Process of crashed atomic reactor entombment

FIELD: physics; construction.

SUBSTANCE: process of crashed atomic reactor entombment includes construction of underground mortuary in the form of vertical underground excavation. Internal volume of the excavation is filled with ice which forms a new temporary ice foundation under the basis of the crashed reactor. The weight of the latter is shifted to the new ice foundation, heat is conducted to it, and gradually the height of ice foundation is decreasing till the complete removal of ice. At that, the crashed reactor is set at the mortuary made previously at the basement of excavation. Before deposition of the crashed reactor underground, solidity (thickness) of frozen soil body under the reactor basis is improved, and then, after the new ice foundation is ready, the load is increased, and the previous ground base is destroyed by adjoining of excavation ice body to the crashed reactor basis via flexible load-bearing cables laid through the vertical wells.

EFFECT: reduces amount of work in immediate proximity to a crashed atomic reactor.

 

The invention relates to a special construction, namely the disposal technology emergency-type reactors of the fourth unit of the Chernobyl NPP and other hazardous objects.

The experience of the aftermath of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (USSR) and "Three Mile island" (USA), and disposal of obsolete nuclear reactors of nuclear power plants indicates the absence of effective methods of solving such problems. The cost of dismantling even emergency, and only worn-out nuclear reactors exceed the cost of their construction [1, 3].

Currently, it is believed that the most rational way, the task of localization of consequences of major accidents at nuclear power plants can be solved by creating over the damaged reactor special shelter in the form of a protective sheath. Such temporary shelter - "sarcophagus" over the fourth block of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was built for five and a half months and commissioned by November 1986. Currently, this sarcophagus is in an alarm condition, which is explained not only accelerated pace of construction, but also the specific conditions of its creation. Because of the high radiation installation of structures was carried out remotely, using the TV's settings. All nodes, all compounds were excluded welding and exact fixation. Most bearing con is trucci "sarcophagus" were forced to lean on the survivors of the explosion, the strength of which in many cases could not be determined reliably. Any serious control over the quality of installation was not. For these reasons, a sealed structure failed, the total area of the various cracks and holes exceed one thousand square meters. Atmospheric moisture getting inside the sarcophagus was joined, for example, boron carbide, creating an acidic environment, which significantly accelerated the corrosion rate of steel structures, including beams and supports. Therefore, the service life of the "sarcophagus" is still at the design stage was limited to 30 years.

Thus, the warranty period of the existing sarcophagus ends. The collapse of this shelter, according to experts, can lead to more severe consequences than the catastrophe in 1986. Indeed, in the emergency unit is still 95% of nuclear fuel, the total activity of which is 19 million curies.

In connection with the above question about the need to create a new shelter over the existing "sarcophagus" was current already in 1992. In the same year was declared the international competition of projects on the transformation of the "shelter" into an ecologically safe system. Won the West (the French company "Campenon Bernard"), which Ukraine has offered not only a technical solution, but supposedly money on it i.e. monitoring) reference is th his project.

The new shelter - confinement (NSC) - French project was a protective shell with a height of 108 m, a length of 275 m and a width of 150 m to reduce the dose of builders, this Grand structure should be created near the fourth power, then pulled down on the old sarcophagus.

After determining the value of the French project, from 1 to 4 billion dollars, West funding this work was refused.

Approximately the same amount is currently estimated cost of dismantling and liquidation of existing operating nuclear power plants after the end of their lifecycle [1].

