Cable with coating layer, made from waste material

FIELD: chemistry; insulation.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to a cable with a coating layer, made from waste materials. The cable consists of at least, one conductor with at least one transfer element and at least one layer of coating. The coating material contains between 30 mass % and 90 mass % of the overal mass of the coating material, at least, first polyethylene with density not more than 0.940 g/cm3 and melt flow index from 0.05 g/10 min. to 2 g/10 min., measured at 190°C and a load of 2.16 kg in accordance with standard ASTM D1238-00, and quantity from 10 mass % to 70 mass % of the overall mass of the coating material, at least, second polyethylene with density of more than 0.940 g/cm3. The first polyethylene is obtained from waste material. Use of at least, one polyethylene with density of more than 0.940 g/cm3 in the recycled polyethylene allows for obtaining a layer of coating, capable of providing for mechanical characteristics, in particular, breaking stress and tensile strength, comparable to characteristics of primordial polyethylene. The stated coating layer is preferably used as an external protective coating.

EFFECT: obtaining of a new type of cable insulation.

43 cl, 9 dwg, 4 tbl, 10 ex

 

The invention relates to a cable with a coating layer made from waste.

In particular, the present invention relates to a cable having at least one core containing at least one transmissive element and at least one coating layer, and the above-mentioned coating layer made from a coating material containing at least one polyethylene obtained from waste.

In addition, the invention relates to a method of manufacture of this cable.

In the description of the invention and in the formula, the term "lived" cable means the structure of semi-finished, containing the following: the transmitting element transmits the electric power element transmitting an optical signal element, or element, which transmits both electrical and optical signals; and at least one electrical isolation or, respectively, at least one shell element (e.g., tube, shell, microblock or core, in which the grooves), or at least two elements, one of which is an element of the electrical insulation and the other shell element located in the radial outer direction with respect to the corresponding transmitting element.

In this description and in the formula, the term "transmitting electricity element specifies any element m which can transmit power, for example, a metal wire. For example, in the case of the cable for delivery or distribution medium/high voltage (average voltage in the approximate limits of 1-30 kV; and high voltage: 30 kV) "lived" cable also has an inner semi-conducting coating layer, located in a radially outer position with respect to the conductive element; outer semi-conducting layer coating, located in a radially outer position with respect to the element insulation; metal shielding shell located at a radially external position with respect to the said outer semi-conducting layer of the coating; and the outer layer, located in a radially outer position with respect to mentioned metal shielding shell.

In this description and in the formula, the term "transmitting optical signal element specifies the transmitting element having at least one optical fiber. Therefore, this term refers to a single optical fiber, and a plurality of optical fibers grouped together with the formation of the bundle of optical fibers or located parallel to each other and covered by a General coating with the formation of the strip of optical fibers. In the case of an optical cable "lived" cable also provides: coating layer, is the first in a radially external position relative to the grooved conductor; layer hardening against stretching in a radially external position with respect to the above-mentioned outer layer of the coating; and the outer layer, located in a radially outer position with respect to the mentioned layer hardening against stretching.

In this description and in the formula, the term "mixed electro-optical transmitting element specifies the element that conveys energy and optical signals in accordance with well above definitions.

In this description and in the formula, the term "coating" means any coating applied to the transmitting element cable for protective purposes, for example, to prevent damage to the transmitting element due to mechanical stresses arising during manufacture, installation and operation.

The invention also relates to a cable with many defined above lived, known in the art under the name "bipolar cable", "tripolar cable" and "multipolar cable - depending on the number lived in it (in the above cases, two, three or more, respectively).

In accordance with illustrated above definitions, the present invention relates to cables having one or more veins of any type. That is, the invention relates to a single - or multi-polar cables electric type for delivery or R is opredeleniya electricity, or optical type having at least one optical fiber, or mixed type: energy/telecommunication.

Currently, the possibility of using waste-derived polymers for the manufacture of new products is an issue of growing importance for environmental reasons and to reduce costs.

In the manufacture of cables have already been made some attempts to apply recycled polymeric materials, in particular polyvinylchloride (PVC) or ethylene polymers produced from old cable casing. These reusable polymeric materials typically used for the manufacture of the coating layer of the cables.

For example, document JP 2002/080671 reveals PVC recycled plastic composition obtained by mixing and melting of the plastic covering and shells of old cables and consisting of: (A) polyvinyl chloride and (B) polyethylene or crosslinked silane polyethylene chlorinated polyethylene. This polymer-based polyvinychloride is suitable for the production of cable sheaths.

