Gas turbine combustion chamber

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: gas turbine combustion chamber consists of an outer and inner casings and a flame tube incorporating a front device made as a tapered blade-type swirler with its blades arranged between its inner and outer walls. The said swirler inner and outer walls are furnished with closed interconnected spaces in the blades with their outer edge provided with an open channel communicating with the aforesaid closed space. The swirler outer wall accommodates a bracket with an open space communicating with the aforesaid swirler outer wall space and a flange to be attached to the combustion chamber outer casing flange.

EFFECT: utilisation of pit-shaft petroleum gas by combusting it in the ground gas turbine combustion chamber.

3 dwg

 

The technical FIELD

The invention relates to gas turbine engines, and specifically to the design of combustion chambers for gas turbine engines.

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

It is known device ["Construction and design of aircraft gas turbine engines" edited Dphanna, Moscow, Mashinostroyeniye, 1989, str...423 and RIS], adopted as a prototype - combustion chamber, the flame tubes which are located in the annular space formed by the outer casing of the combustion chamber and the inner wall of the diffuser to the housing of the transmission (the inner casing of the combustion chamber).

On the diffuser part of the outer casing of the combustion chamber are flanges mounting the fuel injector.

Front unit is located in the head of the flame tube and is a tapered vane swirler blades which provide the spin of the air flow.

Nozzle, secured to the corresponding flange of the outer casing, its cylindrical portion is fixed in the axial hole of the swirl head of the flame tube. In this arrangement, the nozzle body clutter the entrance in blade swirl, which leads to non-uniformity of the air flow at the exit of the swirl and increased losses. When using liquid or gaseous fuel with a high specific volumetric heating value of SP is the ability they are insignificant however, when the transition to the gaseous fuel with low calorific value losses increase significantly as the volume flows of the fuel gas and air coming in the front of the device are comparable. This significantly increases the non-uniformity of the temperature field at the exit of the combustion chamber.

DISCLOSURE of INVENTIONS

In the process of coal mine way there is a necessity utilization of coal mine gas generated during the degassing of coal seams. Typically, these gases, along with the combustible hydrocarbon component (˜30%), mainly in the form of methane, contain a large amount of air (70%) and are consequently low calorific value. Currently, the most effective way of utilization of associated gas is used as fuel gas in ground-based gas turbine engines (GTE).

This invention solves the problem of expanding Arsenal of technical means to ensure effective utilization of combustible gas by burning them in the combustion chambers ground power gas turbine engines; the technical result consists in the realization of this purpose.

The essential features characterizing the invention are:

- outer and inner body to the action of combustion,

- flame tubes with front device in the form of a tapered blade swirl,

- vanes between the outer and inner walls of the tapered blade swirl,

- outer and inner walls of the blade swirl have closed cavity,

blades have a cavity and an output edge with an open channel that connects with a cavity in it,

- closed cavity in the outer and inner walls of the vane swirl interconnected cavities in the blades,

- on the outer wall of the swirl made a bracket with an open cavity communicating with a cavity in the outer wall of the swirl, and a flange corresponding to the flange of the outer casing of the combustion chamber.

Salient features:

- outer and inner walls of the blade swirl have closed cavity,

blades have a cavity and an output edge with an open channel that connects with a cavity in it,

- closed cavity in the outer and inner walls of the vane swirl interconnected cavities in the blades,

- on the outer wall of the swirl made a bracket with an open cavity communicating with a cavity in the outer wall of the swirl, and a flange corresponding to the flange of the outer casing of the combustion chamber.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

In the drawings, is provided:

Figure 1 - Structural diagram of the combustion chamber (longitudinal section).

Figure 2 - Structural diagram of the front of the device.

Figure 3 - cross Section of the vanes of the swirl.

The IMPLEMENTATION of the INVENTION

The combustion chamber has an outer 1 and inner 2 housing, heating pipe 3 with the front device in the form of a conical swirl 4.

Cone swirl 4 has outer and inner walls 5 and 6, respectively, connected by blades 7. Outer 5 and 6 internal walls have closed cavity 8 and 9, respectively. These cavities are interconnected cavities 10 in the blades 7. The blades 7 are output edge 11 with an open channel 12 that connects with the cavity 10.

