Controlled combustion hybrid engine
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: external combustion Stirling engine and electric generator are fitted on one shaft with the internal combustion engine (ICE). Every ICE cylinder is provided with a magnetic field source arranged in the upper part of the former and made in the form of an annular electromagnet built in the cylinder wall, or as several radial electromagnets. The Stirling engine working cylinder is enclosed in a housing with its inner space communicating with the ICE exhaust system, the electric generator being wired to the magnetic field source.
EFFECT: lower toxicity of exhaust and fuller combustion of fuel.
The invention relates to the field of engineering, more specifically to hybrid internal combustion engines (ice), linked with the Stirling engine.
The problem of reducing the toxicity of exhaust gases is directly related to the efficiency of combustion of fuel-air mixture (FA) in the combustion chambers of the engine. Improving the degree of combustion of the fuel assemblies through the intensification of work of the engine will reduce the toxicity of waste exhaust gases and will improve the purity of the atmospheric air. Stirling engines have extremely good performance in terms of emissions of toxic substances into the atmosphere, but their low permeability makes them unsuitable for road transport.
There are various ways of intensification of internal combustion engines, the essence of which is reduced to the adjustment of the working process: the composition of the mixture, ignition timing, compression ratio, valve overlap, the number of candles, etc. the Problem is that when designing a modern internal combustion engine are taken into account simultaneously all of these methods and thus further improvement of the internal combustion engine to improve combustion efficiency and reduce emissions of toxic substances exhausted (book Vagonova "Toxicity of the internal combustion engine), mechanical engineering, 1981, pp. 80..91.). The use of catalysts in the exhaust system can significantly reduce emissions of toxic substances, n which leads to the deterioration of its economy. Almost all the ways to intensify the mixing of the fuel-air mixture at the same time worsen the economic performance of the engine.
The most common methods and devices to improve the training of FA by injecting fuel through the injector with solenoid valve in the air flow and mixing specific proportions of fuel and air in the chamber before the intake valve of the engine with the subsequent injection of the fuel Assembly through the inlet valve into the motor chamber (book Ardenovo Systems-injection gasoline engines", M., 1994). Due to the presence of the on-Board computer, sensors toxicity, fuel consumption and air temperature, the method allows to intensify the work of the internal combustion engine and reduce fuel consumption and toxicity of waste exhaust gases of internal combustion engines. The lack of analogue is the imperfection of the technology mix of FA and its existing ignition spark in the combustion chambers of the engine.
Known methods and devices of the intensification of the internal combustion engine by upgrading methods and devices of the spark ignition of fuel cells (Article "the spark will kindle a flame", authors - Y.V .. Solovev, Lsoloviev, in Autoreview, No. 17, 1996). The essence of the proposals is to upgrade electronica ignition by changing their structures, technologies spraying them wear-resistant coatings Advantages of the new electrospace with a single Central electrode, proposed by the Swedish firm SAAB, consist in increasing the service life of such electronica, the improvement of the process of ignition of fuel in combustion chambers of the engine. Their disadvantages are the lack of intensification of the process of ignition and combustion of fuel cells when implementing the known methods of the spark ignition of the mixture from existing systems electrosurgery based on the receipt of high-voltage pulses of a small time using the effect of self-induction when switching the current in the inductive ignition coil, due to the small time existence sparks, limited electromagnetic time constant of the existing inductive ignition coil and due to the lack of operations preliminary to the preparation of FA to better combustion chambers of the engine (no operation ozone air electrostatic spray fuel into the combustion chamber, an electric-field afterburning of unburned component FA of the discharge stroke of the exhaust gases).
The known method and device for intensifying the work of a gasoline internal combustion engine by fuel injection through nozzles directly into the combustion chambers of the engine, in the moment of greatest compression of the air in the respective combustion chamber, with subsequent spark-ignition fuel Assembly from the usual electronica ignition (to Become Mladkova "New engine Mitsubishi in Autoreview, No. 2, 1996). The intensification of the internal combustion engine is achieved by improving atomization and mixing of fuel with air, increasing the degree of compression of the mixture to 12:1, in connection with the cooling air in the injection of fuel by eliminating the effect of the detonation. Actually developed and tested gasoline Quotidien. Experimentally confirmed by the increasing power of this engine by 10%, reduction of exhaust gas emissions by 30 to 90% by separate parts, the possibility of depleted fuel assemblies, which will additionally improve the ecology of the motor when the movement of vehicles in the city.
Disadvantages of the proposed method and device are the complexity of the design of internal combustion engine (difficulty constructive placement of the nozzles high pressure in the chambers of internal combustion engines, which require changes in the design of the engine) and the imperfection of the method of ignition FA usual spark in a way that does not ensure complete combustion of the mixture in the cells, especially at high engine speeds.