The document JP 2001/098124 refers to termoplastow polymer composition and to the cable coated with this composition. Thermoplastic polymer composition contains: (A) 1-99 parts by weight of polymer composition containing p is Liminality polymer and a polyethylene polymer; and mentioned polyvinychloride polymer and a polyethylene polymer derived from old cables; and (B) 1-99 parts by weight of a multiphase graft copolymer containing (i) 5-99 wt.% thermoplast-elastomeric units, and (ii) 1-95 wt.% units of the vinyl polymer, and one of the units forms a disperse phase with a particle size of 0.001-10 μm in other units. Mentioned polymer composition has good flexibility and adaptability when it is used as an insulating layer or sheath for the cable.

The document JP 2002/363364 refers to reused polyvinychloride polymer composition containing a plasticizer with a molecular weight of at least 500, for example, plasticizer based trimellitate, complex polyester or epoxy resin. The above composition is suitable to use as coating materials for cables.

The document JP 2002/363363 refers to recycled polymer composition containing polyvinychloride, and the electric wire or cable made from it. This composition contains 100 parts by weight of a mixture of 99:1-70:30 polyvinylchloride polymer, which is usually reused material and polyolefin polymer; and 1-20 weight parts against 100 weight parts of the aforementioned mixture of blockcopolymer acrylic polymer and gidrirovannoe what about the polybutadiene in the ratio of 50:50-10:90. The above composition is suitable for use as coating materials of wires and cables.

The document JP 2002/103329 relates to a method for the disposal of used vinyl film (for example, polyvinychloride films) for agriculture. According to this method, roughly cut used vinyl film; removing impurities such as metals and sand, cut pieces; sent to the heater-mixer-dried whipped mass, obtained by grinding, washing, dehydration and drying of the mentioned pieces; a plasticizer, a heat stabilizer and other additives; heated mentioned materials; serves mixture in semi-molten state in the cooler-mixer, guide them, with mixing, in an extruder; ekstragiruyut them in a heated condition, is passed through a water bath and granularit. The obtained granules are dried to form the composition from which molded shell material for electric cables. The said cable has good properties comparable to cable, with original polyvinychloride shell.

But the use of recycled polymers can have some drawbacks. In particular, the applicant has found that the use of recycled polyethylene can give coatings with low mechanical properties, such as destroying atragene, elongation, resistance to cracking under the influence of environmental conditions compared to the original polymer materials. In addition, the aforementioned layers of the coating may have a degraded appearance, mainly due to the formation of defects on their surface, for example the formation of small agglomerates, which not only impair the appearance and violate the smoothness, but also reduce their mechanical characteristics.

The applicant believes that the above-mentioned disadvantages may be due to partial degradation of the qualities of polyethylene under prolonged exposure to sunlight or weather conditions, and/or recycling of the above-mentioned polyethylene; and this deterioration is the cause of the reduction of mechanical properties and processability.

The applicant has found that polyethylene is made from waste, in particular, polyethylene, obtained from agricultural films, useful for the manufacture of the coating layer of the cable. In particular, the applicant has found that the introduction of at least one polyethylene having a density above 0,940 g/CC in the above-mentioned recycled polyethylene allows to obtain the coating layer, capable of eliminating the above disadvantages. In fact, the above-mentioned coating material can expediently be used in the production of the coating layer of the cable; this coating provides mechanical characteristics (in particular, ultimate tensile stress at break and tensile strength), comparable with the characteristics of the original polyethylene. The above-mentioned coating layer has good heat resistance under pressure. The said coating layer has a high resistance to cracking under the influence of environmental factors compared with the coating layer obtained only from recycled polyethylene.

The first aspect of the present invention relates to a cable containing at least one core comprising at least one transmissive element and at least one coating layer made from a coating material containing:

at least a first polyethylene having a density of no more than 0,940 g/CC; preferably not less than 0.910 g/CC; more preferably between 0,915 g/CC, and 0,938 g/CC, and a melt flow index (MFI), measured at 190°at a load of 2.16 kg according to ASTM D1238-00, between 0.05 g/10' and 2 g/10', preferably between 0.1 g/10' and 1 g/10'; and first mentioned polyethylene obtained from waste;

at least a second polyethylene having a density above 0,940 g/CC, preferably not more than 0,970 g/CC, and more preferably between 0,942 g/CC, and 0,965 g/cubic cm

Mentioned layer pok is ytia is preferably the outer layer of the cable, perform safety functions.

