their spread, ranging from slots. This positive effect is due to inter alia a significant decrease occurs in the foil material during operation of the internal stress, which in extreme cases can partly be achieved only value that does not exceed 30% of the level of stresses near a simple slot, i.e. slot without grooves on its end parts. The decrease in same concentration of internal stresses on end parts of the slots allows, obviously, to avoid the formation of cracks.
In the following embodiment, the proposed invention the foil she has many microprofiling structures which are arranged in lines parallel to the longitudinal direction of the foil sheet, and/or rows, perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the foil sheet. Microprofile structure preferably should be located on the tops of the corrugations, respectively, in the hollows between them, at the same time, high performance is strong patterns, located on the tops of the corrugations should be in the direction of the depressions between them, and microprofile structure, located in the depressions between the corrugations should be in the direction of their vertices. In other words, microprofile structure shall be located on two levels, each of which, when the foil evenly laid on a flat base, is defined either by the plane in which lie the top of the peaks of the corrugations, or the plane in which lie the bottom of the depressions between the corrugations. When this condition is microprofile patterns in the subsequent ones are inside the flow channels in the media. Regarding the location microprofiling structures relative to each other should also be noted that line, respectively, the rows of which are microprofile patterns, if necessary, to shift or move relative to each other along the length of, respectively, the width of the foil sheet.
In the next version proposed in the invention, the foil is made of containing aluminum and chromium, are able to withstand high thermal loads and corrosion-resistant steel and has a thickness of preferably between 0.015 to 0.15 mm, especially from 0.03 to 0.08 mm In another embodiment, in principle it is also possible to use aluminum foil on the base of Nickel, respectively its alloys. These materials are well-ZAR who provided advice itself as suitable for working in harsh conditions prevailing in an automobile EXHAUST system. The thickness of the foil should be chosen depending on its location, respectively, of its functions in the EXHAUST system. Fundamentally it should be noted that the foil of greater thickness has a higher heat capacity and therefore can also be used, for example, as a heat accumulator. In addition, the foil of greater thickness has, obviously, and increased stability and therefore capable of withstanding the very high dynamic loads. A relatively thin foil of a thickness between 0.015 to about 0.05 mm has only a relatively low heat capacity and therefore able, for example, quickly heated to the temperature of its environment. It means that such foil heats up quickly after a cold start of an ice stream flowing along the EXHAUST gas and thereby provide a rapid activation of the deposited catalyst (catalytic coating).
In the following embodiment, the proposed invention the foil maximum distance that microprofiling structure protrudes from the profile of the surface structure of the foil, is from 0.3 to 0.95 (from 30 to 95%, preferably from 0.5 to 0.8 (from 50%to 80%), the height of the corrugations. In other words, microprofile structure stands out on the background of the profile page is ktory the surface of the foil. Just like microprofile patterns allow you to give moving along the foil to the flow of the EXHAUST gas is usually laminar, turbulent character.
Another object of the present invention is media designed to neutralize or reduce the toxicity of EXHAUST gas component produced from a set of at least partially profiled foil sheets, typed in the package and/or rolled in such a way that they provide the possibility of passing through the carrier fluid, at least one of many such sheets of foil is a sheet of the above-described foil.
This proposed invention, the carrier has also many held mainly in its longitudinal direction channels that at least partially formed with a profiled surface structure of the foil sheet, and at least one of microprofiling structures preferably is a means for influencing the fluid flow deflecting the flow of fluid as it passes through the medium in the direction of the neighboring channels. In other words, rendered in this way the impact on the flow of a fluid medium, in particular on the flow of the EXHAUST gas is deviation in a direction that at least partially oriented obliquely or perpendicularly to the longitudinal on the management of channels, accordingly, the main flow direction of the EXHAUST gas. This microprofiling structure can also have multiple means for influencing the fluid flow. Thus, in particular, microprofile structure can be formed by a guide surface, which is due, for example, existing bumps, holes, ledges, bends or other similar elements provides the deviation of the EXHAUST gas flow in a particular direction.
The density of the channels in the carrier may be from 100 to 1000 channels per square inch (6.45 channel per square inch corresponds to 1 channel per square centimeter), preferably from 300 to 600 channels per square inch. In this case, the sheets of foil step of their corrugations to the height of the corrugations preferably should be from 2.0 to 1.3.
In yet another embodiment, the proposed invention of the media, it has a separate section on which (measured in the longitudinal direction of the carrier length) microprofile patterns uniformly distributed over the cross section of the carrier plane perpendicular to its longitudinal direction. Many available media channels preferably oriented in the longitudinal direction of the carrier, which generally coincides with the main direction passing through the media stream of the EXHAUST gas. In the same transverse section of the carrier plane, per antikosmos longitudinal direction of the carrier, the channels have the form of cells or honeycomb, form together a kind of cellular structure. It is for having such a view of the cross section of the carrier evenly (in a statistical sense) distributed microprofile patterns. In other words, in the cross section of the carrier adjacent microprofile patterns are mainly located at the same distance from each other and/or per unit cross-sectional area of the media have only a certain number of channels. Such uniform distribution microprofiling structures in the cross section of the carrier provides the most symmetrical load distribution on the foil sheet, respectively, the media and allows to reduce the peak level of internal stresses.
In the following embodiment, the proposed invention the carrier in its cross section by a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the carrier, there are many microprofiling structures, which are made in such a way that passing through the carrier fluid flow is partially deflected in different directions. This means, in particular, that in one particular part of the cross-section of media microprofile structure can deflect the flow of fluid, respectively, the EXHAUST gas in a direction radially outward and in Sosa is it a separate part of the cross-section of media microprofile structure can deflect the flow of fluid, accordingly, the EXHAUST gas in the opposite direction to the above direction, oblique or cross to him.