A known fuel supply system with electronic control device for internal combustion engines containing an internal combustion engine with combustion chambers, pistons, inlet and exhaust valves, including the preparation of an air-fuel mixture and fuel injection into the combustion chamber with regulators, fuel and oxidant, the system electroic the world igniting an air-fuel mixture, consisting of high-voltage inverter, distributor high-voltage pulses with the appropriate regulator of the timing angle of electrosurgery and electromechani by the number of combustion chambers, sensors, fuel and oxidant, temperature, engine speed, exhaust emissions, as well as logical-functional optimizer modes, added by access controls fuel and oxidant, temperature, engine speed, exhaust emissions, as well as logical-functional optimizer modes, added by access controls fuel and oxidant, to control ignition timing of the mixture, and the entrance to the outputs of these sensors, the patent U.S. No. 4596220, F02D 43/00, 1986. From this source of information is also known a method of intensification of the internal combustion engine by the air-fuel mixture preparation, fuel injection, ignition and combustion.
The known method and device for intensification and control the combustion process in internal combustion engines according to the patent of Russian Federation №2135814, prototype, by exposure to a strong electric field in the air-fuel mixture in the combustion chambers of the cylinders of the engine.
A disadvantage of this device and method is insufficient efficiency effects of electric field on combustion, the combustion completeness and emission of toxic substances is a TV in the combustion products. In addition, the creation of powerful fields will require powerful sources of energy, with a capacity of more than 5 kW, and is unsafe in operation.
Since the invention over a hundred years ago of the internal combustion engine (ice) there have been numerous attempts to improve its efficiency by using the process of evaporation of water. It was the most flourishing era of steam engines and therefore attempt to cross the steam engine with internal combustion engines for the purpose of economy is still very scarce at that time, gasoline, someone just has not been attempted. Any internal combustion engine is not just wasted throws a big part receives thermal energy (70-80%), but more than that, he even fails if revoked opportunities through the cooling system to give heat to the water. On the other hand, receiving warm water, turning during boiling or evaporation into steam at normal atmospheric pressure increases, the volume of 1700 times. The pressure generated steam can help the working gas to move the piston or turbine heat engine in order to give a significant increase power, maximum torque and coefficient of performance (COP) of these motors. There are three main uses of water injection on ice: 1. From water contact with hot exhaust gases shall proishodit the process of vaporization, then the steam turns a small turbine, which helps the main engine. About the development of such a power plant for their cars recently (November 2005) stated the company BMW. On many sports cars that use turbocharging, water is sprayed compressed by the compressor air for cooling of the air with which it then enters the cylinders, where it becomes steam. Here it should be noted that any gas (including air, and a couple of) when lowering the temperature by one degree, at atmospheric pressure, reduced by 1/273 of its volume and, on the contrary, when compressed, especially sharp, the temperature of the gas increases. To the cylinders of internal combustion engines with less energy fit more compressed air, this air is pre-cooled by spraying it (not heated) water, which has a very high heat capacity. This dispersion is carried out either before passing the compressed air through an additional heat sink, or any time thereafter but, in any case, even the smallest hot water droplets must turn in pairs only within the cylinder, otherwise the benefits of this pair becomes negligible. Specially heated water is injected directly into the cylinders. From contact with the burning fuel, the hot piston and the cylinder, the water boils, and rasshiryayuschiisya helps working gases to cause the pistons to move. Here, the injection water is actually replaces the turbo. In this case, expanding in the cylinder pairs are much safer for the environment than compressed air, which contains up to 80% of the nitrogen in the atmosphere from which at high temperature forming the oxides of nitrogen NOx. In addition, excess oxygen in highly compressed air leads to the burning of cylinders, pistons, piston rings, burnout valves and oxidation of electrical contacts candles. After several years of operation of internal combustion engines with injection of water inside its cylinders look like new. More effective direct cooling water hot and intensely rubbing surfaces of the cylinder extends the life of the engine. In addition to the increase of power and fuel economy at 18-20% significantly improved and the cooling of internal combustion engines, as the cylinders are cooled by water, not so much outside as inside. Unfortunately, due to a very complicated setup, the lack of reliability and the comparative high cost of the engines with water injection widespread only in the aviation, motor sport and Amateur automodello (in the latter case, it is not always justified). But the achievements of modern science and technology, especially electronics, allow us to hope for greater efficiency engines with water injection. Electronics should regulate the internal dosing injected into the cylinders of water and pre-heating from the outer walls of the cylinder (water jacket) and from the exhaust pipe with muffler, catalytic Converter and diesel particulate filter so that in the moment of injection, the maximum water temperature approaching its boiling point, in which the compressed gas environment inevitably increases.
When the pressure in the cylinders of more than 500 atmospheres boiling point of water will be much higher, but at temperatures above 400°With the entire volume of water takes gaseous state regardless of further increase in pressure. Preheating of the water necessary for improving the process of vaporization, the more water will boil in the working cylinders of internal combustion engines, the more economicsa fuel and will remain nature on our planet.
