Pneumatic hammer with throttling air distribution

FIELD: mechanics.

SUBSTANCE: hammer consists of a body with radial outlet and central channels, lid with central hole, striker with axial through channel splitting central channel into working stroke and idle stroke chambers, tube with dead bead from the side of cover. Cover is provided with radial and longitudinal channels and installed coaxially in central channel and displaced in axial through channel of striker and central hole of lid. Cup in the hammer is tightly installed as regard to hammer body forming circular accumulating chamber, which contacts with working stroke chamber by means of radial bypass channel in hammer body. Network air pre-chamber with air supply channel continuously interacts with compressed air network. Hammer also includes air baffling ring with outlet slotted channel, operating tools with bead interacting with body end, operating tool tongue, cap to prevent operating tool from dropping out from central body channel. Hammer body is provided with groove from the side of cup and lid is located in groove to enable reciprocal movements.

EFFECT: reduction of back pressure forces in working stroke chamber and improvement of hammer vibration indicators.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the construction industry, in particular to devices percussion, used for destruction of solid natural and artificial materials.

Known technical solution of the pneumatic hammer (see, for example, as the USSR №607885, MCL. 02D 2/07, 1978), comprising a housing, a stepped drummer with a through channel that hosts the pipe fixed uplatnena in the housing and the shank of the tool. End-to-end channel drummer is intended for the passage of rods, pipes and other items for the shock of diving into the ground. Step drummer is provided with radial inlet channel and divides the body cavity ring camera: idling on the side of the tool, the exhaust from the opposite side and the middle of the stroke, while performing the functions of the network camera air pressure.

The drawbacks of such solutions are:

1) the camera issue in the case, which leads to underutilization sectional area of the striker in the formation of the power of momentum on the part of the stroke of the striker and potentially reduces the energy parameters of the hammer;

2) hard sealed fastening of the tube relative to the housing and the tool causes the need to ensure alignment of three sections - "the body is a drummer, percussionist-pipe is a" and "tube-building". This represents a significant technical complexity to the overall alignment of the missile casing and tubing. The misalignment causes additional friction forces between the elements and reduce the impactor velocity, consequently, to reduce the energy parameters of the hammer. The presence of increased friction between the elements drummer-casing-tube determines the increase in strength that it is highly undesirable both for manual and for narocnych impact machines, because it affects the hygienic conditions and leads to more intensive wear of the hammer during operation.

It is also known technical solution of the pneumatic hammer (see, for example, U.S. patent No. 1384641, 1921), containing a stepped hull and drummer, intermediate drummer, the shank of the tool, the system inlet, bypass and outlet channels in the body, activate the crane type, vozduhoprovodyaschih tube for flushing of the face, to which the drummer, intermediate drummer and a shaft with a tool provided with axial through-channels for the passage of the tube, which is fixed uplatnena relative to the housing and an intermediate drummer, and the tube with its end side of the tool included in the tool shank and for the most part intermediate drummer installed towards them with a gap, but without pirania on its end.

The main disadvantage of this technical solution is hard sealing securing of the tube relative to the housing and an intermediate drummer, hence the need to ensure alignment of the three landing sites - "the body is a drummer, percussionist-tube and tube-to-intermediate drummer". It is practically difficult feasible, and therefore, as a rule, the alignment of these elements is not achieved. The misalignment causes additional friction forces between the elements and reduces the speed of the drummer, the energy parameters of the hammer. The increase in friction, and therefore, strength leads to the deterioration of sanitary-hygienic conditions manual hammers and more intense wear narocnych hammers.

Known technical solution of the pneumatic hammer (see, for example, patent RF №2259478, IPC IS 37/24, B25D 9/26, 2005), comprising a housing with a radial outlet channels and the Central channel, supported uplatnena at the end of the body cover with an annular flange and a Central hole, a drummer with an axial through-channel that separates the Central channel of the body on camera working and idle strokes, a pipe with a blind flange on the cap side, the longitudinal and radial channels installed coaxially in the Central channel of the casing and cooperating with the side surfaces with sevim channel drummer and the Central hole of the cover, forming between the tube and cover the annular channel with the possibility of overlapping his blind flange tube, glass, uplatnena mounted relative to the annular flange of the cover and housing to education between the side surfaces of the glass and the housing annular accumulation chamber constantly in communication with the chamber stroke radial bypass channels in the housing, a chamber formed in one end surface and a glass cover with vozduhopotok channel, informing the chamber of a network of compressed air through vozduhoprovodyaschih sleeve and a handle with a trigger device, Rethimno United with glass, vozduhoobmenu ring with the exhaust slot channel, formed between the casing and the ring chamber of the issue, the working tool with the shoulder interacting with the end of the body, the shank of the working tool has a Central blind hole bearing on the bottom of the tube to form between its lateral surface and a side surface of the blind hole in the shank annular channel with reduced cross-section not less than the flow area of the longitudinal channel of the tube, a cap for holding the working tool from falling out of the Central channel of the body.