Thus, a disadvantage of known methods is not only insignificant life ground "sarcophagi", is not only extremely high cost, but also, most importantly, high doses of radiation, which will inevitably receive workers during the construction of such structures.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed device is a "Method of disposal of environmentally hazardous objects" [2]. This method involves the creation of an underground repository in virtually waterproof ground, then move there, for example, of the reactor and the removal of heat produced by the fission of atoms of fissile substances. For this purpose, safe from disaster react the RA distance perform vertical shaft and horizontal tunnels to the center of the reactor. In the tunnels of set the source of cold and heat, the soil under the Foundation of the reactor is pre-fixed by drilling deviated boreholes, installing them in a thick-walled casing and freezing of the soil by using a cold source, such as liquid nitrogen, boiling point which is minus 196°C. Then coaxially emergency reactor, above the gallery create underground production of a vertical fixed casing, inside of which include heat exchangers attached to the above sources of heat and cold, then fill with water internal volume of output and cooling it, turning the water into ice. Then the ground directly under the damaged reactor is thawed, remove the casing from the inclined wells and drill up of ice around the perimeter of the reactor vertical wells. The weight of the reactor and passed to a specially created ice Foundation. Then stop the flow of coolant and serves the coolant in the heat exchangers of the base vertical development. As the ice melted, the height of the ice decreases Foundation - emergency reactor is lowered by the vertical development of in an underground repository. The resulting water is removed.

This way the inherent disadvantages of the known methods of disposal emergency reactors, although much of the nutrient lesser extent, namely: the need to perform part of the work in the immediate vicinity of the source of radiation - drilling multiple wells initially to secure, and then to destroy the foundations under the foundations of the reactor. This can cause a major disaster with the death of people in the underground vertical development, if the strength of the frozen soil is insufficient, then the damaged reactor will go under the ground, in a horizontal production prematurely, before the creation of the ice Foundation.

To ensure the safety of operations during the movement of the reactor under the ground, on a pre-built burial site is offered to movement of the reactor under the ground to increase the strength (thickness) of the soil mass beneath the foundations of the reactor, then after creating the ice Foundation is to increase the load and continue to destroy the subgrade attach an icy array of underground excavations for the Foundation of the reactor by means of a flexible load-carrying links, routed through vertical wells.

If implementation of the proposed technical solution, the melting of ice in the underground vertical development of the weight of the ice array is attached to the weight of the reactor, bringing the total number of wells is required to loosen the soil under the base of the reactor, can be significantly reduced. Accordingly, this will reduce the scope and cost of works in the immediate proximity of the damaged nuclear reactor.

New in the claimed invention is an operation for installing flexible connections between the existing Foundation of the reactor and by the underground working under him.

The invention is illustrated by the following example of a device that implements the claimed method (see the drawing), which shows: emergency reactor 1, similar to the fourth block of the Chernobyl NPP, and the same reactor in end position 1A, inclined wells with thick-walled casing 2, designed for freezing of the soil under the emergency reactor; located under the reactor and coaxially him underground vertical development 3 with a lining 4, within which are located on the lateral surfaces of the heat exchangers 5 and the base 6 to the heat exchanger 7. These designs can function as additional reinforcement, which increases the strength of the lining of underground workings.

For submission to the heat exchangers of the cooling medium and heating medium are provided piping with shut-off and control valves 8, 9 and 10. For water supply in the production provides the conduit 11. This conduit is used for the removal of underground mine water after the melting of ice. For the same purpose predusmatriva what are the pump 12 and valves 13-17. For receiving the cooling medium, provides a source of cold (refrigerator) 18 and for receiving coolant - heat source (boiler) 19. For freezing of the soil and water can be used in liquid nitrogen.

Construction and installation work is carried out through a special vertical shaft 20 and horizontal galleries (Paterna) 21 and 22. For weakening the connection of the Foundation of the reactor with the surrounding soil provides for the drilling of vertical wells 23 through which pass into the workings 3 flexible load-carrying connection (cable, chain) 24 connected at the top with the base of the reactor 1.

The proposed method is as follows. Safe from the damaged reactor 1 distance to build the barrel 20 and the horizontal shafts 21 and 22, which are suitable to the axis of the specified reactor. In one of the tunnels 22 installing refrigeration machine 18 and the heat source 19 and commence construction of generation 3. Pre-order premature unauthorized lowering of the reactor 1 in generation 3 Buryats inclined wells and install them in a thick-walled casing 2, and with their help freeze the ground directly under the Foundation of the reactor 1, thereby improving the stability of the Foundation. For these purposes mainly use liquid nitrogen.