Excessive heating of the cylinder, the microprocessor can increase the supply of water, reduce the fuel supply to the extent that this replacement when the existing load did not change significantly the speed of rotation of the flywheel, installed the driver at the moment. Ideally (in good adjustment), the engine with water injection already do not need a radiator with expansion tank, no fan, which blows the outside of the engine. In this case, the water pump, in addition to its reliability, should, regardless of the mode of operation of the internal combustion engine quickly and accurately to change its capacity and pressure supplied them with water. The water pressure in the cooling water jacket of the electronics reg is encoded preferably in each cycle of the engine, as highly heated cylinders (especially from alloys of light metals) become soft and under high pressure deformed, forming any undesirable gaps between the pistons and cylinders, or invalid convexity, preventing movement of the pistons. Water should be clean, otherwise the scale will quickly clog the fine nozzles. So in a very short time of one beat of the engine (1/250 of a second) the water has time to boil in the cylinder, its spraying it must be very small droplets through a lot of very small holes (diameter about 0.1 mm), under high pressure. However, it is possible that some of the water turned into steam after its exit from the cylinder with hot exhaust gases in the exhaust pipe. Then you will be able to reduce temperature and noise emitted by cars gases, and from the resulting increased or superheated steam volume will effectively rotate the electric turbine, installed inside the same pipe. The same as water, the way it is extremely heat and fuel entering the engine cylinders. Then, negresses, it will become less viscous and easier to pass through very narrow passages of the nozzles, thinner sprayed, it is better to mix with air, ignited and better burn that in addition to fuel savings, will fell the ü voltage on the spark plugs and thus prolong their life. It is known that when a strong cold, even aviation gasoline does not burn and is not practically evaporates. As for the air participating in the combustion, it is not pre-heated, but, on the contrary, it is desirable to cool, as it is a gas, and therefore, unlike liquids and solids, when heated strongly increases (here prematurely). The injected water and formed from it couples can create the desired temperature, pressure, speed, and even the shape of the flame propagation in the cylinder and to prevent explosive phenomena (detonation)that will allow no harm to the engine to create more pressure burning air-fuel mixture and / or to use cheaper low octane gasoline. Even at high air humidity (in rainy weather) internal combustion engines are softer, calmer, at least on the external senses. Used on fuel injected engines, the oxygen sensors can accurately monitor the oxygen content in the air with regard to winter temperatures, atmospheric pressure fluctuations, alternations of high humidity with dry weather and pollution. The parameters of the air-water spray can be adjusted also by the addition of a small amount of alcohol, the level of detonation and burning rate which is slightly lower than that of gasoline, which allows to smooth the cut is the second peak of the emitted energy. But the most important for the operation of the motor the combustion process fuel not to drown completely. This is important somehow to increase the percentage of oxygen taken in by the cylinder air or, respectively, to reduce the content of nitrogen, which not only does not support combustion, but strongly discourages this burning. The car is not equipped with tanks with pure oxygen or devices for separation from the air pure oxygen. The oxygen content of the air masses increase with the rapidly rotating centrifuge, where it is comparatively heavier molecules of oxygen (molecular weight 32) will be to displace the lighter particles of nitrogen (mV - 28). Of course, pure oxygen in such a way not to get. But if taken in by the cylinder air to reduce the amount of nitrogen is at least two times - from 79% to 30%, the amount of oxygen in it will increase almost threefold - from 20% to 70%, and released in the combustion energy will increase even more - 5 times. If so intense burning fuel burn is already fully and compulsory automobile catalysts, robbing the engine of power to burn toxic residue of unburned fuel, carbon, carbon monoxide, will be no longer needed. The reduction of nitrogen entering the cylinders, the air will reduce the mass emitted by automobiles is Belami oxides of nitrogen, causing acid rain, harmful to all life on earth, damaging the architectural monuments, various structures, including refinishing of the body of the car. Molecules of nitrogen and oxygen can be divided according to their degree of magnetization, after Onisimova.
To magnetize at low temperatures and to ionize at high fuel, air, injected water, and then the combustion products.
Located around the cylinder coils protected by heat-resistant ceramics, you can try to give the desired shape of the combustible mixture (compactly grouped it in the center, evenly distributing the same throughout the volume of the cylinder or to shift it, for example, closer to the spark of the candle) and the speed of its combustion, increasing that to increase engine power, or lower, to avoid detonation. This detonation it would be good to use, as the speed of flame propagation of the explosion, compared with controlled burning, 5-20 or more times higher, depending on the compression level and other conditions. Of course, the strength of the engine must comply with the proposed loads.