Marked the hammer device is taken as a prototype as having the largest number of significant prize is akov in relation to the proposed device.

The prototype inherent flaw: permanent air intake from prelimary network of air into the chamber of the stroke at the end of the idling creates back pressure, close-largest network in excess of the design pressure, creating a momentum recoil forces exceeding permissible for manual machines the magnitude of the pressing force. This leads to the amplitudes of the oscillations of the case inadmissible according to the regulations, the relevant GOST vibration characteristics, the force pressed, the speed and acceleration of the moving body.

The technical object of the present invention is to reduce the forces of the counter-pressure in the chamber of the stroke by applying additional weight, for example, in the form of a cover, attachable to the drummer at the end of idling that provide braking without attracting forces of the counter-pressure air from the front of the stroke. Using the cover of rolling, it is possible to adjust the braking force due to the loading space cover force from the air pressure acting on the lid side chamber stroke, and side prelimary that will improve the vibration characteristics of a hammer.

The solution of the technical problem due to the fact that the pneumatic hammer with throttle distribution includes a housing with a radial outlet channel and the price is General channel, cover with a Central hole, a drummer with an axial through-channel that separates the Central channel of the body on camera working and idle strokes, a pipe with a blind flange on the cap side with radial and longitudinal channels installed coaxially in the Central channel of the body and placed in axial end-to-end channel drummer and the Central hole of the cover, to form between the tube and cover the annular channel with the possibility of overlapping his blind flange, glass, uplatnena mounted relative to the housing to form between the side surfaces of the glass and the housing annular accumulation chamber, communicated with the chamber stroke radial bypass channel in the housing, the chamber of a network of air with vozduhopotok channel, constantly informing the chamber of a network of compressed air through vozduhoprovodyaschih sleeves and stick with the air-distributing device connected to a glass vozduhoobmenu ring with the exhaust slot channel, formed between the casing and vozduhoobmenu ring camera release, the tool flange that interacts with the end of the body, the shank of the working tool has a Central blind hole, resting on the bottom of the tube to form between its lateral surface and a side surface of the blind hole, the shank annular channel, with reduced cross-section not less than the flow area of the longitudinal channel of the tube, cap, holding a working tool from falling out of the Central channel of the body, and the body-side Cup provided with a groove, and the cover is placed in the groove with the possibility of reciprocating motion.

The performance of the pneumatic hammer is illustrated by drawings: a longitudinal section with the bearing tube in the bottom hole of the shank in the position of drummer in the end and the beginning of the idle passages is 1 and the position of the striker at the end of the blank and the beginning of the stroke - 2.

Device description and principle of operation of the hammer is made to figures 1, 2 with conservation designations.

Pneumatic hammer includes a housing 1 with a radial channel 2 output, radial bypass channel 3 and the Central channel 4 with the groove 5 and the thrust ring flange 6 in the housing, a movable cover 7 with the supporting annular flange 8, supported on the flange 6, and a Central hole 9 with the additional volume in the annular groove 10, the striker 11 with an axial through channel 12, which separates the Central channel of the body on the stroke chamber 13 and chamber 14 of idling. In the Central channel 4 of the housing 1 and coaxially he placed the tube 15 with a blind flange 16 side cover 7, a radial inlet channel 17 and the longitudinal channel 18 for the intake of air into the chamber 14. the cutting 15, posted by axially through the channel 12 of the striker 11 and the Central hole 9 of the cover 7 to form between the tube and cover the annular channel 19 of the air intake into the chamber 13, with the possibility of overlapping his blind flange 16 of the tube 15.

The Cup 20 uplatnena mounted relative to the supporting end flange 21 of the housing 1 and forms with the side surface of the housing an annular accumulation chamber 22, communicated constantly with the camera 13 radial bypass channel 3 in the case.

The chamber 23 is formed between the end annular surface 24 of the cover 7 and the end surface 25 of the Cup 20 and communicated vozduhopotok channel 26 with a network of compressed air through Rethimno United vozduhoprovodyaschih sleeve and the handle 27 with a starting device of any known type.

Vozduhoobmenu ring 28 with the exhaust slot channel 29 forms with the housing 1 at the level of the radial exhaust valve 2 of the annular exhaust chamber 30.