According to another aspect, the invention also relates to a method for producing a cable having at least one core comprising at least one transmissive element and at least one coating layer made from the coating material; and the method comprises the stages:

obtaining at least a first polyethylene having a density of no more than 0,940 g/CC, preferably not less than 0.910 g/CC, and more preferably between 0,915 g/CC, and 0,938 g/CC, and a melt flow index (MFI), measured at 190°with a load of 2.16 kg according to ASTM D1238-00, between 0.05 g/10' and 2 g/10'; preferably between 0.1 g/10' and 1 g/10'in powdered form; and referred to the first polyethylene obtained from waste;

obtaining at least a second polyethylene with a density of more 0,940 g/CC, preferably not more than 0,970 g/CC, and more preferably between 0,942 g/CC, and 0,965 g/CC, in powdered form;

- applying at least one core containing at least one transmitting element, in an extruder, comprising a housing and at least one screw mounted for rotation in said housing; whereby the said housing has at least one raw material hopper and at least one outlet;

- melting and mixing the UE is mentioned first and second polyethylenes in the above-mentioned extruder to form a homogeneous mixture;

filtering mentioned mixture;

- applying the aforementioned mixture at the above-mentioned conductor containing at least one transmitting element, to obtain the coating layer.

In this description and in the accompanying claims the phrase "chopped" in General means the product in the form of granules, with an approximate size of average diameter of, typically, between 0.5 mm and 5 mm, preferably between 1 mm and 4 mm, and more preferably between 1.5 mm and 3 mm

The above-mentioned extruder is preferably a single screw extruder.

The above-mentioned melting and mixing is preferably performed at a temperature between 150°, 250°S, and more preferably between 120°and 230°C.

According to one preferred implementation of the invention first mentioned polyethylene and said second polyethylene are pre-mixed prior to stage their feeding into the extruder.

According to one preferred implementation of the above-mentioned coating material may also contain carbon soot.

According to one preferred implementation of the melting temperature of the first mentioned polyethylene below 130°S, and preferably between 100°and 125°C.

According to another one of the preferred implementations of the enthalpy of melting (Hmfirst, politi the s is between 50 j/g and 150 j/g, and preferably between 80 j/g and 140 j/g

The enthalpy of melting (Hm) can be identified by the method of differential scanning calorimetry at a speed of scanning 10°C /min; other particular analytical method described in the below examples.

First mentioned polyethylene may also contain carbon black. Usually mentioned carbon black can be present in the polyethylene in the amount of more than 2 wt.%, preferably between 2.5 wt.% and 4.0 wt.% the total weight of the polyethylene.

Mentioned first polyethylene can choose from among the following materials: low-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene, or mixtures thereof. Particularly preferred are mixtures of low density polyethylene with a small amount of linear low density polyethylene, preferably not more than 15 wt.% the total weight of the polyethylene.

According to one preferred implementation of the mentioned first polyethylene is present in the coating in amounts of between 30 wt.% and 60 wt.%, preferably between 40 wt.% and 60 wt.% the total weight of the coating material.

Examples of the said first polyethylene, which can be used according to the present invention and which is issued by the industry, is the product p is obtainable from used agricultural plastic films (for example, "Alfaten" production company Alfagran).

According to one preferred implementation of the mentioned second polyethylene has a melt flow index (MFI), measured at a temperature of 190°S, with a load of 2.16 kg according to ASTM D1238-00, between 0.05 g/10' and 2 g/10', preferably between 0.1 g/10' and 1 g/10'.

According to another one of the preferred implementations, the melting temperature of this second polyethylene above 120°C, preferably between 125°and 165°C.

According to another one of the preferred implementations of the enthalpy of melting (Hm) this second polyethylene is between 125 j/kg and 200 j/kg, and preferably between 130 j/kg and 185 j/kg

The enthalpy of melting (Hm) can be determined as mentioned above by the method of differential scanning calorimetry.

According to another preferred implementation of the second polyethylene is a polyethylene obtained from waste. As a variant, the said polyethylene obtained from waste contains small amounts of polypropylene, preferably not more than 15 wt.% the total weight of the polyethylene.

According to another preferred implementation of the second polyethylene is present in the coating in amounts of between Wes.% and 70 wt.%, preferably between 40 wt.% and 60 wt.% the total weight of the coating material.

An example of this second polyethylene, which can be used according to the present invention and which is available today in the industry, is the product DGDK-3364 Natural of the Dow Chemical company, or a product obtained from used bottles (for example, from Breplast).