In order to reduce undesirable impacts from sharp blows of the working gas of the upper part of the piston or its junction with the connecting rod (finger) slightly better podporujici, and fuel enters the cylinder in several small portions, throughout stroke ignition. Subject to the strongest radiation from the flame of the pistons and cylinders could be made not only from alloys of iron or lighter weight of aluminum and magnesium, but also ceramics, and even better - from a single crystal (semiconductor) silicon or germanium that solar panels produce electricity. She, through the motor, would help the piston to rotate the crankshaft of the engine. The most daring proposals in this direction appeared 20 years ago. They relate to replace silicon with photovoltaic panels unilateral conductivity, the same (tetravalent) odnokristalnye carbon, i.e. terrasim and heat-resistant synthetic diamond from which to try to do the "eternal" pistons, cylinders, nozzles, turbine jets, or at least their surface. Discussing options for eco-friendly engines, not to mention, hydrogen and hybrid automotive power plant, which also need comprehensive improvements.
Last electricity would be generated and accumulate not only taking a fraction of the power from the internal combustion engine or by the force of inertia of the vehicle during braking electric generator), but also due to the stroke of the shock absorbers on all wheels on the road irregularities. To moreopportunities even vibration motor running, which will not need to be installed on the crankshaft weight motor balancers, balancing the parasitic inertia of the pistons and connecting rods. The development of any technology is by its steady complications, and despite the increased cost, it is always, directly or indirectly, pays for itself. There are opportunities for improvement and two-stroke internal combustion engine installed, mostly on motorcycles. They give much more than a four-stroke, power and the rate of acceleration due to less idling piston and the concomitant resistance of inertia and friction.
However, the current two-stroke engines are more "greedy", because together with the exhaust gases in the exhaust pipe they takes off part of the air-fuel mixture flowing at this time in the cylinder for subsequent combustion. It is logical to an existing loop to add short-term phase forced, for example, by using turbo ventilation cylinder, partially cooling it inside a simple air at the initial moment of the return stroke of the piston, in order to prevent emissions and to provide improved combustion more enriched air-fuel mixture, the intake into the cylinder only after closing of the exhaust valve.
Sometimes on submarines, in space, in mines and tunnels, powerful power plants used throughout the world is very eco-friendly Stirling engines. They totally enclosed under high pressure (200-500 MPa) inert gas is heated from the stove with external heat supply, and on the other side of the cylinder, in particular a refrigerator, it is cooled, i.e. reduces its volume. The resulting difference in pressure above the piston and below it, pushes the piston, then the work will come other cylinders or stored energy of the rotating flywheel. Instead of pistons can work and turbines. The Stirling engine can run on any fuel: solid, liquid, gas, Solar energy, nuclear reactor and, in General, from all sources of heat, not even related to the combustion process.
Due to the higher maximum torque at low revs, "Stirling" is able to overcome significant overload, and at the same time, unlike conventional engines, it is not stalls and allows you to do even without gearbox or variator. Comparative power, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, simple tastes to the fuel and lubrication, easy maintenance and serviceability, versatility, quiet, easy starting in cold season, durability, low specific weight and compactness, low cost, reliability and many other parameters distinguish Stirling engines from the traditional internal combustion engine.
Manufacturers serial hire until the interest is described with a truly fantastic performance "by Stirlings" because of the relatively slow acceleration dynamics. But in the same hybrid propulsion system paired with a generator and a motor, "Stirling" would be completely unable to settle down on any car. Rising oil prices and the inevitable global energy and environmental crisis, there is more sense to go back to the different ways of saving fuel.
The aim of the invention is to intensify the combustion process, increasing the efficiency of combustion, reduce emissions of toxic substances without energy cost or at low cost.
The solution of the stated problem is accomplished by that in a hybrid engine with a controlled combustion, containing at least one cylinder with a piston forming a combustion engine, the supply system of the fuel-air mixture in internal combustion engines, the exhaust system of the internal combustion engine system of intensification of burning fuel-air mixture in the internal combustion engine, each cylinder is equipped with a source of a magnetic field established in its upper part and is made in the form of an annular electromagnet embedded in the wall of the cylinder or more radial electromagnets, on the same shaft with the engine installed the Stirling engine and generator, the working cylinder of the Stirling engine is enclosed in a shell, the cavity inside of which is connected to the exhaust system of the internal combustion engine, and the generator through the electrical wires connected to the source of the magnetic field.
Before the its technical solution has novelty, inventive step and industrial applicability. Novelty is confirmed by patent research, inventive step is obtaining a significant reduction in the toxicity of combustion products without additional energy cost or low cost energy.
The invention is illustrated in figure 1...5 where:
figure 1 shows the scheme of execution of the device
figure 2 - design single-cylinder engine with radial electromagnets,
figure 3 - design single-cylinder internal combustion engine with an annular electromagnet
figure 4 - design four-cylinder internal combustion engine with an annular electromagnets,
figure 5 shows a variant of the device with a radial electromagnets and their switching to create a rotating field.