The working tool 31 is provided with a shank 32 and is mounted for engagement with the striker 11. The shank 32 is made of an axial blind hole 33 with a bottom 34, on which rests the tube 15. The lateral surface of the tube 15 and a blind hole 33 form an annular channel 35, the penetration hole which is not less than the flow area of the longitudinal channel 18 of the tube.

Thisway, the tube 15 is equipped with three coaxial reference sites: in the hole 9 of the cover 7, in the channel 12 of the striker 11 and the aperture 33 of the shank 32 of the working tool 31. That is, the tube 15 is constantly provided with bearings on the ends thereof, which ensures a stable position relative to the Central channel 4 of the housing 1.

The working tool 31 is held against arbitrary falling out of the Central channel 4 of the housing 1 by a cap 36.

Pneumatic hammer works as follows.

When turning on the air supply from the receiver of the compressor it vozduhoprovodyaschih the sleeve enters the handle 27 with starting any type of device, then vozduhoprovodyaschih channel 26 of the Cup 20 and into the chamber 23 of the network of air. While the flange 16 of the tube 15 is tightened by the pressure of air to the mouth of the annular channel 19 of the inlet cover 7 and overlaps it. The air from prelimary 23 not distributed and accumulated in it.

Air distribution from prelimary 23 in chambers 13 and 14, and communicates with the chamber 13 through the radial channel 3 bypass accumulation chamber 22, is only possible after the filing of a hammer to the processed material and stop it working tool 31. On clicking on the tool shank 31 32 pushes the striker 11 with the tube 15 into the chamber 14. During the course of the shank 32 is limited by its emphasis Boo the tick at the end of the body 1. Simultaneously, the flange 16 of the tube 15 extends into the chamber 23, the opening of the radial channel 17 of the inlet, and the air enters the channel 18 and through the annular channel 35 in the shank 32 into the chamber 14 of idling. Also at the same time opens the annular channel 19 of the inlet and the air from prelimary 23 into the chamber 13 and the radial channel 3 pass into the chamber 22. Because the camera 13 and 22 reported in this moment of time through the radial channel 2 is released, the camera 30 and slotted channel 29 in vozduhoobmenu ring 28 with the atmosphere, the air pressure in the chambers 13 and 22 will close naturally due to substantially greater radial passage bore channel 2 release in comparison with reduced cross-section of the annular channel 19 of the inlet.

Because the camera 14 with the atmosphere separated, the air pressure will increase and the drummer 11 moves from the shank 32 in the direction of the camera 13 and 22, making idle. Continuing the movement of the firing pin 11 will cover your butt radial channel 2 release and in the chambers 13 and 22, separated from the atmosphere, will compress cut off them in air to air re-entering the circular channel 19 intake from prelimary 23.

Moving in the direction of the cover 7, the striker 11 will open its end of the radial channel 2 release and the camera 14 is communicated through the radial channel 2 is released, the camera 30 and you shall osnago slotted channel 29 vozduhoochistnogo ring 28 with the atmosphere. Due to the substantially greater radial passage bore channel 2 output in comparison with the cross sections of radial inlet channel 17 and the longitudinal channel 18 of the tube 15, and the annular channel 35 in the shank 32, the air pressure in the chamber 14 to be installed and will be maintained close to atmospheric.

Moving in the direction of the cover 7, the striker 11 displaces a portion of air from the chamber 13 into the chamber 22 through the radial channel 3 bypass, thus reducing the back pressure of the air in the chamber 13, causing deceleration of the striker and the power from the camera 13 and prelimary 23, causing less intense movement of the housing 1 in the direction of the handle 27, thus improving the sanitary and technical conditions of operation of the hammer.

Continuing the movement of the firing pin 11 will overlap the radial channel 3 bypass, resulting in a camera 13 and 22 will be dismantled each other, and then the drummer will be close to the lid 7. Regardless collision occurred or the increase of pressure in the chamber between the cover 7 and the striker 11 is plug them supporting annular flange 8 and the thrust ring flange 6 and the joint movement of the striker with cover.

The larger mass of the movable drummer with a lid, and the force of the back pressure of the air-side end surface 24 of the cover, about special condition, when both the drummer and the cover will be harder to slow down its movement. Subsequent movement of the cover 7 will overlap the radial channel 17 of the inlet tube 15 and the air supply channel 18 of the tube in the annular channel 35 of the shank 32 and the chamber 14 will be stopped, what will reduce wasteful consumption of air through the chamber, the radial channel 2 is released, the camera 30 and the exhaust slotted channel 29 vozduhoochistnogo ring 28 into the atmosphere.