To protect the coating material from the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation from this material, as mentioned above, may contain carbon black. Black carbon is preferably introduced into the coating material in amounts of between 2 wt.% and 5 wt.%, preferably between 2.5 wt.% and 4.0 wt.% the total weight of the coating material. Black carbon can be introduced into the coating material in the form in which it is or as masterbatches in polyethylene. It is preferable uterine mixture.

According to the present invention in the coating material, you can enter other conventional additives, such as antioxidants, technological excipients, lubricants, pigments, foaming agents, plasticizers, stabilizers against the action of light, inhibitors of inflammation, fillers, stabilizers against the action of heat, or a mixture thereof.

Suitable conventional antioxidants you can choose from a number of amine or pheno is lnyh antioxidants, such as the cured trimethyldihydroquinoline (for example, poly-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline), 4,4'-THIOBIS-(3-methyl-6-tert-butyl)-phenol; pentaerythrol-Tetra-[3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate]; 2,2'-thiodiethyl-bis-[3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl]propionate, or mixtures thereof.

The usual process auxiliary substances suitable for this purpose, you can choose, for example, from among the following: calcium stearate, zinc stearate, stearic acid, paraffin, or mixtures thereof.

Normal fillers, suitable for this purpose, you can choose, for example, from among the following: glass particles, glass fibers, calcined clay, talc, or mixtures thereof.

The coating material according to the present invention may also be stitched or unstitched - according to the technical conditions applicable in different countries. The above-mentioned coating material preferably is seamless.

If you are stitching, the coating material also contains a crosslinking system peroxide or silane type, for example, it is preferable to use a silanol crosslinking system that uses peroxide as engrafting substances. Examples of organic peroxides that can be used as cross-linking substances, and engrafting substances for silanes are the following substances: PE is ekici of Dicumyl, peroxide tert-butylamine, 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-di(tert-BUTYLPEROXY)hexane, peroxide di-tert-butyl, tert-BUTYLPEROXY-3,3,5-trimethylhexanoate, ethyl-3,3-di(tert-BUTYLPEROXY)butyrate. Examples of suitable silanes: (C1-C4-alkyloxyalkyl, such as, for example: vinylimidazole, vinyltriethoxysilane, vinylimidazole.

Cross-linking system may also contain a catalyst for the crosslinking selected from known catalysts, for example, consider the use of dibutyltindilaurate lead.

Mentioned the first polyethylene can be obtained from waste in the form of product in powdered form by known methods. For example, the above mentioned product in powdered form can be obtained by the method, according to which:

(a) removing debris (e.g., metal, paper and others), which do not necessarily present in the waste, for example, by a conveyor feed waste and manually remove this garbage);

(b) the waste after stage (a) [(for example, the same pipeline stage (a)] is fed to the mill to get the flakes with an average diameter between about 0.1 mm and about 2.0 cm;

(c) washing the flakes obtained in stage (b), in water and filter them to remove impurities, the density of which is greater than 1 kg/l;

(d) dried flakes obtained in stage (C) (for example, in the drying device), using warm ishaga air;

(e) serves the dried flakes obtained in stage (d), in an extruder, comprising a housing and at least one screw mounted rotatably in said housing and containing at least one raw material hopper and the discharge outlet;

(f) is melted and mixed referred flakes, obtaining a homogeneous mixture;

(g) filter and granularit homogeneous mixture obtained in stage (f), to obtain the product in powdered form;

(h) cooling the product in powdered form, obtained in stage (g) (e.g., in water);

(i) chilled dried product obtained in stage (h) (for example, in the drying device), with the help of warm and dry air.

The homogeneous mixture obtained in stage (f), preferably served in the second extruder, to obtain a more homogeneous mixture.

The above extruders are preferably single-screw extruders.

Stage (g) granulation preferably can be accomplished by grinding the homogeneous mixture obtained in stage (f), known slicing devices.

Other details are explained with the accompanying drawings, in which

Fig. 1 is a cross - section of the electrical cable unipolar type according to one implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is a cross - section of the electrical cable tripolar type according to another one of the of sushestvennih of the present invention;

Fig. 3 is a depiction in perspective of a section of cable with remote phased components to illustrate its structure according to one of the implementations of the present invention;

Fig. 4 is a cross section of an optical cable according to one of the implementations of the present invention;

Fig. 5 is a cross - section of an optical cable according to one of the implementations of the present invention;

Fig. 6 is a depiction in perspective of a section of optical cable with remote phased components to illustrate its structure, according to one of the implementations of the present invention;

Fig. 7a and 7b is a side view and partial horizontal projection of the production line according to one implementation of the present invention.