Device to implement the method (figure 1) contains an internal combustion engine that has at least one cylinder 1 with a piston 2, which is mounted on the rod 3 and has a piston ring 4. In the upper part of the cylinder is installed exhaust valve 5 and the spark plug 6. There is also a system for supplying a fuel-air mixture 7. Inside the cylinder 1 in its upper part coaxially he set the source of the magnetic field 8. In the supply system of the fuel-air mixture 7 can be installed in a permanent ring magnet 9 in the plane perpendicular to the plane of the source magnetic field wintry cylinder 1 is formed vortex 10.
On the shaft 11 has a Stirling engine 12, containing a working cylinder 13, having an outer casing 14, the working piston 15, the connecting rod 16 connecting the piston 15 with the shaft 11. The exhaust system of the combustion products 17 connects the cavity "A" between the working cylinder 13 and the casing 14 with the cavity "B" above the cylinder 1. Part of the Stirling engine 12 includes refrigerator 18 is connected by a pipe 19 with the inner cavity "B" of the working cylinder 13. The exhaust pipe 20 connects the cavity "A" with the muffler 21. On the same shaft 11 with internal combustion engines and Stirling engine mounted generator 22, lines 23 and 24 connected to the source of the magnetic field 8.
Figure 2 shows the single-cylinder internal combustion engine, in which the source of the magnetic field is made in the form of radial electromagnets mounted radially with respect to the cylinder 1.
Figure 3 shows a variant of the single-cylinder internal combustion engine with a source of magnetic field in the form of an annular electromagnet 8, lines 23 and 24 are connected through the switch 25 and the current regulator 26 to the generator 22.
Figure 4 shows a variant of the device on the base four-cylinder engine with a source of magnetic field in the form of electromagnets 8, radially embedded in the wall of each cylinder 1 in its upper part.
Figure 5 shows a diagram of the engine with the electromagnets 8 set radial is to the cylinder 1 in its upper part, which wires 23 connected to the generator 22 and lines 24 to switch the current 27 to create a rotating field in the cavity "d" of the cylinder 1.
When the products of combustion within the cylinder 1 containing a certain number of ions and electrically charged particles are exposed to a magnetic field created by the ring magnet 8 or radial electromagnets 8, and is twisted along the axis of the cylinder 1, i.e. forms a vortex whose axis coincides with the axis of the cylinder 1. This leads to the intensification of combustion and reduce exhaust emissions. The energy consumption of the electromagnets is about 1% of the rated power of the engine, and the increase of its capacity is 10...14%. If you installed additional annular magnet 9, the air-fuel mixture is twisted in the plane perpendicular to the plane in which is formed a whirlwind 10, resulting in a whirlwind 10 will be spun simultaneously in two planes, which further intensifies the burning.
After starting the internal combustion engine through the shaft 11 is driven by the Stirling engine 12, a work piston 14 which moves progressively in the working cylinder 13, but temporarily does not give power, it only consumes. Exhaust gases from the cavity "B" of ice on the exhaust system of the combustion products 17 are received in the cavity "A" and in ECENA 5...10 min warm up the cavity "B" inside the working cylinder 13. The Stirling engine 12 starts to provide power to the shaft 11. The combination of the positive properties of internal combustion engine and the Stirling engine will allow you to create a hybrid engine with optimal characteristics, preserving pickup engine and ecological purity of the Stirling engine. The ratio between the engine and "Stirling" approximately 50%.
The application of the invention allowed:
1) to improve the completeness of fuel combustion at 40...95%;
2) to reduce the toxicity of exhaust gases 30...90%;
3) to reduce fuel consumption by 20 to 35% by utilizing heat of the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines and high efficiency of the Stirling engine;
4) to reduce detonation combustion of fuel in combustion chambers of the cylinders of the internal combustion engine due to reallocation of 50% of the load on the Stirling engine;
5) apply for the hybrid engine, the low-octane fuel without additives and without changing the adjustment of the ignition system and timing;
6) to reduce the power consumption to provide low exhaust emissions;
7) to control the combustion in the cylinders of the internal combustion engine by use of a rotating field, the regulation of its intensity, power, speed, turning on the magnetic field in and turning it off when its action is not effective;
8) drastically simplify the design of the device to reduce exhaust gases and the intensification process is and combustion in internal combustion engines, in the Stirling engine;
9) to ensure the safe operation of the hybrid engine, excluding the application of high voltages;
10) damage to one of the engines included in the layout, continue.