Orientation microprofiling structures, respectively, due to the orientation microprofiling structures deviation through the medium of the fluid flow, largely determined by the location of the foil sheet in the media. For example, in media with spirally rolled into a roll of the foil sheets passing through the carrier fluid flow is usually deviates only in the radial direction and in the media collected in batch or singly curved, curved along the involute, S-shaped or otherwise curved sheets of foil microprofile patterns in adjacent parts of the media can be oriented in different directions. Such multidirectional orientation microprofiling structures mixing of the fluid flow is much more complex.
It should also be noted that in the invention the carrier in addition to at least one foil sheet has at least one element selected from the group including
at least one smooth sheet metal, which is primarily mainly adjacent to the extremes of the profile of the surface structure of the sheet of foil, preferably connected with the it,
at least one porous fibrous layer, which is primarily mainly adjacent to the extremes of the profile of the surface structure of the sheet of foil, preferably connected with it,
at least one casing, which covers the carrier along the length of the at least one plot,
at least one sleeve, which covers the carrier along the length of the at least one connecting section and serves for connection with the casing,
at least one coating provided at least in one part of the media
at least one measuring device.
In relation to the smooth sheet metal, it should be noted that for the production of media education and its channels, as is well known, smooth metal sheets and corrugated sheets of foil with alternating striped tie in the package. Then this package recruited from smooth metal sheets and corrugated sheets of foil, roll into a roll, respectively bend to give it a shape corresponding to the cross-sectional shape of the carrier. Known carriers perform cylindrical, conical or rectangular shape with round, oval or polygonal in cross-section profile.
The porous fibrous layer, it is expedient to provide, first of all when using the one of the media as a filter for trapping particulates or other solid, liquid, respectively gaseous components contained in the EXHAUST gas flow. In this regard, you can also refer to the publication DE 20117873 U1, which including about porous fibrous layer included in the present description by reference.
To connect smooth sheet metal, respectively, the porous fibrous layer with a sheet of foil can be used all known methods of creating permanent joints, but in this case it is preferable to use welding, respectively brazing.
Under Bush is an additional sheet of foil covering the circumference of the carrier, respectively, of the package of sheets of foil and used for its connection with the casing. This sleeve prevents the permanent connection forming channels metal sheets, respectively, of the sheets of foil directly to the housing. In more detail the function of this sleeve is described, for example, in the publication WO 01/79670 A1, which fully included in the present description by reference.
The coating must be chosen depending on the specific function and a specific destination media. Thus, in particular, the known coating that provides catalytic transformation contained in the EXHAUST gas of harmful substances into harmless and consisting mainly of a noble metal or rare earth element of the century Another type of conventional coatings are coatings that perform the function of a kind of drives, first drives of nitrogen oxides. The coating may also serve to further increase the surface area of the foil sheet by forming thereon a layer with a highly developed surface, which usually use a coating of γ-aluminium oxide. The indication that this cover is provided at least in one part of the carrier, means first of all that the media
- equipped with various coatings (which differ, for example, in type, thickness, surface roughness and other parameters) and/or
is only partially provided with a coating, and a specified part of media, which includes this coverage, may be only in the media, not reaching its outer circumferential surface, and/or (additionally or alternatively) be only part of the axial length of the recording.
Measuring device, first of all sensors or similar devices include, for example, to control the various parameters defined by the function of the media. As these sensors are widely used among other things the so-called lambda probe or temperature sensors, and the measured values characterizing a parameter of the EXHAUST gas according to the state media, usually transmitted through the casing to the engine management system or other control unit or regulation.
Another object of the present invention is the use of the above media in the EXHAUST system as a component selected from the group comprising the following components that are designed to neutralize or reduce the toxicity of EXHAUST gas:
- catalytic Converter
- mixing flow device
the solids collector.
Various applications, respectively variants of the structural design of catalytic converters, mixing flow devices, adsorbers or trap solid particles is well known to specialists in this field, and are therefore presented in the present description, the media usually can easily be adapted to perform specific functions as components of the EXHAUST system. As proposed in the invention, the solution makes it possible to greatly suppress the propagation of cracks from the restrictive microprofile patterns of slits in the foil, all of the above components have a much greater service life under conditions in which the media is constantly exposed to high thermal and dynamic loads. Thus, we offer izopet the Institute of media capable of the long period of its operation to ensure compliance with statutory rules regarding neutralize or reduce the toxicity of EXHAUST gas without the high cost of maintenance, accordingly repair.
Below the invention is described in more detail with reference to the accompanying drawings. It should be noted that these drawings are presented among others the most preferred embodiments of the invention, which, however, is not limited in its scope. Attached to the description of the drawings in particular, it is shown
figure 1 - schematic view of a perspective view of a fragment of the foil with microprofiles structure
on Fig - microprofiling structure with a slot without a notch,
on Fig - microprofiling structure with a slot, having performed in the first embodiment the notch,
on Fig - microprofiling structure with a slot having made according to another variant of the notch,
figure 3 - schematic view of the carrier, made from made according to the first embodiment of the foil sheets,
figure 4 is a detail view of a fragment of the carrier, made from sheets of foil with micropapillary structures and of the fibrous layer,
figure 5 is a schematic view of a carrier in longitudinal section,
figure 6 - schematic view made according to another variant of the carrier in cross section,
7 is a schematic view of a perspective view of the EXHAUST system,
on figa-G diagram illustrating a manufacturing process of a sheet of foil, made for one version, and
figure 9 is a schematic view of axonometry fragment of a sheet of foil with providing the turbulence of the flow microprofiles structure.
Figure 1 is a perspective view schematically showing a part of a sheet of foil 1 with microprofiles structure 4. In the form shown in the drawing version microprofiling structure 4 sheets of foil 1 is partially limited to two slots 2, which are made only within the inner part 3 of the foil sheet 1. Microprofiling structure 4 is of the core structure 5 the surface of the foil sheet 1. Core structure 5 the surface of the foil sheet made in the form of a corrugated core structure with peaks 9 of ribs and depressions 10 between them. Circled in the drawing a circumference of the ends 6 of the slots 2 in an enlarged scale is shown on the next Fig, 2.2 and 2.3.