Fig. 8 in accordance with Fig. 1 cable 1 contains 2 wire, an inner insulating coating layer 3 and the outer layer 4, which may be performed in accordance with the present invention.

In Fig. 2 cable 1 contains three wires 2, each of which is covered with an insulating coating layer 3. Isolated thus the wire 2 is wound around each other, and the surface between the insulated wires 2 is filled with filler, which forms a solid structure essentially cylindrical shape. The filler material 5 is preferably moderator the ignition. The outer layer 6 made according to the present invention, caused usually by extrusion on the thus obtained structure.

In Fig. 3 cable 11 includes, from the center toward the outside: the wire 12, the inner semi-conducting layer 13, insulating layer 14 covering the outer semi-conducting layer 15, a metal shielding shell 16 and the outer layer 17.

The wire 12 is typically a metal wire, preferably of copper or aluminum, stranded in the usual ways. The inner and outer semi-conductive layers 13 and 15 are extruded on the wire 12 separately or simultaneously with the insulating layer 14 covering. The shielding shell 16, as a rule, consisting of helically wound wires or tapes, usually located around the outer semi-conductive layer 15. Mentioned shielding shell is then covered with the outer layer 17, which may be performed in accordance with the present invention.

The cable may also have an outer protective structure (in the drawing Fig. 3 not shown), which mainly performs the function of mechanical protection of the cable from impact and/or compression. Mentioned protective structure may be, for example, the metal armor or a layer of expanded polymeric material according to the patent application WO 98/52197.

Fig. 4 shows the cross section of the optical cable 1A, consisting of the external layer 2A, which can be implemented according to the present invention; a number of tubes 3A of polymer material containing optical fibers 4A, usually embedded in the sealing material 5A, which is intended to prevent longitudinal distribution of water in case of accidental rupture; and the tube containing the optical fiber is wound around the Central bearing 6A, which is usually made of glass fiber reinforced plastic and which restricts thermal compression cable (twisting may be continuous or alternating, usually called S-Z). Alternatively, between the outer layer tubes 2A and 3A can be inserted intermediate the sealing material 7a, which penetrates into the interconnections between the pipes and the floor, between one tube and the next, and between the tubes and the support to limit axial distribution of water inside the cable.

Fig. 5 shows a cross-section of the optical cable, similar to the showing in the drawing of Fig. 4, with the difference that the inside of the outer layer 2A does not have a layer 8A hardening against stretching (e.g., fiberglass or fiber, polyaramid threads, such as the product known under the trade name Kevlar); in addition, the tube 3A with optical fibers in them surrounded by a shell of polymeric material 2b having one or more layers that can be made is received in accordance with the present invention. In addition, according to the implementation in accordance with Fig. 5, the Central support includes core 6A, made for example of glass fiber reinforced plastic or similar materials and limiting thermal compression of the cable; and a coating 6A, made for example of a polymer which increases the core diameter to the value calculated on the containment of the required number of tubes wound around it.

Fig. 6 shows the image in the future optical cable 11a according to the present invention, in which optical fibers 13A placed in locations in Central grooved conductor 12A made of a polymeric material, which optionally may come in contact with the corresponding seal 14a; having grooves lived may, alternatively, contain a Central support made of reinforced fiberglass plastic 15A. Having grooves lived surrounded by a group of layers (16A, 16b), at least one of which can be performed in accordance with the present invention, and the above-mentioned layer 17A hardening against stretching; as a variant, the structure of the cable may also contain tape to hold it and/or protection of the fibers 18a, and extending from humidity tape 18b (for example, a tape from a complex polyester or polyamide, filled with the expanding moisture materials such the AK sodium polyacrylate), to limit the longitudinal propagation of water inside the cable.

Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 show only some of the possible implementation of the cable according to the present invention.

In Fig. 7a and 7b schematically shows the main stages of the production lines for the manufacture of cables according to the present invention, which is as follows:

- stage roll-out veins that contain at least one transmitting element, with the feed reel and delivery mentioned veins inside the extrusion head of this extruder;

- the stage of filing of the first polyethylene and the second polyethylene forming the coating layer of the above-mentioned cable, in the above-mentioned extruder;

- stage melting and mixing the aforementioned first and second polyethylenes in the extruder; and then execute stage filtering the resulting mixture and delivering the filtered mixture into the extrusion head, where the resulting coating layer is placed around the said wires;

- stage cooling made so cable; and

- a collection of ready-made cable on the reel.