Hybrid engine with a controlled combustion, containing at least one cylinder with a piston forming a combustion engine, the supply system of the fuel-air mixture in internal combustion engines, the exhaust system of the internal combustion engine system of intensification of burning fuel-air mixture in internal combustion engines, characterized in that each cylinder is equipped with a source of a magnetic field established in its upper part, and is made in the form of an annular electromagnet embedded in the wall of the cylinder or more radial electromagnets, on the same shaft with the engine installed the Stirling engine and generator, the working cylinder of the Stirling engine is enclosed in a casing, a cavity inside of which is connected with the exhaust system of the internal combustion engine, and the generator through the electrical wires connected to the source of the magnetic field.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: automobile and aviation fuel magnetic clearing and processing filter contains a cylindrical case with the inlet channel, a cover with the input channel, magnetic system made up of constant C-shape magnets established in pairs along an axis of the device with a turn of each subsequent pair by 90° and focused in pair by the same poles to each other; a cylindrical core with a channel connected to a cover, located inside the magnetic system coaxially to form ring channel between an external surface of the core and the internal surfaces of magnets; the additional constant cylindrical magnets located in the said core channel with their similar poles facing each other closely or at a distance from each other. The end face of the core is located opposite to the inlet branch pipe. The core has a coaxial disk with external diameter equal to external diameter of the plug. The disk is fixed between the end face of the cover on the thread side and the end face of the plug in which grooves C-shaped constant magnets are arranged. The channel in the core on the side of inlet union is made open. In the core disk, through channels are uniformly arranged parallel to the core lengthwise axis and made to the core depth on its mean diameter connecting the circular channel through the truncated hollow cone with the output union channel.
EFFECT: improved fuel clearing, better engine operation.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to engineering industry and particularly to devices providing better conditions for fuel burning. The invention facilitates efficiency of fuel burning in combustion chambers of engines. A fuel magnetic activator is assembled on a fuel pipeline and comprises case with a constant Nd-Fe-B magnet installed into it. The activator is equipped with at least two magnets, arranged serially along the fuel path in fuel pipelines. At least one separator-distance regulator is installed between the magnets; the said separator-regulator is made of non-magnetic material. The magnets can be fabricated as rings or half-rings. At least one ring magnet, installed in the case of the device, is assembled with the incline to the longitudinal axis of the case at an angle from 10 to 90 degrees. The magnets can be made as plates or disks and assembled in the case in chess like order on both sides of the longitudinal axis of the case.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of fuel burning in engine combustion chambers.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: treatment of hydrocarbon fuel raw materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in different technological processes, both in processing of hydrocarbon raw materials to increase yield of light oil products and at preparation of materials for combustion in different power generating plants. According to proposed method, flow of hydrocarbon raw material is exposed to action of electric field, with schungite being introduced into flow of hydrocarbon raw material. Device has housing, and least one electrode installed in housing and designed to excite electric field. Schungite is placed inside housing for contact with hydrocarbon raw material.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of hydrocarbon raw material at operation of engines of different types, reduced smoke content in exhaust gases.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device for magnetic treatment of liquid fuel has housing made of nonmagnetic material with longitudinal through fuel channel and coaxial pairs of bar permanent magnets installed transversely relative to fuel channel. Pipe made of nonmagnetic material is installed in longitudinal channel and axes of each neighbor pairs of magnetic are arranged relatively perpendicularly. Ratio outer diameters of pipe D1 and magnets D2 is D2/D1=1.2-1.7, and ratio of distance between neighbor pairs of magnets to diameter of magnets is L/D2=2.1-3.1.
EFFECT: improved fuel economy of heat engines and boilers operating on heavy fuels, improved ecological characteristics.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed liquid fuel activator of internal combustion engine has cylinder and bottom made of dielectric, dc current source, plate made of nonmagnetic material, current-carrying magnet, rod and activating substance, all placed in housing. Activating substance is arranged in space formed by cylinder, bottom, current-carrying magnet and plate on which dc current source is installed. Rod is fitted in holes made in current-carrying magnet and in bottom for engagement by one end with plate and by other end, with liquid fuel getting into internal combustion engine.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of combustion of combustion of liquid fuel, reduced discharge of exhaust gases, increased economy.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device for magnetic treatment of liquid fuel contains housing made of nonmagnetic material with longitudinal through fuel channel and coaxial pairs of rod-type permanent magnets installed crosswise relative to longitudinal fuel channel. Plate or U-shaped core with holes in side walls for securing magnets is installed in housing space. Ratio of outer diameter D of magnet to width of clearance between walls L1 of core is D/L1=3-4. Ratio of distance L2 between adjacent pairs of magnets to width L1 is L2/L1=4-5.
