Method of weed control in lea of rice rotation
SUBSTANCE: method ensures the facilities for active biomass growth of alga water net (Hydrodictyon reticulatum (L) Lagerh) over the water surface. Shallow work is carried out in the lea, in spring crop remains are embedded, nitrogenous fertilisers are added with the dosage 20-30 kg/ha, and then constant water sheet is made, that is kept in the period from May till August. For example, urea is added in the soil as nitrogenous fertilisers.
EFFECT: decreased level of rice fields infestation with the main weeds of boggy and gramineous type, and also with red-grained rice.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 3 ex
The invention relates to the field of agriculture, and in particular to methods of weed control in rice fields.
A known way of dealing with wetland weeds in rice fields, which consists in mechanical destruction of the vegetative organs of reproduction of weeds, including loosening the soil, feeding on the field of water, determination of the depth distribution of vegetative organs of reproduction of weeds, loosening the soil to set the depth to the formation of the slurry, applied 3-4 times milling, collection and disposal of weeds (ed. St. No. 1537160, AV 79/00, 1990).
The main disadvantages of this method are the high energy consumption and the inability to destroy the weeds, grass type, including red form of rice.
A known way of dealing with wetland weeds in fallow field rice crop rotation, consisting in the implementation of provocative irrigation, drying fields and ploughing followed by repetition of the operations. And plowing is carried out three times at different depths: 12-14 cm, 25-30 cm, and 20-22 see Then, during the season, after emergence of weeds carry out processing of disk tools (Recommendations by the technology of rice cultivation without the use of herbicides under the editorship of Professor Aleshin, H.E., Zernograd, 1989, p.9).
The main disadvantages of this method is the high energy consumption, nevoso the ability to fight with red forms of rice and weeds of cereal type.
There is a method of weed control grass type and red forms of rice steam rice field crop rotation, taken as a prototype, including a consistent alteration of agricultural practices: watering, disking, after the mass of weeds, processing stubble field at a depth of 12-14 cm simultaneously weeding, watering watering with subsequent surface treatments to keep the field clean. In case of strong contamination of the topsoil cycle "watering - processing" carried out up to three times (Recommendations by the technology of rice cultivation without the use of herbicides under the editorship of Professor Aleshin, H.E. Zernograd, 1989, p.9).
The main disadvantages of this method is its high energy capacity, the inability to combat wetland weeds.
The objective of the invention is to reduce the level of contamination of rice fields main marsh weeds, grass type and red forms of rice, as well as the reduction of energy consumption.
This object is achieved in that favourable conditions are created for active biomass expansion algae water net (Hydrodictyon reticulatum (L.) Lagerh) no entire water surface, in the spring of exercise termination, crop residues, make nitrogen fertilizer, such as urea, at a dose of 20-30 kg/ha, and then create a permanent layer of water that support is up from may to August, the month, that reduces the level of contamination of rice weeds, reduce energy consumption.
Production testing method of weed control in rice fallow field was conducted in the rice fields of the collective farm "Kuban" Abinsk district of Krasnodar region on an area of 18 hectares in three variants in 2003.
may 6, conducted the incorporation of crop residues of the previous crop disc harrows BDT-3,0 to a depth of 10-12 cm Then made 20 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer (urea) ground planter PTT-4,2 A. may 11, the surface of the field was flooded by the water layer 25 cm or supported layer of water up to 30 August. 10-15 June noted the growth of algae in the water mesh to July 15, formed a solid dense the carpet.
The biomass of algae in the water mesh interferes with the normal light emerging weeds, reduces the temperature of the water, which negatively affects the growth and development of all types of weeds. 1 through 5 September dumped the water from the field.
Algae water mesh refers to the division of Green algae (Chlorophyta), the class Actually green - Chlorophyceae, family Hydrogencyanide - Hydrodictyaceae. Distributed in the aquatic environment with a high content of nitrogen (mezzosoprano area) (see Kursanov DI, komarnicki N.A. Rate of lower plants. - M.: Soviet science, 1945, p.59-60).
All operations on offer is the method carried out, as described in example 1, but urea was made at the rate of 25 kg/ha
All operations on the proposed method was carried out as described in example 1, but urea was made at the rate of 30 kg/ha and was created a layer of water 20 see
The used doses of nitrogen fertilizer in the range of 20-30 kg/ha, significant differences were not.
Comparative effectiveness of the proposed method of weed control in rice fallow field in example 2 and the prototype are presented in table 1.