Having exhausted the power pulse pressure air from chamber 14 drummer 11 together with the cover 7 will begin to slow down its movement and will stop at the clearing point, which determines the magnitude of the stroke. The deceleration of the striker 11 is not sharp due to the force of the air from prelimary 23 on the end surface 24 of the cover 7, reducing the resulting pressure side prelimary 23 and the chamber formed between the striker 11 and the cover 7, which leads to a smaller force of impact acting on the hammer, and more favorable conditions for its management.

During the period of idling by reducing back pressure from the chamber 13 provides the estimated time of the stroke deceleration of the striker 11.

After stopping the striker 11 and the cover 7 in the estimated position (see figure 2) acting on them power pressure pulse of air from the chamber 13 and prelimary 23 will be determined and the accelerated motion in the direction of the shank 32, making the stroke.

Regardless of will be the striker 11 and cap 7 to start moving together or shifting in time, the cover will open radial channel 17 of the inlet tube 15, what will be the flow of air from prelimary 23 through the channel 18, the annular channel 35 into the chamber 14 of idling. At the same time cover 7 moves relative to the flange 16 of the tube 15 and will open annular channel 19 of the inlet into the chamber 13 of the stroke, will increase the pulse of air pressure on the striker 11 and its speed will increase.

The cover 7 to its supporting annular flange 8 landed at the thrust ring flange 6, formed by a groove 5 in the channel 4 of the housing 1.

Drummer 11, moving rapidly in the direction of the shank 32, will open its end of the radial channel 3 bypass chamber 13 and 22 will communicate with each other and the air pressure in them will be aligned, supporting its design value.

Continuing the movement of the firing pin 11 will cover your butt radial channel 2 output, and in the chamber 14 will compress clipped in her air and air flowing from prelimary 23 through the channels 17 and 18 of the tube 15 and the annular channel 35 of the shank 32.

Overcoming the pressure of air from the chamber 14, the striker 11 will open its end of the radial channel 2 is released, whereupon the camera 13 and 22 is communicated through the radial the aqueous channel 2 output, the camera 30 and slotted channel 29 with the atmosphere.

In the next moment the drummer 11 strikes the shank 32 of the tool 31. If after hitting the tool 31 will cease to hold the tube 15 and the flange 16 rests on the cover 7, block a radial inlet channel 17 and the access of air from prelimary 23 in the channel 18 of the tube and in the annular channel 35 of the shank 32 and the chamber 14 will cease, resulting in the impulse of force of air pressure from the chamber 14 will not be formed and drummer 11 will fit on the shank 32. When the next idle drummer 11 will not occur. If after a blow to the shank 32 of the shift of the tool 31 is not happening and the tube 15 still rests on the bottom 34 of the blind hole 33, the flange 16 of the tube 15 stores the position relative to the cover 7 with open channels 19 and 17 (see figure 1). When this drummer 11 after the attack on the shank 32 will start the next idle speed under the action of the momentum of the rebound of the striker from the tool shank and pulse pressure air from chamber 14.

In the subsequent operating cycle of the hammer is repeated.

The proposed technical solution of the pneumatic hammer with throttle distribution can be used both for manual and narocnych machines. While the dimensions of the machine are changed in accordance with the terms specified in the power options. Switching on and off of the hammer will also be carried out only when it stops working tool in the processing environment, which eliminates the idle strokes of the striker on the body of the hammer and prevents it from destruction.

The execution of a hammer with a movable cover, joining the drummer at the end of idling, provides braking drummer without attracting forces of the counter-pressure air from the front of the stroke.

Floating cover allows you to adjust the braking force due to the loading space cover force from air pressure from prelimary, which reduces the vibration characteristics of a hammer.

Pneumatic hammer with butterfly distribution, comprising a housing with a radial outlet channel and the Central channel, the lid with a Central hole, a drummer with an axial through-channel that separates the Central channel of the body on camera working and idle strokes, a pipe with a blind flange on the cap side with radial and longitudinal channels installed coaxially in the Central channel of the body and placed in axial end-to-end channel drummer and the Central hole of the cover, to form between the tube and cover the annular channel with the possibility of overlapping his blind flange, glass, uplatnena mounted relative to the housing with education is receiving between the side surfaces of the Cup and housing the annular accumulation chamber, communicated with the chamber stroke radial bypass channel in the housing, the chamber of a network of air vozduhopotok channel, constantly informing the chamber of a network of compressed air through vozduhoprovodyaschih sleeves and stick with the air-distributing device, Rethimno United with glass, vozduhoobmenu ring with the exhaust slot channel, formed between the casing and vozduhoobmenu ring camera release, the tool flange that interacts with the end of the body, the shank of the working tool has a Central blind hole bearing on the bottom of the tube to form between its lateral surface and a side surface of the blind hole in the shank annular channel with reduced cross-section at least bore longitudinal channel of the tube, cap, holding a working tool from falling out of the Central channel of the housing, wherein the housing from the side of the glass provided with a groove, and the cover is placed in the groove with the possibility of reciprocating motion.



