Elevation-time doppler method of determination of spacecraft in distress coordinates

FIELD: space engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in that, on receiving the spacecraft in distress alarm signal, the Doppler frequency of the signal above is measured by an interrogatorless method to locate the spacecraft at the moment when the said frequency equals zero. At this very moment, the angle between the spacecraft receiving antenna axis and that of the horizon pickup is measured to calculate the coordinates of the point below the satellite. The aforesaid measurements are made two times and the coordinates of the points below the satellites along the measured angles allow determining the coordinates of the spacecraft in distress on the Earth surface. To measure the Doppler frequency, two signal processing channels are used wherein the received signal frequency is converted using the onboard master oscillator. In the first processing channel, the oscillator voltage is phase-shifted by 90°, the frequency difference voltages are isolated, amplified and amplitude limited to be converted into rectangular clipped voltages. The first channel voltages of this type are converted into a series of short positive pulses with their time position corresponding to the moments of the voltage passing through the zero level with a positive derivative. Adjacent clipped positive voltages of the second channel are inverted in phase by 180° and quantised by the said short positive pulses of the first channel. The quantised pulses digital form allows determining the Doppler frequency. Given its zero value, corresponding to the spacecraft passing through the beam point, the control pulse is generated to allow the further processing of the received signal.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of measuring minor values of the Doppler frequency and fixation of its zero value.

3 dwg

 

The proposed method belongs to the space technology and can be used on space vehicles, stabilized by rotation and being on the orbit of an artificial Earth satellite below geostationary.

Known methods and systems of determining the coordinates of the emergency object (patent RU 2155352 C1, EN 2158003 C1, EN 2040860 C1, EN 259423 C1, EN 2174092 C2, and US 4161730 A, US 4646090 A, US 4947177 AND; SCUBA R.A. and other Companion at the helm. - Leningrad: Sudostroenie, 1989. - 168 C. and others).

Known methods closest to the proposed elevation is time-Doppler method for determining coordinates of the emergency object described in patent RU 2174092 C2.

The known method makes it possible to determine the coordinates of the emergency site, to reduce the time of search, to increase the area of the viewing surface of the Earth due to the scanning of the receiving beam, to increase the ratio of signal to noise in the reception of the radio link by using receiving antennas with a narrow radiation pattern.

While at the emergency object is a transmitter of signals having a high frequency stability. On Board the spacecraft (SC) is a measuring device, having in its composition a highly stable frequency standard, a frequency of which is equal to the frequency of the emergency transmitter or differs from it by simply is a fixed value. Comparison of the frequency of the received oscillations with a frequency reference allows you to set the value of the Doppler frequency offset and determine the radial velocity.

However, it is necessary to provide very high frequency stability of the transmitter and the reference generator.

Really, only to notice the Doppler change in frequency that occurs when the motion of the SPACECRAFT with velocity V, it is necessary to provide a relative frequency instability of the radiated oscillations of not lower than

where C is the speed of propagation of radio waves.

Provided that V=8 km/s, have

If you want not only to see the Doppler shift of the frequency, but also to measure the velocity modulus with error ΔV, the frequency instability should be significantly reduced, namely, at least in the (V/Δ (V) times.

General instability frequency of the radiated oscillations δ must be

Thus, for measuring small values of the Doppler frequency Fdand fixing its zero value when passing KA points abaft the beam frequency stability of the transmitter of the emergency object must be very high. This circumstance is a disadvantage of the known system and the obstacle is and the way extensive use of no-request method of measuring the Doppler frequency.

An object of the invention is to improve the accuracy of measuring small values of the Doppler frequency and record its zero value by pre-reduction of the frequency of the received oscillations using heterogenerous two channels of processing.