After analyzing the data obtained, we can conclude that the degree of contamination is reduced from very strong (control) to weak (the proposed method). The effectiveness of the proposed method of weed control in fallow field on clubmegamix above 2.7 times, weed grass type - 5 times, and red forms of rice 6 times.
|Options||Plants after water||The degree of contamination (GPA)|
|clubmegamix||weeds grass type||red form of rice|
|Control (rice rice 3 years) initial infestation||117||100||233||100||29||100||Very strong 5 points|
|The placeholder||75||64,1||106||45,5||12||41,4||Strong 4 points|
|The proposed method||28||23,9||21||9,0||2||6,9||Weak 2 points|
|The effectiveness of the proposed method (time)||2,7||5,0||6,0|
In the experiments, the addition of urea has been used and other types of nitrogen-containing fertilizer use in rice: ammonium sulphate and ammonium sulphate. Urea contains 46% nitrogen, ammonium sulfate (21%), monoammonium phosphate (map) - 24%.
On the background of equivalent nitrogen content according to the current substance per hectare, we studied the effect of various nitrogen fertilizers on the growth of algae biomass (water mesh), and debris check weeds.
A field experiment was carried out on the farm "Kuban" Abinsk district, area of 6 hectares, the size of the user plots of 0.25 ha
The degree of contamination, and the biomass of algae in the water net (Hydrodictyon reticulatum (L.) Lagerh)npH making a steam box once the ranks of nitrogen-containing fertilizers are presented in table 2.
The results of field studies showed that the infestation is sharply reduced from the strong (4 points to very weak 1 point), depending on the expansion in the steam filled the field of the mass of algae in the water grid, the value of which in turn depends on the content and form of nitrogen fertilizer.
|Options||Dry weight of algae (water mesh), kg/ha||Plants after water||The degree of contamination (GPA)|
|Clubmegamix||Weeds grass type||Red rice|
|1. Steam the field of the permanent flooding (without nitrogen)|
|136,3||63||100||44||100||14||100||Strong (4 points)|
|2. Steam the field of the permanent flooding +7 kg of urea nitrogen per hectare on A.I|
|3. Steam the field of the permanent flooding +7 kg of nitrogen of ammonium sulfate on ha A.I|
|4. Steam the field of the permanent flooding +7 kg of nitrogen monoammonium phosphate on ha A.I||#x0200A;|
Urea has a stimulating effect on the growth of the mass of algae in the water mesh, compared with the 1st option - without nitrogen, it's 6.9 times more stimulated the growth of algae biomass. Compared with other nitrogen fertilizers urea effective: relatively ammonium sulphate, 2-fold, map 1.4 times.
The proposed method of weed control in rice fallow field allows to reduce energy consumption to combat weeds and replenish soil organic mass, serving as energy material for beneficial microflora and means of improving the physical properties of the soil.
1. Method of weed control in rice fallow field rotation by providing favorable conditions for active biomass expansion algae water net (Hydrodictyon reticulatum (L.) Lagerh) across the water surface, characterized in that conduct surface treatment in the steam field in the spring of exercise termination, crop residues, make nitrogen fertilizer in a dose of 20-30 kg/ha, and then create a permanent layer of water, which is supported in the period from may to August.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as a nitrogen fertilizer in the soil contribute, for example, urea.
FIELD: plant growing, in particular, rice disease controlling process.
SUBSTANCE: method involves treating rice young crops at milky-wax ripeness phase with carbamide mixture in dose of 20-30 kg/hectare, pherazime SC fungicide in dose of 0.6 kg/hectare, and luvaram containing growth promoter in dose of 22 ml/hectare at mixture flow rate of 100 l/hectare.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in controlling of piricularia pitting rice disease at late development stages and during milky-wax ripeness stage when plant's vegetative and generative organs are simultaneously stricken by disease.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, rice cultivation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves returning water filtered into waterway back into checks by means of water lifts which are positioned in retaining structures additionally provided on parts of waterways; returning drainage and waste water into irrigation and distribution network through additional open feeding channels. Method allows drainage and waste water volume to be effectively utilized and conditions for mixing and diluting of drainage and waste water with pure irrigation water to be improved.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in utilizing of water from rice irrigation systems and improved conditions for utilization of fertilizers in rice cultivation.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular rice cropping.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes soil treatment, fertilization, seeding and irrigation regime, plant treatment in tillering period with mixture of herbicide and growth controlling agent. Treatment id carried out using mixture of bazagran M as herbicide in amount of 3 l/hectare and emystim as growth controlling agent in amount of 0.5-5 ml/hectare against the background on N60-120P90K60.
EFFECT: decreased adverse herbicide action; increased rice yield.
4 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, rice cultivation method.
SUBSTANCE: method involves tillage of soil; providing presowing application of mineral fertilizers; treating rice seeds with growth promoter used in an amount of 1-30 ml/t; sowing and irrigating. Method allows dose of nitrous fertilizer applied during presowing period to be reduced by 30% without reducing rice yield.
EFFECT: reduced production costs and decreased influence of agronomical chemicals upon environment owing to reduced technogenic loading thereof.