Between the output edges 11 of the blades 7 are the channels 13. On the outer wall 5 of the swirler 4 made the bracket 14 with an open cavity 15, communicating with the cavity 8 in the outer wall 5 of the conical swirl 4, and the flange 16. The bracket 14 is fastened by a flange 16 to the corresponding flange of the outer casing of the combustion chamber.

When the combustion air from the compressor of the CCD is transferred to the input in the combustion chamber. Part of the air through the hole formed outer and inner walls of the blade cone swirl 4, passing between the vanes 7, twists and enters the flame tube 3 of the combustion chamber through the channels 13 between the output edges 11 of the blades .

Fuel gas is input into the cavity 15 of the bracket 14 and enters the cavity 8 and 9, and the cavities 10 and channel 12, the output edges 11 of the blades 7, comes in a twisted form in the heating pipe 3, where it is mixed with air to form an air-fuel mixture burning in the flame tube 3 of the combustion chamber.

This ensures effective utilization of combustible gas by burning them in the combustion chambers of ground-based gas turbine power plants

The combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine, comprising outer and inner casing of the combustion chamber, the flame tubes with front device in the form of a tapered blade swirl with vanes between the outer and inner walls, wherein the outer and inner walls of the blade swirl have closed cavities interconnected by holes in the blades having an output edge with an open channel that connects with the cavity therein, and the outer wall of the swirl made a bracket with an open cavity communicating with a cavity in the outer wall of the swirl, and a flange corresponding to the flange of the outer casing of the combustion chamber.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas turbines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed low-emission combustion chamber of gas turbine operating, mainly, on compressed gas with low effluents of nitrogen oxides and carbon contains prechamber and cylindrical fire tube with air inlet holes arranged over circumference of fire tube. Prechamber consist at least of two modules with space for preliminary mixing of fuel and air. Ration of distance between axes of neighbor modules to inner diameter of fire tube is 0.4-0.5. Ratio of length of preliminary mixing space of each module to diameter of its exit nozzle is 0.6-0.8. Fire tube has fuel-air mixture burning space and space for mixing not gases with air. Fire tube contains solid inner wall and perforated outer envelope with ring channel in between to feed cooling air into mixing space. Ratio of length of burning space to inner diameter of fire tube is 0.9-1.1. Air feed holes are made in mixing space.

EFFECT: reduced emission of harmful substances owing to organization of "rich-lean" burning of fuel by preliminary mixing of fuel with air in prechamber and prevention of delivery of cooling air into burning zone.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: the fuel-air burner refers to heat engineering arrangements.

SUBSTANCE: the fuel-air burner of the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine has a fuel injector, an axle and tangential air swirlers fulfilled in the shape of channels with open butt-ends and blades inside. The fuel-air burner additionally includes a air-inlet-mixer, located between the body of the injector and the input butt-end of the axle swirler. The low along the flow butt-end of the air inlet -mixer is fastened together with the input butt-end of the axle swirler. The upper along the flow butt-end of the air inlet -mixer is made open. The fuel injector is provided with openings of feeding and dispersion of gas fuel located inside the air inlet-mixer before the input edges of the axle swirler.

EFFECT: allows to increase economy, completeness of burning of fuel and reduce ejection of detrimental substances.

2 cl, 1 dwg

The invention relates to gas turbine engines, in particular to the structures of the main combustion chambers

The invention relates to an injector (10) for liquid fuel intended for burners in gas turbines, of the type used inside burners, equipped with a camera (62) pre-mixing element (13) for creating turbulence in the flow of compressed air derived from the compressor of a gas turbine

Afterburning fuel // 2150597

The invention relates to aircraft engine industry, in particular to the combustion chambers of gas turbine engines operating on hydrogen

FIELD: the fuel-air burner refers to heat engineering arrangements.

SUBSTANCE: the fuel-air burner of the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine has a fuel injector, an axle and tangential air swirlers fulfilled in the shape of channels with open butt-ends and blades inside. The fuel-air burner additionally includes a air-inlet-mixer, located between the body of the injector and the input butt-end of the axle swirler. The low along the flow butt-end of the air inlet -mixer is fastened together with the input butt-end of the axle swirler. The upper along the flow butt-end of the air inlet -mixer is made open. The fuel injector is provided with openings of feeding and dispersion of gas fuel located inside the air inlet-mixer before the input edges of the axle swirler.