The problem is solved in that in the proposed method of determining the coordinates of the emergency object placed on the surface of the Earth, with the SPACECRAFT stabilized by rotation along the vertical axis, namely, that when the signal transmitter of the emergency object is displayed with KA band on the Earth's surface measured Doppler frequency no-request method, find the spatial location of the SPACECRAFT at the time when the Doppler frequency of the received signal is equal to zero, measure at this point in time, the angle between the mechanical axis of the reception antenna of the SPACECRAFT and the axis of the horizon sensor with reference measurements to the on-Board time, compute the coordinates of the sub-satellite point at the time specified dimension when this measurement is carried out twice and the coordinates of the two ground points and two measured angles between the mechanical axis of the reception antenna of the SPACECRAFT and the axis of the horizon sensor to determine the location of the emergency object on the Earth's surface, unlike the prototype for measuring Doppler frequency specified no-request methodology is to use two channels of signal processing, in which the received signal transform for the frequency using the on-Board oscillator, and in the first processing channel voltage oscillator shift the phase by 90°allocate the voltage difference frequency, amplify and limit their amplitude transform in the clipped voltage of rectangular form, clipped voltage of the first channel processing is converted into a sequence of short positive pulses, the temporal position of which correspond to the points of transition of the voltage through zero with a positive derivative, and clipped the voltage of the second channel processing invert the phase by 180°specified short positive pulses quantuum positive neighboring clipped voltage of the second channel processing, compares them with each other and automatically in digital form, determine the magnitude of the Doppler frequency and its sign at the zero value of the Doppler frequency corresponding to the passage of the spacecraft points abaft the beam, forming a control pulse to permit further processing of the received signal.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where:

in figure 1, figure 2 shows the geometric layout of the SPACECRAFT and two ground points;

figure 3 shows the structure of the system, d is lesuuda the proposed method.

The proposed system contains a transmitter 20 of the emergency site, the spacecraft, the axis of rotation of which is rejected from the local vertical, consisting of a body 1, a pulsed infrared horizon sensor 2 placed on the same axis opposite the receiving antenna 3, the mechanical axis which does not coincide with the axis of rotation of the SPACECRAFT and on-Board equipment containing sequentially connected to the reception antenna 3, the receiving device 5, a second input connected to the first output of the oscillator 19, 6 meter Doppler frequency, a second input connected to the second output of the oscillator 19, the device 4 comparison, the blocking generator 7 the first scheme And 8, the second input of which is connected to a second output of the receiving device 5, the second scheme And 9, the second input of which is connected to the second output of the blocking oscillator 7, the first valve 10, the second input is through the counter 13 pulses connected to the outputs pulsed infrared sensor 2 horizon and pulse generator 12, the circuit 14 of the switching, the storage device 15, a transmitter 16, a second input connected to the second output of the circuit 14 switching, and transmitting antenna 17, while the third output of the oscillator 19 are connected in series temporary the device 18 and the second valve 11, a second input connected with the second vyhoda the second circuit "And" 9, and the output connected to the input circuit 14 of the switching. The 6 meter Doppler frequency shift is made in the form of two processing channels, each of which consists of sequentially connected to the first output of the receiving device 5 of the mixer 22(23), amplifier 24(25) of the difference frequency and the amplifier-limiter 26(27). The second input of the first mixer 22 is connected with the second output of oscillator 19 through the phase shifter 21 90°and the second input of the second mixer 23 is directly to the output of the first amplifier-limiter 26 connected in series shaper 28 pulses, the third circuit "And" 30, a second input connected to the output of the second amplifier-limiter 27, and a summing input of reversible counter 32, the output of which is connected to the input device 4 of the comparison, the output of the second amplifier-limiter 27 serially connected inverter 29 180° and the fourth circuit And 31, the second input of which is connected to the output of the shaper 28 pulses, and the output is connected to a subtractive input of the reversible counter 32.

The proposed system works as follows.

The translational motion of the SPACECRAFT in its orbit is carried out with a linear velocity V. Small segment of the orbit close to the point And the beam will assume a straight line. The axis of rotation KA rejected from the local vertical, it does not coincide with the mechanical is coy axis of the receiving antenna 3. Pulse transmitter 2 horizon placed on the same axis opposite to the reception antenna 3 (1, 2).

The translational motion of the SPACECRAFT, the axis of rotation of which is rejected from the local vertical, moves the scan line pattern of the receiving antenna 3 and consistent view of the strip on the surface of the Earth along the orbit of the spacecraft. The rotation frequency of the AC is selected from the viewing conditions of the Earth's surface without a badge. Receiving antenna 3 is chosen such that the axis of the beam coincides with the mechanical axis of the antenna. To disambiguate the mechanical axis of the receiving antenna 3 spacecraft is shifted relative to the axis of rotation at an angle βequal to the width of the directional receiving antenna 3 (1, 2).