6 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, controlling of weedage in rice growing.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing rice crop to obtain young crops through wetting of soil in checks and provoking germination of weeds (barnyard grass); treating weed sprouts having no more than 3-4 leaves with binary bacteriological mixture of two kinds of herbicides used in doses of 0.9-4.0 l/hectare, respectively, at flow rate of up to 500 l/hectare; creating constant water track in check of 5-7 cm depth 48 hours after treatment of weeds.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in controlling of weeds, such as barnyard grass, and increased rice yield.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns environmental technologies and can be applied in reclaiming of soil fertility. The method involves double fertilisation of a polluted landsite, soil loosening and application of water solution of oil decomposing bacteria. Manure with humidity of 60% and over is used as the fertiliser at the ratio of 30-40 tons per hectare. It is introduced first during subsurface loosening at the depth of 27-30 cm, and next over 5-7 days. The composition is produced by composting sapropel, manure and unpolluted soil; before application it is mixed with shred bird feathers. Feathers are preliminarily treated in water solution of electric activated water for at least 30 minutes. Rhodococcus sp. MFN bacterium strain, cultivated in nutrient solution, is used as oil decomposing bacterium. It identifies hydrocarbons of oil at the polluted landsite as a source of carbon. Water solution of Rhodococcus sp.MFN bacteria is introduced at latest in 48 hours after the composition. In 1.5-2 months the site is tilled with backset to the depth of 25-27 cm, the surface is leveled with heavy harrows, and annual or perennial grass is sown.
EFFECT: enables biological reclaiming of soils by sapropel utilisation.
7 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: for recovery of a rice levee melioration system it is plowed to the plough-layer. Then the levee is flooded by portions to cover the plowed depth, followed by rotatilling of water-saturated soil till complete hydration and forming of thixotropic mass, and air feed into the tillage tool operation zone. Further, during sedimentation, settled water is gradually discharged to a channel. At the last run of rotatillage machine, a microbiological preparation is infused together with air into operation zone of the tool. The preparation is a complex of microorganisms adapted to the conditions propagating destruction and mineralisation of organic complexes produced during hydration of water-saturated plough-layer. For example, an EM-1 Vostok microorganic complex can be used. This technology allows decrease of recovery period, improve leveling quality and eliminate plant residues without the use of pesticide and fertilisers.
EFFECT: faster recovery of a field with melioration system with improved leveling and harmless destruction of plant residues.
SUBSTANCE: method includes soil processing, crops sowing and chemical fertilizers application. The soil processing is carried out by cutting it in a horizontal plane at a depth less than depth of hemicarp incorporation at some height with the formation of a horizontal surface. Three furrows should be ploughed. The central furrow is performed by cutting the soil and sealing the walls. The side furrows with a less depth are placed at the left and right of the central one at a distance equal to half of the spacing width. These furrows are formed by the excavation of soil and laying it in the ridges. The central furrow is fertilized in the form of vertical strips. The seeds are applied to the side furrows with a start dose of fertilizer and covered by the ground. The earlier raised loose soil is covered then and it is rammed over its side furrows. While ramming the distance from the furrow bottom to the surface level should be kept equal to the depth of seed incorporation. The device contains duckfoot, drill tube, left and right seed deflector and a wedge. The seed deflector's length equals to the half width of spacing. The wedge and bottom part of drill tube are located below the cutting edge of the duckfoot. The ditchers are installed on both sides of the axis at a distance equal to the half width of spacing. The stilts are made in the form of boxes, divided into three cavities. The first cavity at the front of the desk is equipped with the stilt, at the bottom of which a wedge is mounted. The seed deflectors are attached to the bottom of the second and third-seed cavities of the drill tube. The ditchers have a cutting edge located below the cutting edge of the duckfoot. There are left and right shellboards at the back side of the duckfoot at a distance from the centre line, exceeding the width of spacing. The lower parts of shellboard are located at the cutting edge duckfoot. The roller is attached to the back side of the sock, executed in the form of axis with two discs, the distance between which equals to the width of spacing.
EFFECT: improving the quality of crop yields.
5 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the way of recycling and it can be used for reclamation or improvement of low-quality or damaged soil. The method includes evenly low-temperature shale coke spreading on the improving soil in autumn, then mixing with it by ploughing and subsequent microbiological oxidation. Until spreading the low-temperature coke should be mixed with peat, filings, liquid manure, droppings or other nitrogen substances and electrochemical activated water solution. The average layer of low-temperature shale coke on the improving soil is up to 30% depth of the follow-ploughing.
EFFECT: low-temperature shale coke neutralisation and recycling in huge amounts with the reforming of the contained substances into the nutrients for plants and organic matter.