 

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1 dwg

FIELD: percussion mining and construction machines, particularly methods or devices for dislodging with or without loading.

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6 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: percussion mining and construction machines, particularly methods or devices for dislodging with or without loading.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises supply-line air chamber, switching device, which initiates compressed air delivery to supply-line air chamber, hollow cylinder, striker, which divides cylinder interior into idle and working stroke chambers and accumulation chamber permanently communicated with working stroke chamber thorough bypass channel. Device also has lid installed at cylinder end from working stroke chamber side and permanently opened inlet throttle channel communicated with idle stroke chamber and starting throttle channel permanently opened in idle stroke chamber and connecting supply-line air chamber with idle stroke chamber. Device comprises discharge channel made in cylinder wall and working tool with stem, as well as cup with rim and blind augmenter located in cylinder wall from idle stroke chamber side. The blind augmenter is permanently communicated with supply-line air chamber via throttle channel made in lid. The blind augmenter is periodically connected with idle stroke chamber through radial augment channel made in cylinder wall. Distance between distributing augment channel edge section and discharge channel is less than striker travel. Cup has bottom facing the lid and is provided with annular rim supported by rim made in the lid to create supply-line air chamber.

EFFECT: increased impact force to be applied to substance to be worked.

1 dwg

Impact mechanism // 2286226

FIELD: plastic metal working; impact-type mechanisms for stamping, riveting and striking the gates.

SUBSTANCE: proposed impact mechanism has power cylinder with working and idle stroke cavities where piston-striker is arranged. Piston is provided with two rods. Working tool is secured on one of rods. Cross-sectional area of second rod exceeds that of rod provided with working tool. Impact mechanism includes receiver which is connected with compressed air source at all times and is brought in communication with working stroke cavity of power cylinder. Impact mechanism is also provided with distributor made in form of electrically- and pneumatically-controlled two-position three-line spool valve. Receiver is provided with passages and power cylinder has holes for connection with these passages; these holes are made in side wall of cylinder sleeve and are closed by piston-striker at moment when it returns to initial position.

EFFECT: increased impact energy.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: building equipment.

SUBSTANCE: pneumatic hammer includes handle, jacket, housing mounted in jacket, air shock absorbing chamber and shock absorbing spring. Sleeve is arranged between handle and jacket; air supply branch pipe is mounted in said sleeve with possibility of motion. Air shock absorbing chamber is formed by means of handle and sleeve. Shock absorbing spring is mounted between beads formed on housing and on jacket.

EFFECT: improved shock absorbing properties of hammer.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: ultrasonic tools for vibration-percussion working of ductile metals and alloys by plastic deforming, possibly relaxation-strengthening and passivation treatment, for example of welded joints, surfaces of metallic structures subjected to action of atmospheric, water and soil corrosion.

SUBSTANCE: ultrasonic vibration-percussion tool includes sleeve mounted in wave-guide acoustic transformer at interference whose effort corresponds to its radial deformation exceeding amplitude of cross oscillations of wave-guide acoustic transformer in node of longitudinal oscillations when transformer operates in idle mode. Guides are joined to body of tool through elastic vibration-insulation gaskets.

EFFECT: lowered harmful action of vibrations acting upon operator or upon apparatus controlling operation of tool used as part of manufacturing system.

2 cl, 2 dwg

The invention relates to the mining industry and construction, in particular for pneumatic machines percussion

The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used in the production of impact machines

FIELD: ultrasonic tools for vibration-percussion working of ductile metals and alloys by plastic deforming, possibly relaxation-strengthening and passivation treatment, for example of welded joints, surfaces of metallic structures subjected to action of atmospheric, water and soil corrosion.

SUBSTANCE: ultrasonic vibration-percussion tool includes sleeve mounted in wave-guide acoustic transformer at interference whose effort corresponds to its radial deformation exceeding amplitude of cross oscillations of wave-guide acoustic transformer in node of longitudinal oscillations when transformer operates in idle mode. Guides are joined to body of tool through elastic vibration-insulation gaskets.

EFFECT: lowered harmful action of vibrations acting upon operator or upon apparatus controlling operation of tool used as part of manufacturing system.

2 cl, 2 dwg

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