On Fig, 2.2. and 2.3 shows in detail microprofiling structure 4, limited by the slot 2. The presence of the slot 2 is used to form on a sheet of foil 1 protruding from the core structure 5 of its surface microprofiling structure 4. On Fig slot 2 on its end section 6 is made in the form of simple slits, i.e. without the proposed invention the notches 7. In the convergence of the edges of the slot at its end section 6 is formed stress concentrator (cut), which when moving microprofiles patterns relative to the sheet of foil 1 at the end 6 of the slot 2 may occur further increase (growth). This results from the foul is Ki-1 in the end can be completely separated individual microprofile structure 4. With the aim to prevent multiple expansion slots 2 at its end section 6 is provided in the recess 7, as shown, for example, on Fig and 2.3. Shown in Fig the recess 7 has the shape of an arc 15 circle of radius 16 of curvature, comprising preferably from 0.2 to 0.4 mm is shown in Fig embodiment, the recess 7 is made in the form of undercut. The recess 7 may have other, reducing the impact of a cut as the hub stresses form.
Figure 3 is a perspective view schematically showing two supplied microprofile structures 4 sheets of foil 1, bringing that to each other, you can get offered in the invention of the media. Shown in this drawing, the sheets of foil 1 also have a specialized structure 5 of their surface in the form of a corrugated core structure with peaks 9 of ribs and depressions 10 between them, preferably by passing the entire length of the foil sheets in their longitudinal direction 8. Microprofile structure 4 sheets of foil 1 are "alternately on different sides" and "unidirectional". The expression "alternately on different sides" in this context means that microprofile patterns 4 alternately when viewed in the longitudinal direction 8 of the foil sheet are up and down (relative to the core structure 5 the surface of the foil sheet 1). The terms "unidirectional" in this context means that Ogre is ichigaya microprofiling structure 4 slots 2 are turned in the same (General) direction, i.e. located in front of microprofiles structure 4, respectively restrict its side facing towards the flow of the EXHAUST gas. Microprofile structure 4 made in the form of guide surfaces 13 with a hole 45. Such alignment surface 13 deviate in the transverse direction 47 moving mainly in the longitudinal direction 8 sheets of foil thread. At the end sections 6 of the slots 2 there is also shown in enlarged scale and clearly visible to the recess 7.
Figure 4 is a perspective view in section showing a fragment made by one of the following media 21, which represents a filter, respectively, the solids collector. This drawing shows two adjacent to each other sheet of foil 1 with a fibrous layer 27 between them. To change the flow direction, conventionally indicated in the drawing by the arrow 25, the sheets of foil 1 is equipped with a number of sliding surfaces 13. The presence of such guide surfaces forces passing deny them of flow of the EXHAUST gas together with the contained solid particles 46 through the fibrous filter layer 27, which hold solid particles 46 remain on its surface or in its thickness until, until you have created the conditions for their transformation into gaseous components. For this filtrowa the fibrous layer can be subjected to periodic regeneration by supplying significant amounts of heat) or continuous regeneration on the principle of continuously regenerated catcher (NIA), in which the residence time of particles in the filter should preferably be extended so that a complete chemical conversion of solid particles they had time to react with the necessary reagents.
Microprofile patterns 4, respectively, the guiding surfaces 13, performed protruding from the core structure 5 the surface of the foil 1. Such microprofile structure shown in the drawing, the example was made inclined in the longitudinal direction 8 sheets of foil, forming an angle of 14, comprising from 10 to 35°. Guide surface 13, respectively microprofiling structure 4, acts of the core structure 5 the surface of the foil at a maximum distance of 20, comprising from 0.3 to 0.95 from the full height of the corrugations 12 (this drawing is not marked). At the end sections 6 of the slots 2 are also provided in the recess 7. Foil sheets 1 have a specialized structure 5 of their surface, forming flow for the fluid in the direction of flow (arrow 25) channels 22.
Figure 5 a longitudinal section schematically showing the carrier 21, consisting of many sheets of foil 1, forming the EXHAUST gas flowing in the direction of flow (arrow 25) channels 22. Shown in this drawing, the carrier 21 is made in the form of a mixing flow device, the function of which is in alignment in basically the parabolic profile 48 is included in the media stream of the EXHAUST gas. The carrier 21 is composed of many sheets of foil 1 with micropapillary structures 4, forming a hole 45 through which EXHAUST gas can flow in adjacent channels 22. This microprofile patterns 4 are located in the carrier 21 so that measured in the longitudinal direction 8 of the carrier to the length of the section 23 they are uniformly distributed along the cross-section 24 of the carrier (this drawing is not marked) a plane perpendicular to its longitudinal direction 8. Plot 29, the length of which is shown in the drawing example, equal to the entire axial length of the carrier 21, the foil sheets 1, respectively, the carrier 21, enclosed in the casing 28, the length of which is even slightly more than the axial length of the carrier 21 and which, therefore, on both sides is beyond it. Foil sheets 1 is connected to the casing 28 by a sleeve 30 that is located on the connecting section 32 is approximately in the middle of the carrier in the direction of its axial length.
Shown in the drawing, the carrier 21, respectively, mixing the flow device has a further portion 33, which is provided by the cover 31. However, the length of this part 33 may, as the length of the section 29, be equal to the entire axial length of the carrier 21.
Figure 6 schematically in cross section performed alternatively the carrier 21 with the casing 28. In this embodiment, the pros the new foil sheets 1 together with located between a smooth metal sheet 26 S-shaped twisted or folded into a roll. Profile structures 5 the surface of the foil sheets 1 and smooth metal sheets 26 together form channels 22, inside which are microprofile patterns 4, respectively, the guide surface 13. Microprofile patterns 4, respectively, the guiding surfaces 13, provide the deviation passing through the carrier 21 of the fluid flow and the occurrence of thanks in the direction perpendicular to the main direction of its movement, especially within the cross-section 24 of the carrier, the transverse threads, indicated in the drawing by the arrow 25. The ends of the smooth metal sheets 26, respectively profiled sheets of foil 1 (preferably all) connected with the sleeve 30, having a core structure 5 surface. The sleeve 30 comprises a carrier 21 around the entire circumference of its outer contour. Partial connection sleeve 30 with the casing 28, on the one hand, and, if necessary, offset (axial and/or circumferential direction) of its connection with the profiled foil sheets 1, respectively, with a smooth metal plate 26, on the other hand, allows you to compensate for differences in the values of thermal expansion of the casing 28 and profiled sheets of foil 1, respectively smooth metal sheets 26.