As p is ochocki generate 3 install the lining 4 with heat exchangers 5, and lining the base with 6 heat exchanger 7. The depth of underground tunnels 3 must be at least the height of the reactor 1. In addition, the depth of the underground workings is determined by the hydrogeological conditions of the landing NPP burial ground, where the emergency reactor 1 should be stored for hundreds of years, as a rule, should be placed in subfilters soils, such as clays.

After the construction of the generation 3 it is filled with water by means of conduit 11, valve 14 and 16 are open; 13, 15 and 17 are closed). For release of air and the passage of the flexible load supporting links 24 are drilling multiple vertical wells 23. After filling water production 3 include refrigeration machine 18, and coolant piping enters the heat exchangers 5 and 7, while the water in an underground working 3 turns into ice, a flexible load-carrying connection 24 freezes into ice array of this production. Thus, emergency reactor 1 receives new support in the form of ice Foundation. The formation of a new support allows you to loosen the old ground support. To do this, stop the flow of liquid nitrogen in a thick-walled casing down hole 2, and instead of nitrogen serves them in the brine for defrosting and loosening the surrounding soil. Then the casing of the inclined wells 2 extract. For additional weakening of the soil is the first Foundation for emergency reactor 1 can be drilled vertical wells 23. Next, turn off the refrigeration machine 18 includes a heat generator 19 and the heat exchanger 7 of the base 6 serves the coolant. In the heat exchangers 5 briefly served coolant to eliminate the adhesion of ice to the side walls of the vertical production 3.

Upon receipt of warmth in the base 6 ice on its surface will melt, and the ice array in an underground working 3 will begin to descend under its own weight. At the same time the weight of this array via a flexible load-carrying connection 24 will be transmitted to the ground under the Foundation of the reactor 1 and break the strength of the soil, after which a new pillar of the reactor will become ice array in generation 3. As the ice melted, the height of the new ice Foundation will decrease and emergency reactor 1 will slowly sink into the workings 3. The resulting water is removed by conduit 11 by a pump 12 and a valve 13, 15 and 17 are opened, and 14 and 16 are closed). After complete melting of the ice emergency reactor 1 becomes the new permanent position 1a, where it is pressurized, and, if necessary, cooled using heat exchangers 5 and 7.

When using the inventive method for the burial of the reactor is obtained ecologically safe system: radioactive radiation is reliably absorbed by the earth, the thickness of which may be any who I harmful effects on aquifers is limited by the presence of tight lining underground tunnels 3 and use zaoblachnoy waterproofing, primarily of clay.

The use of the claimed method allows to solve major scientific and technical challenge of the world level.

Literature.

1. Matveev L.V., Rudik A.P. Almost everything about the nuclear reactor. - M.: Energoatomizdat, 1990. - 240 S.

2. RF patent №2012079, CL 5 G21F 9/24,1994.

3. Atomic energy, v.64, no 4, 1988, s-254.

The method of disposal emergency nuclear reactors, including the creation under emergency nuclear reactor underground burial site, in the form of underground vertical production, filling the inner volume of this production ice and education due to this new ice temporary basis under the Foundation of the reactor, the weight transfer on the last new ice base, submission of warmth and a gradual decrease in the height of the ice base, until the complete removal of ice, the installation of this emergency reactor on the basis of underground excavations in pre-designed burial ground, characterized in that during the movement of the reactor under ground pre-increase the strength (thickness) of the frozen soil beneath the foundations of emergency reactor, and then, after creating a new ledan the century Foundation, increase the load and still destroy the subgrade attach an icy array of underground excavations for the Foundation of the reactor by means of a flexible load-carrying links, routed through vertical wells.



 

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