Method of weed control in lea of rice rotation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method ensures the facilities for active biomass growth of alga water net (Hydrodictyon reticulatum (L) Lagerh) over the water surface. Shallow work is carried out in the lea, in spring crop remains are embedded, nitrogenous fertilisers are added with the dosage 20-30 kg/ha, and then constant water sheet is made, that is kept in the period from May till August. For example, urea is added in the soil as nitrogenous fertilisers.

EFFECT: decreased level of rice fields infestation with the main weeds of boggy and gramineous type, and also with red-grained rice.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 3 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of agriculture, and in particular to methods of weed control in rice fields.

A known way of dealing with wetland weeds in rice fields, which consists in mechanical destruction of the vegetative organs of reproduction of weeds, including loosening the soil, feeding on the field of water, determination of the depth distribution of vegetative organs of reproduction of weeds, loosening the soil to set the depth to the formation of the slurry, applied 3-4 times milling, collection and disposal of weeds (ed. St. No. 1537160, AV 79/00, 1990).

The main disadvantages of this method are the high energy consumption and the inability to destroy the weeds, grass type, including red form of rice.

A known way of dealing with wetland weeds in fallow field rice crop rotation, consisting in the implementation of provocative irrigation, drying fields and ploughing followed by repetition of the operations. And plowing is carried out three times at different depths: 12-14 cm, 25-30 cm, and 20-22 see Then, during the season, after emergence of weeds carry out processing of disk tools (Recommendations by the technology of rice cultivation without the use of herbicides under the editorship of Professor Aleshin, H.E., Zernograd, 1989, p.9).

The main disadvantages of this method is the high energy consumption, nevoso the ability to fight with red forms of rice and weeds of cereal type.

There is a method of weed control grass type and red forms of rice steam rice field crop rotation, taken as a prototype, including a consistent alteration of agricultural practices: watering, disking, after the mass of weeds, processing stubble field at a depth of 12-14 cm simultaneously weeding, watering watering with subsequent surface treatments to keep the field clean. In case of strong contamination of the topsoil cycle "watering - processing" carried out up to three times (Recommendations by the technology of rice cultivation without the use of herbicides under the editorship of Professor Aleshin, H.E. Zernograd, 1989, p.9).

The main disadvantages of this method is its high energy capacity, the inability to combat wetland weeds.

The objective of the invention is to reduce the level of contamination of rice fields main marsh weeds, grass type and red forms of rice, as well as the reduction of energy consumption.

This object is achieved in that favourable conditions are created for active biomass expansion algae water net (Hydrodictyon reticulatum (L.) Lagerh) no entire water surface, in the spring of exercise termination, crop residues, make nitrogen fertilizer, such as urea, at a dose of 20-30 kg/ha, and then create a permanent layer of water that support is up from may to August, the month, that reduces the level of contamination of rice weeds, reduce energy consumption.

Production testing method of weed control in rice fallow field was conducted in the rice fields of the collective farm "Kuban" Abinsk district of Krasnodar region on an area of 18 hectares in three variants in 2003.

Example 1

may 6, conducted the incorporation of crop residues of the previous crop disc harrows BDT-3,0 to a depth of 10-12 cm Then made 20 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer (urea) ground planter PTT-4,2 A. may 11, the surface of the field was flooded by the water layer 25 cm or supported layer of water up to 30 August. 10-15 June noted the growth of algae in the water mesh to July 15, formed a solid dense the carpet.

The biomass of algae in the water mesh interferes with the normal light emerging weeds, reduces the temperature of the water, which negatively affects the growth and development of all types of weeds. 1 through 5 September dumped the water from the field.

Algae water mesh refers to the division of Green algae (Chlorophyta), the class Actually green - Chlorophyceae, family Hydrogencyanide - Hydrodictyaceae. Distributed in the aquatic environment with a high content of nitrogen (mezzosoprano area) (see Kursanov DI, komarnicki N.A. Rate of lower plants. - M.: Soviet science, 1945, p.59-60).