7 schematically shows the car along with its system of release of the OG. The car has an internal combustion engine 40, which can run on gasoline, diesel fuel, biofuel from rapeseed oil or other energy sources. When the engine is in the cylinder 43 respectively in the combustion chamber) formed of the EXHAUST gas, which prior to their final release into the atmosphere pass through the system, which depending on the configuration can include the following components:
- turbocharger 42 to compress the intake into the internal combustion engine 40 of the air,
- mixing flow device 37 with the measuring device 34,
the catching 39 particulates,
- catalytic Converter 36,
- adsorber 38
another catalytic Converter (for example, three-way catalytic Converter EXHAUST gas),
these individual components for EXHAUST aftertreatment connected between an exhaust manifold 41.
To influence the processes of fuel combustion in internal combustion engines, respectively, the operating system 35 of the EXHAUST or engine 40, 44 engine management passed the required data.
On Fig schematically illustrates the individual process stages, which can be used for the manufacture of the proposed invention in foil.
At this stage in the original mostly flat foil 1 perform located rows 18 and/or lines 17 in which nutrena part 3 of the foil sheet 1 of slot 2. When performing slots 2 on their end parts 6 provide the recess 7.
At this stage pretreated described above by the foil 1 is subjected to molding processing, such as corrugate by appropriate rolling, with the formation of the desired core structure 5 surface. Shown in Fig core structure 5 the surface of the foil has the form of a corrugated core structure, the top 9 of the corrugations and which cavity 10 between the corrugations which are mostly parallel to each other. Core structure 5 the surface of the foil, respectively its wavy shape, can be described by the parameters of its corrugations, in particular step 11 of corrugations and height 12. In the form shown in the drawing, the embodiment of the foil 1 step 11 of corrugations to their height 12 is approximately 3,0.
At this stage, the foil 1 is subjected to a second forming process, the purpose of which is to implement microprofiles structure 4. For this purpose, the placements are located on the tops of the corrugations 9, respectively, in the hollows 10 between the slots 2, which is the limiters microprofiling structures 4, squeeze the foil material 1. The extruded portion of the material of the foil to form the guide surface 13 with holes 45 and the guide surface 13 in adinah 10 between the corrugations act up, and the guiding surfaces 13 on the tops of the corrugations are down.
This (last) stage of the step 11 of the corrugations to their height 12 reduce to a particularly small value. It is possible, for example, compressing the sheet of foil 1 on the sides for a significant reduction in step 11 of the corrugations forming the core structure 5 the surface of the foil. This method of manufacture of such sheets of foil as described in the application DE 10304814, which in this respect is hereby incorporated into this description by reference.
Figure 9 is a perspective view schematically and in detail shows a portion of the foil 1 with microprofiles structure 4, providing the turbulence of the fluid flow (which is schematically indicated by the arrows 25). Shown in this drawing, the sheet of foil 1 has at least one slot 2, located in the inner part 3 and at least partially restricting its microprofiling structure 4, protruding from the core structure 5 the surface of the foil sheet 1 and forming the spherical surface 53. This spherical surface 53, respectively, formed microprofiles structure of the surface is not (only) simply changes the direction of rolling of the fluid flow, in particular the EXHAUST gas, which is often laminar in nature, but also creates conditions for at least one turbulence or swirling jet. Provide the e spherical surface 53 bringing the fluid flow in a spiral movement in the channel significantly reduces losses in its pressure, reaching significant values at predominantly occurring deviation of the jet in the side walls of the channel. The pressure loss in the flow of the EXHAUST gas has a direct impact on the power developed by the engine and therefore has a significant importance in the automotive industry. It should be noted that such foil 1 having a spherical surface 53 microprofiles structure 4 can be made and irrespective of the invention the grooves 7 on the end parts 6 of the slots 2, however, in the preferred embodiment, can also be used in combination with all the distinctive features described in the present description foil and carriers, respectively, to be used for the same purpose.
To describe a spherical surface 53 can, for example, to use parameters microprofiles structure 4, which is not flat, but has a (when viewed in a section plane parallel to the indicated figure 9 transverse direction 47 of the sheet of foil) at least one highest point 51 and one low point 50. This refers primarily to the edges 54 microprofiles structure 4. The highest point 51 and the lower point 50, which thus refers primarily local points of extrema, can be distinguished from each other by their location at different heights 52. Height 52 matched what there is thus primarily vertical distance to the bottom 55 of the channel, respectively, to the plane in which lie the bottom of the depressions 10 between the corrugations of the foil 1.
In one of the preferred options of the spherical plane 53 is of such a shape in which at least the highest point 51 or trough 50, lying in different clipping planes (parallel to the transverse direction 47 of the foil sheet and passing through microprofiling structure 4), are arranged in the longitudinal direction 8 of the foil sheet is not on the same line. This means, for example, that the distance 56 from the highest points 51 and/or the lowest point 50 to the transition section 49 microprofiles structure 4 is changed in the longitudinal direction 8 of the foil sheet.
In one embodiment, can also (optionally) to provide highest point 51 and the lower point 50 in at least one clipping plane passing through microprofiling structure 4 parallel to the longitudinal direction 8 of the foil sheet, i.e. in particular to perform microprofiling structure 4 non-rectilinear shapes in this direction. In this case, the distance from the highest points 51 and/or troughs of 50 to edges 54 microprofiles structure also preferably should not be the same in all clipping planes parallel to the longitudinal direction 8 of the foil sheet.
