Method and facuility for thermal processing of hihc-ash and low-calorig solid fuel

FIELD: processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method and facility for thermal processing of high-ash and low-calorie solid fuels and may be used in coal-processing, oil and chemical, shale-processing industries. Solid fuel is supplied to facility and is milled there. After that, fuel is dried and supplied to preliminary preparation chamber for gross raw material to be subjected to pyrolysis. Tar oil or bitumen and black oil fuel in liquid state are supplied to the same chamber through oil waste preparation units. Tar oil, bitumen and black oil fuel are sprayed to the surface of dried milled fuel. Part of high-sulfur wastes are supplied to process boiling bed furnace to neutral or oxidising zone with temperature 600-750°C. Other part of sulfur-free wastes are supplied to restoration zone of boiling bed reactor where pyrolysis takes place at 400-500°C. Generated steam and gas mixture is cleaned and condensed with the production of valuable liquid and gas products. Solid carbonic residue - semi-coke is incinerated in process furnace where solid coolant is produced. Excess of semi-coke are discharged for further use as raw material.

EFFECT: utilisation of liquid hydrocarbon wastes in high-ash low-calorie solid fuel processing in boiling bed with solid coolant and increase of liquid and gas hydrocarbons output.

5 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to methods and systems for thermal processing of high-ash and low-calorie solid fuels, such as oil shale and brown coal, and can be used in processing and petrochemical industries, as well as in energy when energy technology using low-grade fuels in power plants.

The known method and thermal processing high-ash and low-calorie solid fuels, in which the solid carrier is used residues from combustion of coal char pyrolysis process.

Thus, the known method of thermal processing of brown coal, comprising grinding and drying coal, its pyrolysis of solid heat carrier with getting vapor-gas mixture and solid carbon residue. Gas-vapor mixture purify and condense on fractions of liquid products. The solid carbon residue burned receipt of the coolant returned to the stage of pyrolysis (see Aientura, Aeeopau "fundamentals of energy technology installations power plants. M., High school, 1986, s-194).

There is a method for thermal processing of oil shale, including drying and pyrolysis, carried out using a circulating solid carrier with the formation of steam and gas products and coke-ash residue, burning after which it with the formation of two-phase ow, the separation of the latter on the circulating solid coolant returned to the stage of pyrolysis, and gaseous drying agent (see RF Patent №2118979, publ. 20.09.98, CL SW 52/06, SW 49/18).

The disadvantage of these methods is insufficient yield of valuable liquid and gaseous fractions as feedstock use only low-grade fuels.

The closest technical solution relating to the method is a method of thermal processing high-ash and low-calorie solid fuel solid organic waste (see RF Patent 2117688 from 20.08.98, CL SW 53/06).

The known method includes adding shredded waste (solids tires, soil contaminated with hydrocarbon compounds) in fine-grained shale, the mixture is dried and heated to 470-500°With solid heat carrier without access of air. The obtained gas-vapor mixture purify and condense in obtaining valuable liquid fractions. Solid carbonaceous residue is burned and the ashes returned to the step of heating as a solid carrier.

The closest technical solution relating to the installation is to install for thermal processing of oil shale and solid heat carrier (see RF Patent 2182588 from 20.05.02, CL SW 53/06).

Known installation has consistently established medium spans the VA for grinding slate, Aeroporto dryer, camera preliminary preparation piraliyeva raw materials (mixer), the pyrolysis reactor and process the furnace, equipped with a cyclone solid carrier. The pyrolysis reactor is connected to the cleaning systems and condensation of vapor-gas mixture. Luggage preliminary preparation piraliyeva raw material provided with a means to input solid fuel and socket for input solid carrier connected to the cyclone solid carrier.

The disadvantage of the above method and installation is that they provide thermal treatment only solid raw materials (shale lignite, crushed tires, soils). Solid waste is served in the original fuel prior to its drying. The supply of liquid hydrocarbon wastes under the scheme is excluded, as in the drying process is possible premature thermolysis, sintering with the original fuel and the possible loss of part of the hydrocarbons after drying with combustion gases.

The present invention is aimed at providing the possibility of thermal processing at facilities for high-ash pyrolysis and low-calorie solid fuels with solid heat carrier liquid hydrocarbon waste. This increases the output of valuable hydrocarbon products by an additional pyrolysis of natural bitumens, tars and waste oil. Ensuring the is the elimination of waste, graves and reduced costs associated with the construction of traditional incinerators or recycling of such waste.

In addition, binding of sulfur as through free of calcium oxide contained in the mineral residue - ash oil shale, and supply additional calcium oxide in stoichiometric ratio. Thus resolves the problems of environmental protection.

To achieve the above solid technical results of high-ash and low-calorie fuel is crushed, dried, liquid heavy oil waste is sprayed on the dried solid fuel or served in neutral zone technology firebox 700° or the reduction zone of the reactor 400-500°, in the prepared raw material is introduced from the process furnace of the fluidized bed of solid heat carrier for heating it in a fluidized-bed reactor to a temperature of pyrolysis and receive the flow of gas mixture and solid carbon residue, gas-vapor mixture purify and condense in obtaining valuable liquid and gaseous products, the solid carbon residue is burned with a mixture of solid carrier with smoke gases separated flue gases from solid carrier - char and return it to the heating of the fuel, the excess carbon is removed from furnace technology for future use.

the quality of liquid hydrocarbons, which is subjected to further processing, using, for example, aromatic, naphthene, paraffin and other hydrocarbons with a boiling temperature above 300-480°C and above.