Example 2

All operations on offer is the method carried out, as described in example 1, but urea was made at the rate of 25 kg/ha

Example 3

All operations on the proposed method was carried out as described in example 1, but urea was made at the rate of 30 kg/ha and was created a layer of water 20 see

The used doses of nitrogen fertilizer in the range of 20-30 kg/ha, significant differences were not.

Comparative effectiveness of the proposed method of weed control in rice fallow field in example 2 and the prototype are presented in table 1.

After analyzing the data obtained, we can conclude that the degree of contamination is reduced from very strong (control) to weak (the proposed method). The effectiveness of the proposed method of weed control in fallow field on clubmegamix above 2.7 times, weed grass type - 5 times, and red forms of rice 6 times.

Table 1
OptionsPlants after waterThe degree of contamination (GPA)
clubmegamixweeds grass typered form of rice
PCs/m2%PCs/m2%PCs/m2%
Control (rice rice 3 years) initial infestation11710023310029100Very strong 5 points
The placeholder7564,110645,51241,4Strong 4 points
The proposed method2823,9219,026,9Weak 2 points
The effectiveness of the proposed method (time)2,75,06,0

In the experiments, the addition of urea has been used and other types of nitrogen-containing fertilizer use in rice: ammonium sulphate and ammonium sulphate. Urea contains 46% nitrogen, ammonium sulfate (21%), monoammonium phosphate (map) - 24%.

On the background of equivalent nitrogen content according to the current substance per hectare, we studied the effect of various nitrogen fertilizers on the growth of algae biomass (water mesh), and debris check weeds.

A field experiment was carried out on the farm "Kuban" Abinsk district, area of 6 hectares, the size of the user plots of 0.25 ha

The degree of contamination, and the biomass of algae in the water net (Hydrodictyon reticulatum (L.) Lagerh)npH making a steam box once the ranks of nitrogen-containing fertilizers are presented in table 2.

The results of field studies showed that the infestation is sharply reduced from the strong (4 points to very weak 1 point), depending on the expansion in the steam filled the field of the mass of algae in the water grid, the value of which in turn depends on the content and form of nitrogen fertilizer.

Table 2
OptionsDry weight of algae (water mesh), kg/haPlants after waterThe degree of contamination (GPA)
ClubmegamixWeeds grass typeRed rice
PCs/m2%PCs/m2%PCs/ m2%
1. Steam the field of the permanent flooding (without nitrogen)
136,36310044 10014100Strong (4 points)
2. Steam the field of the permanent flooding +7 kg of urea nitrogen per hectare on A.I
Very
938,02438,12114,6321,4weak
(1 point)
3. Steam the field of the permanent flooding +7 kg of nitrogen of ammonium sulfate on ha A.I
448,85180,95336,8857,1Average
(3 points)
4. Steam the field of the permanent flooding +7 kg of nitrogen monoammonium phosphate on ha A.I#x0200A;
677,53657,13423,6535,7Weak
(2 points)

Urea has a stimulating effect on the growth of the mass of algae in the water mesh, compared with the 1st option - without nitrogen, it's 6.9 times more stimulated the growth of algae biomass. Compared with other nitrogen fertilizers urea effective: relatively ammonium sulphate, 2-fold, map 1.4 times.

The proposed method of weed control in rice fallow field allows to reduce energy consumption to combat weeds and replenish soil organic mass, serving as energy material for beneficial microflora and means of improving the physical properties of the soil.

1. Method of weed control in rice fallow field rotation by providing favorable conditions for active biomass expansion algae water net (Hydrodictyon reticulatum (L.) Lagerh) across the water surface, characterized in that conduct surface treatment in the steam field in the spring of exercise termination, crop residues, make nitrogen fertilizer in a dose of 20-30 kg/ha, and then create a permanent layer of water, which is supported in the period from may to August.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as a nitrogen fertilizer in the soil contribute, for example, urea.



 

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