In accordance with the shown in Fig.9 option to the lowest point of 50 the image of the t circuit 57, characterized in that it is not parallel to the longitudinal direction 8 of the foil sheet, and its shape preferably corresponds to the three-dimensional trajectory, which at least in some areas runs transversely to the longitudinal direction 8 of the foil sheet. This circuit 57 is preferably corresponds to the trajectory smoothly varying forms, i.e. has no corners, edges, etc. Along its length circuit 57 in the preferred embodiment takes place at a variable height of 52. In the most preferred embodiment, the circuit 57 begins at the first height 52 and the first distance 56 to a nearest-neighbor transition section 49 on the flange 54, which receives the fluid flow, and ends on another edge 54 at a second, greater distance 56. At this point, the circuit 57 is located, in particular, also on the second height of 52, which is not equal to the first height of 52. In this form microprofiles patterns 4 are in contact with the fluid flow simultaneously deflected in both transverse directions 47 (horizontal and vertical) perpendicular to the longitudinal direction 8 of the foil sheet and acquires a swirling, whirling, swirling, or other movement.
Considered in the present description foil, respectively, the media are particularly high durability when used in the car is the EXHAUST system. In addition, by varying the geometry of the proposed invention the foil, the flow of fluid can be given exactly consistent with the specific applications of the foil profile, which allows to obtain a particularly effective, respectively exceptionally adaptable to the specific conditions of work the media to neutralize or reduce the toxicity of car EXHAUST.
1. Foil (1), having at least one slot (2)located within the inner part (3) of the sheet of foil (1) and at least partially restricts microprofiling the structure of the foil (1), protruding from a profile structure (5) of its surface, characterized in that at least one slot (2) has a recess (7) on at least one of its end sections (6).
2. Foil (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that the core structure (5) of its surface has a wavy or corrugated profile with passing in the longitudinal direction (8) of the sheet of foil tops (9) of ribs and depressions (10) between them.
3. Foil (1) according to claim 2, characterized in that the wavy or corrugated profile is characterized by a step (11) of the corrugations and height (12) of the corrugations with respect to step (11) of the corrugations to their height (12) in the range from 3.0 to 1.0, especially from 2.5 to 1.1, or preferably from 2.0 to 1.3.
4. Foil (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that microprofiling structure (4) has upravlaushiy surface (13), protruding from the profile structures (5) the surface of the foil (1), first protruding obliquely to the longitudinal direction (8) of the sheet of foil, forming an angle of (14), preferably comprising from 10 to 35°.
5. Foil (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that microprofiling structure (4) at least partially restrict two notches (2).
6. Foil (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one recess (7) has a rounded shape, first of all has the shape of an arc (15) of a circle, preferably with a radius of (16) curvature, comprising at least 0,1 mm
7. Foil (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that it has many microprofiling structures (4), which are lines (17), parallel to the longitudinal direction (8) of the sheet of foil (1)and/or rows (18)perpendicular to the longitudinal direction (8) of the sheet of foil (1).
8. Foil (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that it is made of containing aluminum and chromium, are able to withstand high thermal loads and corrosion-resistant steel and has a thickness of (19) is preferably between 0.015 to 0.15 mm, especially from 0.03 to 0.08 mm
9. Foil (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that the maximum distance (20), on which microprofiling structure (4) acts of profile structures (5) the surface of the foil is from 0.3 to 0.95, preferably from 0.5 to 0.8, height (12) of the corrugations.
10. The carrier (21)designed to neutralize or reduce the toxicity of exhaust gas component, made from a variety of at least partially profiled foil sheets (1)accumulated in the service and/or rolled in such a way that they provide the possibility of passing through the carrier fluid, wherein at least one of the multiple sheets of foil (1) is a sheet of foil (1) according to one of claims 1 to 9.
11. The carrier (21) according to claim 10, characterized in that it has lots of passing mainly in the longitudinal direction (8) of the channels (22)which at least partially formed core structure (5) the surface of the sheet of foil (1)and at least one of microprofiling structures (4) preferably is a means for influencing the fluid flow deflecting the flow of fluid as it passes through the medium (21) in the direction of the neighboring channels (22).
12. The carrier (21) according to claim 11, characterized in that the density of the it channel ranges from 100 to 1000 channels per square inch, preferably from 300 to 600 channels per square inch.
13. The carrier (21) according to claim 10, characterized in that it has a separate section (23), where it measured in the longitudinal direction (8) of the carrier (21) length microprofile structure (4) is uniformly distributed over the cross section (24) of the carrier (21) plane, perpendicular to its longitudinal direction (8).
14. The carrier (21) is .10, characterized in that its cross-section (24) a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal direction (8) of the carrier (21), there are plenty of microprofiling structures (4), which is designed in such a way that passing through the carrier fluid flow is partially deflected in different directions (25).
15. The carrier (21) according to claim 10, characterized in that it additionally to the at least one foil sheet (1) has at least one element selected from the group comprising at least one smooth sheet metal (26), which is primarily mainly adjacent to the extremes (9, 10) of the profile patterns (5) the surface of the sheet of foil (1), preferably connected with it, at least one porous fibrous layer (27), which primarily mainly adjacent to the extremes (9, 10) profile structures (5) the surface of the sheet of foil (1), preferably connected with it, at least one casing (28), which covers the carrier (21) along the length of the at least one section (29), at least one sleeve (30), which covers the carrier (21) along the length of the at least one connecting section (32) and is used for connection with the casing (28), at least one coating (31)provided in at least one part (33) of the carrier (21), at least one measuring device (34).