As the heavy oil waste use of natural bitumen heated to 60-70°With, with the addition of a solvent and applied to the dispersion in an amount up to 10-50 wt.% from recycled fuel, tar, heated to 30-50°With, with the addition of a solvent and applied to the dispersion in an amount up to 10-40 wt.% from recycled fuel, liquid heavy oil residues with the addition of the solvent supplied to the dispersion in an amount up to 50 wt.% from the processed fuel.

To achieve the tasks set for thermal processing of high-ash and low-calorie solid fuels contains a device for grinding of solid fuels, dryer, camera preliminary preparation piraliyeva raw material, provided with a means to input solid fuel, is connected to the dryer, and connection to the pyrolysis reactor, connected to the cleaning systems and condensation of vapor-gas mixture and to the output of the camera preliminary preparation piraliyeva raw materials, production furnace that is connected to the pyrolysis reactor two U-shaped pipes for input and output of coke and solid carrier, connected to the trubku to output the solid carrier from the process furnace, and nozzles with nozzles feed in the processing furnace and the reactor piraliyeva raw materials, and process units of heavy oil residues, and Luggage preliminary preparation piraliyeva raw material is supplied by a nozzle connected with technological units of heavy oil residues and located so that additional materials were received on the layer of dried fuel. Part of the prepared liquid waste serves in a neutral or oxidizing zone furnace technology or recovery zone of the reactor.

The drawing shows the setup diagram that implements the proposed method.

Installation, operating under the scheme thermocontact coking coal (TCCU)contains a device for grinding with 1 hopper 2 raw fuel and capacity 3 finely dispersed calcium oxide (Cao), United with the dryer 4. Luggage preliminary preparation piraliyeva raw material 5 provided with a means to input solid fuel 6 connected to the dryer 4 via the cyclone 7. It also contains nozzles for liquid waste 8 and nozzles located so that liquid waste was dried on solid fuel 6. Technological preparation units waste oil tars and bitumens 10 and 11 are connected to the nozzle chamber prior preparation piraliyeva the materials is 5, technological furnace 18 and the reactor 12. The pyrolysis reactor 12 is connected to the output of the camera preliminary preparation piraliyeva raw material 5 and the cleaning system 13, which are connected to the condensation of vapor-gas mixture. The latter contains the scrubber 14, the condensers 15, distillation column 16 and the separator 17. Technological furnace - carsonariel fluidized bed 18 is connected to the pyrolysis reactor fluidized bed 12 of the U-shaped pipes 9 and is equipped with a cyclone char 19, which is connected to the pipe 8 process furnace.

In the processing furnace serves high petroleum waste pyrolysis and afterburners to remove and binding of sulfur.

The device operates as follows. Fuel (brown coal) and calcium oxide (if necessary) from the hopper 2 and the tank 3 serves in a device for grinding 1. Then the crushed raw material is fed to the dryer 4, for example aerofoto the dryer where it is dried up to 110-130°With flue gases. In the cyclone 7 from the solid phase is separated flue gases and the dried fuel is directed through the input tool solid fuel 6 (screw) in the camera prior preparation piraliyeva raw material 5. After cyclone 7 flue gases through the precipitator is released into the atmosphere. Through technological preparation units waste oil 10 and 11 in the camera preview on the cooking piraliyeva raw materials 5 serves in a liquid state tar, or bitumen, or heavy oil residues, which is sprayed on the surface of the solid fuel through the injectors, some sour liquid waste is served at 18, neurostream 12. From the process furnace 18 through the cyclone 19 and the pipe 8, the flue gases are directed to flow divider 20, where the flue gas enters the dryer 4, and part for recycling. Excess coke is removed from 18, 19 for further use as raw materials (production of sorbents, briquettes and the like). From the chamber prior preparation piraliyeva raw materials 5 the mixture is fed to the pyrolysis reactor 12, where the pyrolysis is carried out at 400-500°with the formation of the vapor-gas mixture and carbon residue. Gas-vapor mixture is cleaned in the dust precipitation chamber cleaning system 13 and is fed to the condensing system through the scrubber 14, the condensers 15 and distillation column 16 and the separator 17. The heavy fraction is withdrawn from scrubber 14. Typically, the heavy fraction is used for road construction, sleepers impregnation, cooking nerezine" drug securing the slopes of embankments, etc.