EFFECT: allows to increase economy, completeness of burning of fuel and reduce ejection of detrimental substances.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas turbines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed low-emission combustion chamber of gas turbine operating, mainly, on compressed gas with low effluents of nitrogen oxides and carbon contains prechamber and cylindrical fire tube with air inlet holes arranged over circumference of fire tube. Prechamber consist at least of two modules with space for preliminary mixing of fuel and air. Ration of distance between axes of neighbor modules to inner diameter of fire tube is 0.4-0.5. Ratio of length of preliminary mixing space of each module to diameter of its exit nozzle is 0.6-0.8. Fire tube has fuel-air mixture burning space and space for mixing not gases with air. Fire tube contains solid inner wall and perforated outer envelope with ring channel in between to feed cooling air into mixing space. Ratio of length of burning space to inner diameter of fire tube is 0.9-1.1. Air feed holes are made in mixing space.

EFFECT: reduced emission of harmful substances owing to organization of "rich-lean" burning of fuel by preliminary mixing of fuel with air in prechamber and prevention of delivery of cooling air into burning zone.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: gas turbine combustion chamber consists of an outer and inner casings and a flame tube incorporating a front device made as a tapered blade-type swirler with its blades arranged between its inner and outer walls. The said swirler inner and outer walls are furnished with closed interconnected spaces in the blades with their outer edge provided with an open channel communicating with the aforesaid closed space. The swirler outer wall accommodates a bracket with an open space communicating with the aforesaid swirler outer wall space and a flange to be attached to the combustion chamber outer casing flange.

EFFECT: utilisation of pit-shaft petroleum gas by combusting it in the ground gas turbine combustion chamber.

3 dwg

FIELD: heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: fuel atomiser (2) for aero-mechanical injection system of air-and-fuel mixture to combustion chamber of turbomachine. Atomiser includes main tubular structure (4) with XX' axis open streamwise on lower end (4a) for supply of air-and-fuel mixture, and tubular fuel pipeline (6). Fuel pipeline is located inside main structure (4) with possibility of interacting with it in order to form annular channel (8) and is open streamwise on lower end to main structure (4) through spraying plug (10) of fuel with possibility of supplying fuel under pressure PC to the main structure. Atomiser also includes at least one air supply channel (12) connected to turbomachine compressor stage and open to annular channel (8) so that air can be supplied under pressure PA to this channel. In addition, fuel atomiser includes tubular gas channel (16) located inside fuel pipeline (6) and having a lot of holes (18) open to the above fuel pipeline for gas to be injected to it under pressure PG in order to create foaming of the fuel introduced to main structure (4). Pressure PG exceeds pressure PA and exceeds pressure PC. Holes (18) of gas channel (16) are located at least in one transverse plane and open to fuel pipeline (6) through spraying plug (10) of fuel. The above fuel atomiser can be a part of aero-mechanical injection system of air-and-fuel mixture to turbomachine combustion chamber the centre of which is located on YY' axis of injection system, which, in addition, includes air injecting device located downstream the fuel atomiser.

EFFECT: invention allows minimising hazardous emissions owing to decrease of time characteristics of fuel spraying and its evaporation at all operating speeds of turbomachine.

14 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: air-and-fuel burner of combustion chamber of gas turbine engine includes fuel-spray nozzle made in the form of body with fuel supply and spray holes, air flow stabiliser, axial and tangential air swirlers equipped with confuser-diffuser nozzles with inner and outer path walls. Annular cavity is located between walls of axial swirler nozzle and outer path wall of the nozzle of tangential swirler. Perforation is made on diffuser part of the nozzle of axial swirler.

EFFECT: improving reliability of combustion chamber and increasing fuel economy of gas turbine engine at decreasing soot emission in exhaust gases, decrease of smoking and avoiding soot deposition on the burner surface owing to depletion of air-and-fuel mixture in local areas of the burner.