EFFECT: reduced fuel consumption of heat engines, improved ecological characteristics.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of processing of fuel, mainly, for internal combustion engines comes to action on fuel by microwave field and field of near zone of metal nanostructure appearing at irradiation of nanostructure by energy of microwave field. Fuel device contains sealed housing to pass fuel with radiating elements. Housing is hermetically connected with output of additionally introduced coaxial adapter whose input is connected to output of additionally introduced voltage converter containing series-connected microwave oscillator, attenuator, power amplifier and modulating voltage generator whose output is connected to second input of attenuator. Radiating elements are made inform of multilayer metal nanostructures. Coaxial adapter is three-stage adapter folded along longitudinal axis of symmetry. Radiating elements are made in form of multilayer toroidal multiturn insulated winding fitted on ring elements made of radio transparent material. Radiating elements are installed in housing so that their magnetic fields are orthogonal to direction of fuel flow forming two spirals featuring axial symmetry relative to direction of fuel flow. Voltage converter is made on printed circuit board fixing elements of coaxial adapter. Printed-circuit board is secured on element of coaxial adapter.
EFFECT: provision of ecological safety and reduced consumption of fuel.
9 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; engines.
SUBSTANCE: invention solves problem of reduction of toxicity of exhaust gases during warming up of engine at higher idling speeds when catalyst converter is practically out of use. Proposed method of reduction of toxicity of exhaust gases of automobile equipped with catalyst converter and injection fuel feed system comes to be following: simultaneously with cleaning of exhaust gases from harmful admixtures in catalyst converter, treatment of fuel at all modes of operation, including engine heating modes is provided by passing fuel through chamber with tin-cadmium alloy pillars electrically coupled with engine frame by means of electrode and further passing into magnetic system consisting of magnet and magnetic bushing. Device to reduced toxicity of exhaust gases of automobile engines at warming up at higher idling speeds consists of non-detachable plastic housing with two aluminum flanges provided with nipples for fastening fuel hoses by threaded clips. Device accommodates three tin-cadmium alloy pillars electrically coupled with engine frame by electrode. Magnetic bushing installed over pillars rests through gasket on neodymium-boron magnet with slot to pass fuel. Filtering brass gauze is installed over magnetic.
EFFECT: improved ecological characteristics of modern automobiles.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; engines.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrochemical devices used to get hydrogen from water and to oxidize organic products. Proposed high-temperature polyfunctional electrochemical device designed for producing hydrogen from water and oxidizing organic products contains housing with heat insulation, inlet and outlet branch pipes, electrochemical modules, inlet and outlet manifolds of electrochemical modules, steam heat exchanger-heater and outlet heat exchanger. High-temperature polyfunctional electrochemical device contains additionally water feed valve, water evaporator, air heat exchanger-heater and air feed valve. Inlet branch pipe of electrochemical device is connected with exhaust branch pipe of internal combustion engine, and outlet branch pipe of electrochemical device is connected with inlet branch pipe of muffler. Inlet manifold of electrochemical modules is connected at one side through steam heat exchanger-heater, water evaporator and water feed valve with water reservoir, and at other side, through air heat exchanger-heater and air feed valve with air source, for instance, with air intake. Outlet manifold of electrochemical modules is connected through outlet heat exchanger with air intake of internal combustion engine. Air heat exchanger-heater, outlet heat exchanger, electrochemical modules, steam heat exchanger-heater and water evaporator are installed after inlet branch pipe of high-temperature polyfunctional electrochemical device in succession in direction of exhaust gas flow.
EFFECT: improved combustion of fuel and ecological characteristics of internal combustion engine.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comes to treatment of fuel with unipolar magnetic field pulses of duration of 1-10 mcs. Parameters of unipolar pulses of magnetic field are chosen in are of resonance action of magnetic field on fuel. Said resonance action of magnetic field on fuel is done at repetition frequency of unipolar pulses of 10.1-15 Hz, induction of magnetic field of 30 - 95 mT and duration of treatment not less 2.6 s. Fuel is subjected to action of magnetic field on several section of fuel pipeline. Parameters of unipolar pulses of magnetic field chosen from the following ranges, namely, unipolar pulse repetition frequency 10.1 -15 Hz magnetic field induction 30 - 95 mT and duration of treatment not less than 2.6 s are different in each separate section of pipeline. Treatment of fuel by unipolar pulses of magnetic field is carried out when filling in fuel on condition that said fuel will be used not later than in eight days from time of treatment.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of fuel, cost of power supply and discharge of combustion products into atmosphere.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat supply systems, particularly, to heat-generating plants. Power plant consists of heat engine, for instance, internal combustion engine, with, at least, one mechanic energy shaft, heat-exchangers of engine cooling, heat-exchanger of heat removal from gas exhaust, all heat-connected via the coolant circulation circuit, with, at least, one heat energy consumer, in which shaft of heat engine is kinematically connected with the drive shaft of cavitating-vortex heat-generator, which - at least, via inlet and outlet hydraulic channels - is connected to the mentioned circulation loop of coolant, for example, water. To provide self-purification of heat-exchangers, cavitating-vortex heat-generator is installed directly before the inlet to heat exchanger of heat removal from engine gas exhaust. Installation provides possibility to control power of the cavitating-vortex heat-generator at stabilised (set) rotations of engine drive shaft and possibility to control a ratio between power values removed from the engine to generate heat and electric energy.