Medium and light fraction is withdrawn from the distillation column 16. After distillation column 16, the gas-vapor mixture from the vapor light fraction, a middle fraction, a gasoline fraction, semi-coke gas and vapor paragenetically water, through the con is ensator sent to the separator 17, where partially produce a gasoline fraction and a gas semi-coking. Part of the gasoline fraction is sent for irrigation in the refrigerating condenser 15. The solid carbon residue - char from the pyrolysis reactor 12 is directed into the process furnace 18, where the temperature reaches 700-750°C. Technological furnace 18 operates in a fluidized bed mode (fluidized bed). It is a partial ignition of the solid carbon residue with getting solid carrier and excess coke and flue gas. The resulting mixture was fed into the cyclone 19, which emit excessive coke and the hot flue gas is sent to the dryer 4. Part of the flue gas is disposed. Excess coke is removed from 18 and 19 as raw material for further use.

Before serving in the chamber 5, or 12, or 18 bitumen, tar and heavy oil residues them are prepared in the technological preparation units 10 and 11. Technological unit 10 is designed for the preparation of bitumen and tar. Heated to 60-70°With the bitumen is mixed with solvent and team capacity is directed into the chamber 5. As a solvent for heavy waste used oil gasoline boot or gas for industrial purposes. For tar solvent can be added in stoichiometric ratios of additive to neutralize sulfur. The tar is heated to 30-50&#HWS and served in the camera 5.

Technological unit 11 is used for treatment of heavy petroleum residues, including sulfur. The solvent with the addition of chemical components, neutralizing sulfur, such as finely dispersed calcium oxide, and heavy oil residues direct the team in the tank, where the pump is fed into the chamber 5.

An example of the method

To the dried brown coal in the amount of 300 t/h with the following characteristics: WR=32.2 per cent; Awith=5,8%; Vg=48%; Sg=0,3%; Withg=71%; Ng=4,9%;g=32.2 per cent; Ng=0,7%; Qph=3866 kcal/kg type heavy oil residues in the amount of 60 t/h, containing sulfur, and solid heat carrier in the amount of 450 t/h with a temperature of 750°C. In heavy oil residues pre-enter 15 wt.% solvent and dispersed calcium oxide. The resulting mixture was fed into the pyrolysis reactor 12. In pyrolysis, the yield of liquid products (resin) increased from 2.98 to 9-10% and gaseous products to 0.44 kg/kg of coal. When the sulfur content in liquid products is reduced to 0.1%, and in gaseous - up to 0.005%.

1. The method of thermal processing high-ash and low-calorie solid fuels, such as oil shale and brown coal, including crushing, drying, pyrolysis of solid heat carrier in a fluidized bed reactor together with the hydrocarbon waste with obtaining pairs of the gas mixture and solid carbon residue, cleaning and condensation of vapor-gas mixture in obtaining valuable liquid and gaseous products, combustion in the processing furnace with a fluidized bed of solid carbon residue with formation of a mixture of solid carrier with the combustion gases and the separation from the solid carrier flue gas, characterized in that as the use of hydrocarbon waste liquid hydrocarbons and heavy waste oil, which is sprayed on the dried solid fuel, in the prepared raw material is introduced solid heat carrier for heating it to a temperature of pyrolysis, and in the case of use as a heavy oil wastes liquid wastes not containing sulfur, they are served in the reducing zone of the fluidized-bed reactor at pyrolysis in an amount up to 50%, and in the case of use as a heavy oil waste sour oil residue in an amount up to 50% of their serves in a neutral or oxidizing zone of the process furnace of the fluidized bed, where the temperature of 600-750°C, pyrolysis or afterburners and sulfur binding with calcium oxide, additionally supplied to the grinding stage together with the solid fuel.

2. The method according to claim 1 characterized in that the heavy oil waste use of natural bitumen heated to 60-70°With, with the addition of a solvent and applied to the dispersion in the number d is 10-50 wt.% from the processed solid fuel.

3. The method according to claim 1 characterized in that the heavy oil waste use tar heated to 30-50°With, with the addition of a solvent and applied to the dispersion in an amount up to 10-40 wt.% from the processed solid fuel.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the heavy oil waste use heavy oil residues with the addition of the solvent supplied to the dispersion in an amount up to 50 wt.% from the processed solid fuel.

5. Installation for thermal processing of low-calorie high-ash solid fuels containing device for grinding raw fuel, dryer, camera preliminary preparation piraliyeva raw material, provided with a means to input solid fuel, is connected to the dryer, and the pipe to enter the solid carrier from the process furnace in the reactor of pyrolysis fluidized bed, is connected to the output of the camera preliminary preparation piraliyeva raw materials and water and the condensation of vapor-gas mixture, and a processing furnace of a fluidized bed, connected to the pyrolysis reactor and equipped with a cyclone solids - char, connected to the pipe to enter the gas coolant chamber in the dryer prior preparation source piraliyeva fuel, characterized in that the installation of additional content the it technology nodes of heavy oil waste and the camera preliminary preparation piraliyeva raw material, the pyrolysis reactor and furnace technology has jets, coupled with technological units of heavy oil wastes, injector, feed high-sulfur heavy oil residues, connected with technological combustion chamber and nozzle, feed sweet crude oil residues, connected to the camera preparing the raw materials and the reactor.



 

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1 tbl, 1 ex

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1 note, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

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6 cl, 22 ex, 1 tbl

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15 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

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