16. The use of the carrier (1) according to one of p-15 in the system (35) of the exhaust gas as a component, selected from the group comprising the following components that are designed to neutralize or emission control: catalytic Converter (36), a mixing flow device (37), the adsorber (38), catcher (39) solids.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in exhaust systems of internal combustion engines. Proposed metal cellular element, axial length L, is made of metal sheets to which profiled structure is imparted to provide passing of fluid medium flow through cellular element, mainly, exhaust gas flow formed at operation of internal combustion engine, in direction S from input side of end face of cellular element to end face arranged from output side and which are provided, on at least separate sections, with great number of holes. Cellular element in partial volume T, whose axial extension is at least 55% of axial length L of cellular element and radial size is at least 20 mm, is provide with holes in all metal sheets at satisfaction of following conditions: area of each hole is from 1 to 120 sq. mm, are of surface of metal sheet in partial volume T is reduced by 10-80% owing to provision of holes, preferably by 35-60%, as compared with area of surface of nonperforated metal sheet and partial volume T terminates at distance R2, R3 from each end face of cellular element and that is why none of holes do not touch end face edges of metal sheets.
EFFECT: improved noise damping.
21 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: exhaust gas inlet systems for self-propelled machines and vehicles provided with combustion engines.
SUBSTANCE: catalyst converter comprises honeycomb member including a number of at least partly profiled or structured layers, which define through channels for fluid circulation, case at least partly enclosing the honeycomb member and at least one corrugated bush arranged between honeycomb member and case. The corrugated bush connects honeycomb member to case. Method for catalyst converter production involves manufacturing honeycomb member having necessary dimensions at least partly defined by free ends of honeycomb member layers; forming at least one corrugated bush with profiled outline; producing case with inner outline; inserting honeycomb member in at least one corrugated bush; installing at least one corrugated bush with honeycomb member in the case; sizing the case to reduce inner case outline dimensions and, preferably, dimensions of at least one corrugated bush profile so that layer ends are snapped in profiled structure of corrugated bush and closely snug against corrugated bush.
EFFECT: improved honeycomb member layer connection with corrugated bush.
27 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of manufacture of carriers of catalytic converters used in engine exhaust systems for neutralizing exhaust gases forming at operation of internal combustion engines. Invention contains description of method of manufacture of cellular element with tubular casing and flange part for fastening pickup to tubular casing. According to proposed method, tubular casing is made from metal sheet, and hole is made in metal sheet at predetermined place. Hole is provided with limiting edge, and flange part is fitted on hole edge in tubular casing. Cellular structure is placed in tubular casing. Tubular casing with cellular structure and flange part are subjected to thermal treatment to connect them to each other. Invention provides integration of process of connection of flange part with tubular casing into existing thermal treatment process.
EFFECT: simplified and accelerated process of manufacture of cellular elements, thus reducing costs.
13 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in exhaust systems of diesel engines or engines with forced ignition of working mixture operating in automobiles. Proposed carrier of catalyst converter has geometric longitudinal axis and cellular element and casing between which corrugated bushing is placed, having outer and inner sides, and nondetachably connected with casing from connected with casing from outer side on corresponding sections, and with cellular element from inner side. Sections of connection of corrugated bushing and casing are arranged mainly on common circular line and they have minimum possible width in direction of longitudinal axis of catalyst converter and dimensions which provide reliable holding of cellular element under operating conditions owing to sufficient common area of said sections. Thanks to it, even at reduction of diameter of cellular element caused by shrinkage in zone of end faces in service, high reliability of connection between cellular element and casing is guaranteed. Invention contains description of method of manufacture of proposed carrier.
EFFECT: improved reliability in operation.
16 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of honeycomb structures, for example for making carriers of catalytic neutralizers in exhaust gas discharge systems.
SUBSTANCE: mean diameter of particles of powder solder is selected in such a way that absolute value of said diameter is no more than 15% of corrugation height. Minimum width of adhesive stripe is determined depending upon height of corrugations and diameter of solder particles with use of given equation. Adhesive in the form of stripes of predetermined width is applied at least on part of top portions of corrugations of profiled foil sheet. Solder is applied onto honeycomb structure. Non-detachable joint of foil sheets forming honeycomb structure features sufficiently high operational reliability at condition of heat and dynamic loads.
EFFECT: improved operational reliability of honeycomb structure.
19 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed cellular element for exhaust gas system has hood, at least one compression limiter and metal die with mean initial diameter connected with hood of cellular element by compression limiter. At action of thermal load on die and/or after disappearance of said load, mean initial diameter of die decreases maximum by 5%, preferably, maximum by 25%, owing to creation of stretching stress directed outwards on at least part of die by one compression limiter. Stress limiter has thermal expansion coefficient differing from thermal expansion coefficient of die and/or has specific surface heat capacity differing from specific surface heat capacity of die.
EFFECT: increased service life of cellular element.
14 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: catalytic neutralizers used in systems for discharging exhaust gases of internal combustion engines.
SUBSTANCE: honeycomb member includes foil sheets mutually joined by means of powder solder. Foil sheet has at least one profiled sliding structure formed in such a way that adjacent foil sheets have contact mainly along said sliding structure while sliding of foil sheets one on other along large surface area is prevented. In description of invention method for making honeycomb member with such foil sheet is offered.
EFFECT: increased useful life period of catalytic neutralizers whose honeycomb member is formed of foil sheets.
13 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; catalytic converters.
SUBSTANCE: invention contains description of method of manufacture of cellular member with preset number (n) of metal sheet layers which are made from metal strip wound off at least one coil and least part of which is at least partially profiled metal sheets whose profile structure provides possibility of flow of liquid medium through cellular member which accommodates common free space of preset volume for sensor. According to proposed method, section of metal strip wound off coil is chosen to get metal sheet of corresponding dimensions, identificator is assigned to metal sheet according to which data are read off from memory concerning position of at least one of holes made in said metal sheet and on its outline. Before proceeding with manufacture of cellular member, at least one hole in preset position and with preset outline is made in metal sheet, and several such preliminarily made sections are coiled, assembled into pack and/or rolled to form cellular structure in which separate holes form free space for sensor. Device for making cellular member and catalytic converter carrier are also described in invention.
EFFECT: provision of free space corresponding to dimensions of sensor within the limits of existing production process, prevention of formation of free space of too large volume in cellular member at reduced cost.