When the signal

uc(t)=Uccos(ωct+ϕc), 0≤t≤Tc,

where Ucthat ωcthat ϕc, Tc- amplitude, carrier frequency, initial phase, and the duration of the signal transmitter 20 of the emergency object in the viewed band on the surface of the Earth it is from the output of the receiver 5 is supplied to the first input of the mixers 22 and 23 meter 6 Doppler frequency, to the second input of which is supplied the voltage of the onboard oscillator 19 through the phase shifter 21 90° and directly meet the but:

UG1(t)=UG·sin(ωGt+ϕG),

UT2(t)=UG·cos(ωgt+ϕG),

where UGthat ωGthat ϕGthe amplitude, frequency and initial phase of the voltage reference generator 19.

At the output of the mixers 22 and 23 are formed voltage Raman frequencies. Amplifiers 24 and 25 are voltage difference frequency, i.e. the frequency detuning (frequency beating):

up1(t)=Up·sin(ωpt+ϕp),

up2(t)=Up·cos(ωpt+ϕp)

where;

K1- gain mixers;

ωpcG- intermediate frequency;

ϕpwithG,

coming to the inputs of limiting amplifiers 26 and 27, respectively. If the frequency ωwiththe received signal is above the frequency ωGmaster oscillator 19, the voltage difference frequency up1(t) and up2(t)emitted from the amplifiers 24 and 25 of the difference frequency will be shifted relative to each other to +90°, otherwise -90°. Therefore, a phase shift of the difference frequency ωpjumps up to 180 (with the change of sign of the detuning.

Measurement of the difference frequency ωpis electron-counting what Ecodom. For this voltage difference frequency up1(t) and up2(t) is converted with the help of limiting amplifiers 26 and 27 in the clipped voltage of rectangular shape. Moreover, the voltage of the rectangular shape from the output of the amplifier-limiter 26 using the shaper 28 pulses is converted into a sequence of short positive pulses, the temporal position of which correspond to the points of transition of the voltage through zero with a positive derivative. The voltage of the rectangular shape from the output of the amplifier-limiter 27 is inverted in phase by 180° with the help of the inverter 29.

The short positive pulses from the output of the shaper 28 pulses arrive at the input schema matching "And" 30 "and" 31, the second input of which is supplied a voltage of rectangular shape with the output of the amplifier-limiter 27. Short positive pulses appear at the output of the pattern match "And" 30 "and" 31, the second input of which is supplied a voltage of rectangular shape with the output of the amplifier-limiter 27.

Short positive pulses appear at the output of the circuit "And" 30 and 31, at the entrance of which the moments of occurrence of short positive pulses coincide with the positive rectangular voltage, and their number will be determined by the frequency detuning ωp . Indications reversible counter 32 will correspond to the size and sign of the detuning (Doppler frequency).

Thus, the 6 meter Doppler frequency allows to automatically determine not only the magnitude of the Doppler frequency, but also its sign.

The advantage of this meter is a high accuracy of measurement and presentation of measurement results in binary code.

When reaching the Doppler frequency value of zero, the mechanical axis of the receiving antenna 3 is located at the point of beam. At this point, the device 4 comparison of the generated impulse control to permit further processing of the received signal. At the same time measured the angle between the axis of the sensor 2 of the horizon and the position of the mechanical axis of the receiving antenna 3 (angle α). Measurements are linked to the onboard time device 18 and stored in the magnetic storage device 15 or transmitted via the transmitter 16 on the surface receiving the item. To determine the coordinates of the emergency object you want to measure the angle α and calculating the coordinates of ground point. The coordinates of the two ground points and two measured angles α1and α2is uniquely determined by the location of the emergency object.

Calculating the coordinates of the emergency object may on Board the SPACECRAFT is in case of on-Board digital computing machine or on the surface receiving the item.

In the initial state before getting signal from the transmitter 20 of the emergency object in the directivity pattern of the receiving antenna 3 at the output of receiver 5 no signal. The output schema matching "And" 8 - zero. Schema matching And 9 is closed, it outputs zero. Pulse or infrared sensor 2 horizon at the moment of crossing the track of the spacecraft produces a pulse which resets the counter to zero 13 pulses. From generator 12 pulses pulses are received by the counter 13. Schema matching And 9 is closed, the valves 10, 11 are closed.