SUBSTANCE: suggested process consists of the following activities: cutting out a sod layer slice within the tillage area, its reversal and removal outside the above area with the slice being divided in two equal parts to be finally relocated (unloosened) to the uncultivated spacings stretching along the tillage area border zones, sowing groove formation, dropping seeds into the groove, seed embedment and groove compaction. Sod layer slices are additionally cut out along the both sides of the tillage area at an averaged angle of the slope of repose with the cross section trapezoidal-shaped, larger base upwards, and the sowing groove in the middle. The sowing groove formation and seed dropping are done by way of cutting the sod layer axially thus forming a groove (depth - h1, density of soil - γ1).Then (after removal of the sod slices outside the tillage area) the groove is additionally cultivated for the depth to be h2 and density of soil - γ2. After that the soil loosened is shovelled into the groove prepared and a new groove is formed in the loose soil combined with dropping of seeds at depth h3. Then the seeds are covered with soil which becomes compacted for the depth of the groove to be h4, soil density - γ4 and seed embedment depth -h3. One shall control the groove depth and soil density parameters so that h1<h2>h3 and γ1>γ2>γ3<γ4. The seeding machine consists of a frame, track rollers, seeding depth mechanism, seed dropping device, colters, bilateral breast hoes, slit cutting knives, suffolk openers, covering knives and spring-mounted support-and-compaction rollers. The seeding machine is equipped with a device intended for deepening the seeding groove formed by the slit cutting knife and a leveller placed immediately behind it. Each colter mounted in front of a breast hoe forms a single unit together with the slit-cutting knife it is equipped with. The breast hoe is additionally equipped with slitting knives attached at its sides and positioned angularly to the hoe horizontal plane. The technology suggested helps to minimise energy consumption of the grass direct seeding process, improve the quality of the seeding groove preparation, enhance uniformity of the seeds embedment depth and optimise establishment of the grass seeds sown.
EFFECT: minimise energy consumption of the grass direct seeding process combined with quality optimisation.
8 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the sphere of agriculture. The suggested procedure includes forecrop removal and subsequent soil tillage. The tillage consists in disking a 6-8 cm-deep stratum, cultivation tillage of a 20-22 cm stratum 10-15 days after the disking and preplanting cultivation. The stratum overgrown with old-aged galega orientalis is cultivated after its first cut for hay at the bud stage. Second plowing of a 25-27 cm-deep stratum is done with the help of a cutout body double dig plow 30-35 days after the cultivation tillage and preplanting cultivation. The preparation process provides for creating favourable condition for growth and development of winter ruttishness which finally results in its productivity increase.
EFFECT: increase of winter ruttishness productivity.
FIELD: agriculture and forestry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mellowing soil and simultaneously applying fertilizers and hydrogel into cultivated soil and eliminating weed plants; introducing fertilizer and hydrogel in an amount proportional to mellowing depth; mellowing soil to depth corresponding to architectonics of arrangement of tree or shrub root system; calculating soil mellowing depth from formula: h=k[b+(R-r)rgα], where r is distance from tree or shrub trunk to zone of minimal soil mellowing depth; R is distance from tree or shrub trunk to zone of maximal soil mellowing depth; b is minimal needed soil mellowing depth; α is angle of tree or shrub root system relative to soil surface; k is soil mellowing coefficient.
EFFECT: enhanced moisture accumulation and improved development of plants.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, cultivation of green manure crops in rotation system.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mowing top flowering part of plants, followed by harvesting of green mass. Mowing of flowering plants is carried out with 2-3 year aged plant stand and 10-15 cm long plants. Remaining plants of plant stand are ground 2-3 weeks after mowing operation and plowed in as green manure crops.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by enriching plow layer with organic substance, and suppressing of soil pathogens by glucosids available in mass.
2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: reclaiming of disturbed lands, in particular, restoration of soil-and-plant covering on bare grounds under Arctic and Sub-Arctic conditions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming plant and soil covering by spreading top part of phytomass of local climax plant types on bare ground; using plant kinds with ecotypes corresponding to conditions of ecotypes of ground under recultivation process, or dominating cenopopulations.
EFFECT: improved quality of recultivation of disturbed lands and reduced cultivation costs.
SUBSTANCE: organo-mineral complex fertilizer contains bulk and liquid components such as disinfected, neutralized and dried silt produced by biological purification of sewage water, and carbonic acid H2CO3. Method involves forming furrow simultaneously with soil plowing; distributing liquid component and closing furrow; simultaneously with liquid component, introducing bulk component, each component being located at different depths by means of deep tiller which is used for forming of furrow bottom with depressions; feeding carbonic acid under pressure into depressions, with following closing of furrow; plowing-in bulk component by turning top layer of mold by means of moldboard fixed to deep tiller.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in humus formation, increased soil fertility and yield, and improved ecology of farm crop cultivation.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.