19 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: purifying gas emissions.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises heat exchanger, heater, and catalytic neutralizer, which are connected in series in the direction of the flow of air or gases to be purified. The outlet of the neutralizer is connected with the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is used for initial heating of the air or gases that inflow to the heat exchanger. The heat collecting device is provided with gages for measuring the temperature of the heat collecting material and the temperature of the purified air or gas and with the heating system connected with the control system.
EFFECT: reduced power consumption.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; compression ignition internal combustion engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed sectional catalytic converter has housing with catalytic filtering elements, cross partitions with slots and inlet and outlet branch pipes. Catalytic and filtering elements installed in slots of cross partitions are made in form of assembly sections of radial plates made of porous permeable cermet materials with filtering oxidizing and or filtering reducing properties. Cross partitions are made in from of sector-shaped plates alternating with slots so that slot of other end face of this section is arranged opposite to sector-shaped plate of other end face of assembly section. Each radial plate is fitted in slots of sector-shaped plates.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of cleaning of exhaust gases by developing areas of filtering and catalytic elements, reduced fuel consumption by decreasing counterpressure at engine exhaust and provision and provision of high quality of exhaust gas cleaning.
FIELD: hydrogenation-dehydrogenation catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalysts exhibiting activity in hydrogenation of vegetable oils and fats and suitable for use in food processing industry, perfumery, petrochemical and petroleum processing industries. Invention describes a method for preparing granulated catalysts intended for liquid-phase hydrogenation of vegetable oils and distilled fatty acids and representing metallic palladium deposited in amount 0.5-2.0 wt % on carbon carrier, fraction 0.5-6.0 mm, having specific surface area 100-450 m2/g and pore volume 0.2-0.6 cm3/g. Hydrogenation process is conducted on fixed catalyst bed at 140-210°C, hydrogen pressure 2 to 12 atm and consumption or raw material 100 to 1500 g/h per 1 kg catalyst.
EFFECT: increased hydrogenation rate in production of technical sorts of solidified fat and increased stability of catalysts.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 20 ex
FIELD: alternative fuels.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to autothermal conversion of hydrocarbon fuel to produce synthesis gas, which can be used in chemical production, for burning at catalytic heat plants, and in hydrogen power engineering. Proposed catalyst contains, as active components, cobalt oxide, manganese oxide, and barium oxide, and, as carrier, refractory reinforced metalporous carrier. Catalyst is prepared by impregnation of carrier with barium and manganese salt solution at Ba/Mn =5:4 followed by drying, calcination, impregnation with cobalt salt solution, drying, and calcination. Invention further describes generation of synthesis gas via autothermal conversion of hydrocarbon fuel performed utilizing above-described catalyst.
EFFECT: enabled catalyst exhibiting high heat conductivity, high activity in production of synthesis gas, and resistance to coking and deactivation with sulfur compounds present in diesel fuel and gasoline.
6 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: oil and fat industry and technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an improved method for hydrogenation of vegetable oils and distilled fatty acids. Method involves the hydrogenation reaction that is carried out on a catalyst stationary layer representing crystallites of active palladium applied on surface of carbonic material wherein mesoporous graphite-like material is used as carbonic material with granules size 0.5-6.0 mm but preferably 3.0-6.0 mm, specific surface 100-450 m2/g, average size of mesopores in the range from 40 to 400 Å, total volume of pores 0.2-0.6 cm3/g and part of mesopores in the total volume of pores 0.6, not less. Palladium crystallites in volume of carbonic material are distributed by so manner that the distribution maximum values of active component are in distance from external granule surface corresponding to 1-30% of its radius and in the content of applied palladium in the range from 0.5 to 2.0 wt.-%. Invention provides the high hydrogenation rate of raw in production of technical sorts of hydrogenated fats and high stability of product.
EFFECT: improved method of hydrogenation.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 16 ex
FIELD: inorganic synthesis catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalytic elements including ceramic contact of regular honeycomb structure for heterogeneous high-temperature reactions, e.g. ammonia conversion, and can be used in production of nitric acid, hydrocyanic acid, and hydroxylamine sulfate. Described is catalytic element for heterogeneous high-temperature reactions comprising two-step catalytic system consisting of ceramic contact of regular honeycomb structure made in the form of at least one bed constituted by (i) separate prisms with honeycomb canals connected by side faces with gap and (ii) platinoid grids, ratio of diameter of unit honeycomb canal to diameter of wire, from which platinoid grids are made, being below 20.
EFFECT: increased degree of conversion and degree of trapping of platinum, and prolonged lifetime of grids.
5 cl, 6 ex
FIELD: disproportionation reaction catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing cobalt and zinc, to a method for preparation thereof, and to Fischer-Tropsch process. Catalyst according to invention containing co-precipitated cobalt and zinc particles, which are characterized by volume-average size below 150 μm and particle size distribution wherein at least 90% of the catalyst particle volume is occupied by particles having size between 0.4 and 2.5 times that of the average particle size and wherein zinc/cobalt atomic ratio within a range of 40 to 0.1. Catalyst is prepared by introducing acid solution containing zinc and cobalt ions at summary concentration 0.1 to 5 mole/L and alkali solution to reactor containing aqueous medium wherein acid solution and alkali solution come into contact with each other in aqueous medium at pH 4-9 (deviating by at most 0.2 pH units) at stirring with a speed determined by supplied power between 1 and 300 kW/L aqueous medium and temperature from 15 to 75°C. Resulting cobalt and zinc-including precipitate separated from aqueous medium, dried, and further treated to produce desired catalyst. Employment of catalyst in Fischer-Tropsch process is likewise described.
EFFECT: enhanced strength and separation properties suitable for Fischer-Tropsch process.
13 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: exhaust gas afterburning means.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalytic neutralizer for treating internal combustion engine exhausted gases. Proposed catalyst is composed of catalytically active coating on inert ceramic or metallic honeycomb structure, wherein coating contains at least one platinum group metal selected from series including platinum, palladium, rhodium, and iridium on fine-grain supporting oxide material, said supporting oxide material representing essentially nonporous silica-based material including aggregates of essentially spherical primary particles 7 to 60 nm in diameter, while pH of 4% water dispersion of indicated material is below 6.