When the signal from the transmitter 20 of the emergency object in the band of the earth's surface that is viewed by the directivity of the receiving antenna 3, a signal at the output of the receiver 5. The output schema matching "And" 8 - unit. Upon reaching the values of the Doppler frequency at the output of the meter 6, is equal to zero, opens the device 4 comparison that generates a control pulse. Recent launches inhibited the blocking generator 7, the outputs of schema matching And 9, you receive the unit. Open the valves 10, 11. Information about the angle α (the number of pulses stored in the counter 13 pulses) and the measurement time is recorded through the circuit 14 switching on a magnetic storage device 15.

In the reception area ground control station spacecraft the information is dropped from a magnetic storage device 15 through the transmitter 16 and the transmitting antenna 17.

When the trigger pulse of the sensor 2 of the horizon system is returned to its original state.

The sequence of the above operations allow us to determine the coordinates of the emergency site, to reduce the time of search, to increase the area of the viewing surface of the Earth due to the scanning of the receiving beam, to increase the ratio signal/noise radio reception through the use of receiving antennas with a narrow radiation pattern.

Thus, the proposed method in comparison with the prototype and other technical solutions for a similar purpose, to improve the accuracy of measuring small values of the Doppler frequency and the fixation of its zero value. This is achieved by pre-reduction of the frequency of the received oscillations using heterogenerous two channels of processing. The advantage of the proposed method is also the representation of the result of measurement in binary code.

In relation to the system that implements the proposed method, there are no specific, stringent requirements for stability of the carrier frequency ωwithsignals radiated by the transmitter of the emergency object. This is a significant advantage.

Elevation time-Doppler method for determining coordinates of accidents is on the object, located on the surface of the Earth, with the spacecraft stabilized by rotation along the vertical axis, namely, that when the signal transmitter of the emergency object is displayed with a spacecraft strip on the surface of the Earth measured Doppler frequency no-request method, find the spatial location of the spacecraft at the time when the Doppler frequency of the received signal is equal to zero, measure at this point in time, the angle between the mechanical axis of the receiving antenna of the spacecraft and the axis of the horizon sensor with reference measurements to the on-Board time, compute the coordinates of the sub-satellite point at the time specified dimension, and the measurement is carried out twice and the coordinates of two ground points and two measured angles between the mechanical axis of the receiving antenna of the spacecraft and the axis of the horizon sensor to determine the location of the emergency object on the Earth's surface, characterized in that for measuring the Doppler frequency specified no-request method uses two channels of signal processing in which the received signal transform for the frequency using the on-Board oscillator, and in the first processing channel voltage oscillator shift the phase by 90°allocate voltage differential h is the frequency, amplify and limit their amplitude transform in the clipped voltage of rectangular form, clipped voltage of the first channel processing is converted into a sequence of short positive pulses, the temporal position of which correspond to the points of transition of the voltage through zero with a positive derivative, and clipped the voltage of the second channel processing invert the phase by 180°specified short positive pulses quantuum positive neighboring clipped voltage of the second channel processing, compares them with each other and automatically in digital form, determine the magnitude of the Doppler frequency and its sign at the zero value of the Doppler frequency corresponding to the passage of the spacecraft points abaft the beam, form impulse control to permit further processing of the received signal.



 

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EFFECT: saving of working medium; enhanced operational safety of cargo spacecraft.

FIELD: rocketry and space engineering; scientific and commercial fields.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes placing payloads on injection facility, launching the launch vehicle, separation of injection facility from launch vehicle and injection of injection facility into geocentric orbit where said payloads are separated from injection facility. Main payload is placed on injection facility directly of body of accompanying payload; this body combines its functions with functions of main load-bearing member of adapter system for placing the main payload. After separation of injection facility from launch vehicle, additional acceleration of injection facility is performed and injection facility is injected into reference orbit and then it is shifted to geocentric orbit where main and accompanying payloads are separated. Accompanying payload is separated from injection facility after main payload is at safe distance without waiting for complete turn of main payload. Spacecraft in facility injecting the artificial satellites into geocentric orbit are placed in succession on injection facility beginning with lower one. Main payload in form of one or several spacecraft is placed on body of lower spacecraft through separation device. Body of lower spacecraft combines its functions with functions of adapter load-bearing member for placing the main payload.

EFFECT: increased mass ratio of launch vehicle and injection facility; extended functional capabilities.

3 cl, 2 dwg

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