1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: pylon includes front and rear bodies of aerofoil section. Pylon bodies are tubular. Pylon includes at least two tubes located one after the other with rounded front edge. One end of tube is fixed on combustion chamber wall through the support, and free ends of tubes are plugged. Tubes are inclined to axis of chamber at sweep angle. Pylon also includes fuel supply system to combustion chamber. Air and fuel is supplied to combustion chamber during the start. At subsonic and supersonic air flow velocities the temperature of the air coming onto the pylon increases over self-ignition temperature of fuel-air medium. It leads to fuel-air mixture ignition.

EFFECT: simpler pylon design, providing fuel supply, mixture formation, ignition and combustion of fuel-air mixture throughout the front of combustion chamber in cruising mode of engine operation.

2 cl, 2 dwg

Afterburner chamber // 2447364

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: afterburner chamber of combined-cycle plant is installed in transitional gas flue connecting gas turbine exhaust with waste heat boiler. Chamber contains several orders of flame tube heads of diffusion stabilising type, including angle stabilisers or gas collectors with fuel feed spray injectors located inside them. Flame tube heads are assembled of modules on top of which there are transversal angle bars inclined to output side spaced with pitch equal to distance between burner units. Transversal angle bars have shot fuel collectors in-between, which are connected with main collector. Flame tube heads arranged along the chamber length. Burner unit is the first unit installed upstream in the centre of afterburner chamber; it should be switched on first of all at start-up.

EFFECT: provision of temperature field uniformity before heat exchanger within all range of loads, reduction of hydraulic losses in gas flue, reduction of labour and installation content.

3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: flame stabiliser for augmenter of bypass turbojet including first and second circular inner circuits 3, 5. Primary flow passage 4 is arranged there between. Outer circular circuit 2 and first inner circular circuit 3 makes passage 1 for secondary flow. Besides, it comprises at least one support of strut 8 made from metal for attachment to said outer circular circuit 2 by top plate 9 and at least one flame stabiliser strut 7. Said flame stabiliser strut 7 features monoblock structure of composite and is composed of two rigidly interconnected walls 28a, 28b arranged to make a neck with V-shape profile. Top parts 31a, 31b of said walls located in secondary flow have means 34a, 34b for attachment to strut support 8. Top parts 31a, 31b of said walls are flat and opposed.

EFFECT: perfected design.

17 cl, 7 dwg

Reheat burner // 2550294

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power industry. Reheat burner (1) includes channel (2) with pipe (3), located in channel with possibility of fuel injection in plane (4), perpendicular to longitudinal axis (15) of the channel; the end (14) of pipe (3) is located downstream before high speeds area (16), and swirlers (7) protrude from each of the channels walls; channel (2) has side walls (10) and upper and lower walls (11) and it has rectangular, square or trapezoid section; channel (2) and pipe (3) restrict eddy formation area (6) in direction of hot gases (G) flow before plane (4) of injection, and area (9) of mixing after plane (4) of injection; area (9) of mixing includes high speeds area (16) with constant cross-section and slowdown area (17) with expanding cross-section, this area being located after the previous one in direction of hot gases (G) flow; and burner in high speeds area (16) of area (9) of mixing has smallest cross-section. Width (w) and height (h) of slowdown area (17) increase in direction of burner outlet (19). Inner wall (20) of slowdown area (17) has a protrusion (21), forming a section in which hot gases separate from inner wall (20) in slowdown area. Protrusion (21) is located in a circumferential direction on inner wall (20) of slowdown area. Eddy formation area (6) has at least one section in which its width (w) and height (h) increase in direction of burner outlet (19).

EFFECT: invention provides prevention of backflash in burner, reduction of NOx and CO atmospheric emissions.

6 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: energy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering. Slot-type injector-vortex generator installed in the channel along the direction of high-energy gas flow. Wherein said flat slot-type channel of the injector is made with a diagonal cut at the output and is installed so that the slot forms an acute angle with the direction of incoming high-energy flow. Value of slot angle is selected based on the intensity of mixing of gas flows and uniform filling of flow with injected gas. Also disclosed is a method of operation of slot-type injector.

EFFECT: invention allows to intensify processes of mixing, ignition and combustion of fuel-air mixtures in combustion chambers of ramjet engines and other installations with interconnecting piperack.

2 cl, 2 dwg

Up!