EFFECT: increased catalyst activity and imparted sufficient resistance to aggressive sulfur-containing components.
27 cl, 2 dwg, 7 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; methods of manufacture of the building structures.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the chemical industry, in particular, to production of the nitric acid, nitric fertilizers, the cyanhydric acid, the nitrites and nitrates and to other productions of chemical products, where the flow sheet of production provides for the catalytic conversion of ammonia up to the nitrogen oxides with usage of the platinoid mesh catalytic agents. The platinoid mesh catalytic agent formed in the form of the catalytic package produced out of the layer-by-layer stacked wire catalytic meshes and weaved out of the wires with the diameter of 0.06-0.1 mm consisting of the alloys of platinum with rhodium, palladium, ruthenium and other metals of the platinum group differs that the catalytic package consists of two different in the geometry of the braiding types of the meshes sequentially alternating in the height of the package. At that the geometry of the braiding of the first type of the catalytic meshes is characterized by the number of the wires interlacing per 1 cm2 in the interval of 1024-450, and the geometry of the braiding of the second type of the catalytic meshes is characterized by the number of the wires interlacing per 1 cm2 in the interval of 400-200. The technical result of the invention is the increased conversion of ammonia and the decreased share of the platinoids included in the mesh catalytic agent production processes providing for the catalytic conversion of ammonia in the flow sheet of the chemical goods production.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased conversion of ammonia and the decreased share of the platinoids included in the mesh catalytic agent production processes providing for the catalytic conversion of ammonia in the flow sheet of the chemical goods production.
FIELD: composition and structure of composite metal semiconductor meso-porous materials; titanium-dioxide-based catalyst for photo-chemical reactions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed catalyst is meso-porous titanium-dioxide-based material containing crystalline phase of anatase in the amount no less than 30 mass-% and nickel in the amount no less than 2 mass-%; material has porous structure at average diameter of pores from 2 to 16 nm and specific surface no less than 70 m2/g; as catalyst of photo-chemical reaction of liberation of hydrogen from aqua-alcohol mixtures, it ensures quantum reaction yield from 0.09 to 0.13. Method of production of such catalyst includes introduction of precursor - titanium tetraalkoxyde and template of organic nature, holding reagent mixture till final molding of three-dimensional structure from it at successive stages of forming sol, then gel, separation of reaction product and treatment of this product till removal of template; process is carried out in aqua-alcohol solvent containing no more than 7 mass-% of water; at least one of ligands is introduced into solvent as template; ligand is selected from group of macro-cyclic compounds containing no less than four atoms of oxygen and/or from complexes of said macro-cyclic compounds with ions of metals selected from alkaline or alkaline-earth metals or F-metals containing lithium, potassium, sodium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, lanthanum and cerium; mixture is stirred before forming of sol maintaining its temperature not above 35°C till final molding of three-dimensional structure from reagent mixture; mixture is held in open reservoir at the same temperature at free access of water vapor; after removal of template from three-dimensional structure, mixture is first treated with nickel salt solution during period of time sufficient for withdrawal of nickel ions from solution by pores of structure, after which is it kept in hydrogen-containing medium during period of time sufficient for reduction of nickel ions in pores of structure to metallic nickel.
EFFECT: enhanced sorption and photo-catalytic parameters; reproducibility of catalyst properties.
7 cl, 68 ex
FIELD: organic chemistry, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for liquid-phase catalytic alkylation of aromatic amines. Method involves alkylation reaction of aromatic amines in the presence of hydrogen and lower alcohols at temperature 50-70°C on a heterogeneous catalyst. The distinctive specificity of method represents alkylation of amine with formaldehyde solution in reactor with reaction zone filled with catalyst consisting of aluminum oxide-base block high-porous cellular carrier with porosity value 7-95%, not less, and palladium as an active component with the mass content = 1.3-2%. As a rule, in the alkylation process catalyst prepared by impregnation of block high-porous cellular carrier with palladium salts treated preliminary in the constant magnetic field is used. Usually, in the case of alkylation of aniline and for preferential synthesis of monomethylaniline the molar ratio aniline to formaldehyde solution = 1.6:(1.1-1.6) is used. Proposed method as compared with the nearest analog in the case of alkylation of aniline provides preparing monomethylaniline mainly, to decrease the content of palladium as an active component in catalyst and to decrease the reaction pressure and hydraulic resistance of catalytic layer also. Invention can be used in producing antiknock additives to motor fuels (gasolines).
EFFECT: improved alkylation method.
3 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: catalyst preparation methods.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparing catalyst and to catalyst no honeycomb-structure block ceramic and metallic carrier. Preparation procedure includes preliminarily calcining inert honeycomb block carrier and simultaneously applying onto its surface intermediate coating composed of modified alumina and active phase of one or several platinum group metals from water-alcohol suspension containing, wt %: boehmite 15-30, aluminum nitrate 1-2, cerium nitrate 4-8, 25% ammonium hydroxide solution 10-20, one or several precipitate group metal salts (calculated as metals) 0.020-0.052, water-to-alcohol weight ratio being 1:5 to 1:10; drying; and reduction. Thus prepared catalyst has following characteristics: specific coating area 100-200 m2/g, Al2O3 content 5-13%, CeO2 content 0.5-1,3%, active phase (on conversion to platinum group metals) 0.12-0.26%.
EFFECT: simplified technology due to reduced number of stages, accelerated operation, and high-efficiency catalyst.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention covers the catalyst of purification of oil, gas condensate and oil fractions from mercaptan, namely to catalyst of oxidising sweetening of the specified products. The description of the new catalyst of oxidising alkali-free oil sweetening and the method for its producing are provided, which contains 1-5% of derivative transitional metal and 95-99% of layer aluminium silicate produced by application of cuprous chloride from ammonia containing water or water-alcohol solution on aluminum silicate from groups of illite or layer silicates.
EFFECT: improved catalyst for oxidising oil purification is produced.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 5 ex