EFFECT: enhancement of operational characteristics; expansion of functional abilities.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: domestic facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to combined heat and power supply plant for household use. Proposed domestic combined heat and power plant contains Stirling engine and water heater. Stirling engine is installed for heating by first burner supplied with fuel gas. Plant contains additionally intake gas duct passing from Stirling engine in contact with fuel gas intake in first burner preliminary heating of fuel gas delivered into first burner and then heating of water which is subsequently heated by water heater. Water heater is provided with second burner. Plant is designed so that outlet gas and gas from second burner form combined flow immediately after heating of water, and combined flow for heating of water is located higher from outlet gas relative to flow. Plant contains additionally cooler of Stirling engine arranged for heating water higher than outlet gas relative to direction of flow.
EFFECT: provision of effective heating of water, reduced cost of heating and provision of compact device.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering, possibly electric energy generating plants on base of liquid low-potential power source.
SUBSTANCE: electric energy generating plant includes converter of neat energy of low-potential water to kinetic energy applied to electric energy generator. Plant is mounted on draining pipeline and it has linear-structure electric energy generator. Said converter is made material with shape memory effect having transition point between temperature of low-potential water and environment and it is kinematically coupled with armature of linear- structure generator. Converter is jointly mounted with possibility of moving from low-potential water to environment and from environment to low-potential water. Environment may be in the form of water pool to which low-potential water is discharged.
EFFECT: possibility of using heat of low-potential waters with temperature 30 - 50°C discharged every day from cooling systems of waters of nuclear and heat electric power stations.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cogeneration plants with Stirling engines designed for simultaneous production of electric energy and heat. Proposed cogeneration plant includes Stirling engine with electric generator fitted on one shaft, Stirling engine cooling system including pump an heat exchange-cooler through which air feed main line passes, external heat supply system with heat exchanger-recovering unit of heat of waste gases and heat exchanger of preliminary heating through which external heat supply system is coupled with cooling system of Stirling engine, and exhaust gas main line. Plant is furnished additionally with gas generator providing production of generator gas from different types tires of locally available fuel, generator gas main line connecting gas generator with combustion chamber of Stirling engine, main line for partial return of exhaust gases into combustion chamber of stirling engine, pump in external heat supply system providing flow of heat carrier in succession through preliminary heating heat exchanger and heat exchanger-recovering unit of heat of waste gases. Wood, peat and oil shale can be used as locally available fuel.
EFFECT: possibility of operation of different locally available fuels such as wood, peat, oil shale, etc, increased service life of engine, simplified design of system to convey heat from engine to external consumers.
FIELD: transport and power engineering; engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed multicylinder engine has pump and power cylinders interconnected by transfer chamber, with pistons moving synchronously and rigidly connected with rods on ends of which crossmember with two pins is arranged, with connecting rods fitted on pins and rotation opposite to each other, and two synchronizing gears. One more power cylinder operating on steam is added to pump and power cylinders. Steam is formed owing to water heating in heat exchanger arranged in transfer chamber and in exhaust space of power cylinder.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of engine and reduced overall dimensions of engine.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed internal combustion engine contains crankshaft, connecting rod, piston, intake and exhaust valves, intake and exhaust manifolds, turbocompressor and nozzle to inject water installed in intake manifold before turbine of turbocompressor.
EFFECT: improved utilization of thermal energy of exhaust gases of turbocharged internal combustion engines.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power plants on base of diesel engines including exhaust gas heat recovery systems. Proposed power plant contains diesel engine connected with electric generator, tank for hydrocarbon material, main line to deliver hydrocarbon material, heat exchanger for fuel oil, tanks fir fuel oil and light fractions of fuel, heater and flash column, flash column is arranged inside heater housing, and heating element is arranged in space between heater housing and flash column. Heating element is connected with atomizer arranged inside flash column. Gas intake and gas outlet branch pipes of heater communicate with space between heater housing and flash column, and branch pipes to let out light fraction and fuel oil communicate, respectively, with upper and lower parts of inner space of flash column. Hydrocarbon material supply branch pipe communicates with inner space of heating element. Gas intake and gas outlet branch pipes are connected, respectively, with outlet branch pipe of diesel engine and exhaust pipe, and branch pipes to let out light fractions and fuel oil are connected, respectively, with cooling heat exchanger and with fuel oil heat exchanger. Branch pipe to supply hydrocarbon material is connected with hydrocarbon material delivery main line.
EFFECT: reduced heat losses in exhaust gas heat recovery systems designed for producing fuels from hydrocarbon raw material, improved efficiency of heat recovery.
2 cl, 2 dwg