If the coating material is a material stitched type, the stitching perform at the stage of cooling.

In More Detail, Fig. 7a schematically shows a side projection of the above-mentioned production lines 20 and Fig. 7b shows a partial horizon is the function of the projection of said line 20 - with images of the first stages of the above-mentioned method.

In Fig. 7a and 7b lived 21 containing the wire, such as copper wire, and an insulating coating layer, leaves the feed spool 22 according to the prior art and is fed to the extrusion head 23 of the screw extruder, such as type, turn the usual motor (not shown).

In Fig. 7b shows the second feed bobbin 22' in the off position, replacing the first bobbin 22 after completion of the unwinding of the wires 21 with the said first spool.

Also, according to Fig. 7a shows the system of 24, consisting of pulleys and gear wheels, providing a smooth and continuous supply wires 21 in the extruder 23, in particular, at the stage at which the coil ends 22, and also provides a constant tension of the conductor 21 at a given speed, to ensure a uniform extrusion of the coating layer on the core 21.

Normal forward speed veins is between 10 m/min and 1000 m/min

Simultaneously with otmuchivanie wires 21 from the feed spool 22 at the entrance of the extruder 23 in a known manner, for example by means of the hopper 25, serves the first polyethylene, the second polyethylene and a common additive present as an option, as mentioned above, in the coating layer. The first polyethylene, the second polyethylene and a common additive present, alternatively, in the above-mentioned coating material, which can be pre-mixed prior to feeding into the extruder device, previous production line shown in Fig. 7a and 7b. Pre-mixing of the first polyethylene, the second polyethylene and conventional additives, the audience, as a variant, the coating material can be performed, for example, Banbury mixer, twin screw extruder or during the above-mentioned process to obtain a first polyethylene in powdered form.

Preferably, for the purposes of the present invention, the first polyethylene, the second polyethylene and a common additive present, as a variant, the coating material is mixed in the extruder used in stage (e) the above-mentioned method, to obtain a first polyethylene in powdered form.

Mentioned the first polyethylene, the second polyethylene and a common additive present, as a variant, the coating material, in their original form or after pre-mixing is loaded into the hopper 25 by means of suction nozzles, which draw material directly from the packing containers.

In the extruder 23 mentioned polyethylene with conventional additives present, as an option, are mixed to obtain homogeneity and plastifitsirujushchih, i.e. are in the molten state, by operation of the screw, which pushes the material of the coating layer of the coating, giving it the pressure necessary to compensate for the emission of pressure loss, due to the presence of different components that comprise the extrusion line.

The obtained coating material then passes below the stage filtration, and at the end of the extruder 23 is applied onto the line 21 to obtain the desired coating layer.

In this implementation, the cable then passes the appropriate cooling cycle due to the movement of the cable in the channel 26 cooling, containing an appropriate liquid, usually water at ambient temperature.

Fig. 7a shows the system 27 for repeated passage of the cable into the cooling channel 26, which consists of, for example, storage for the production line, in which the cable is accumulated in an amount sufficient to guarantee constant and equal to the number of spare cable.

This system 27 may also perform the function of the direction of the thus obtained cable for longer route in the cooling channel to provide a more efficient cooling cycle the cable.

After this stage, cooling the cable is dried using air blowers (not shown) and wound on a bobbin 28 collection, and sent for storage.

Filtering the coating material plasticized and homogenized mentioned auger, perform filtration nozzle after the auger inlet connecting pipe, the which connects the extrusion head with the body, which moves the extrusion auger.

Filtration nozzle may contain one or more sequential filter sieves, usually three in number, or more, mounted on a support plate 32 of the filter.

It should be noted that the choice of number and type of filter sieves used in the section filtering process largely depends on the chemical and physical characteristics of the filtered coating material.

A method of manufacturing a cable according to Fig. 7a and 7b described with reference to the production version single (unipolar) power cable illustrated in Fig. 1. For the manufacture of other power cable, or optical cable, or combined electro-optical cable described above, the method can be appropriately modified according to the prior art.

The invention is further described in the following examples, illustrative, and should not be construed as limiting the invention.

Examples 1-5

Preparation of coating materials

Table 1 shows the characteristics of the components used in these examples.

Used the following components:

- recycled polyethylene: a mixture of 90 wt.% low density polyethylene and 10 wt.% if anago low density polyethylene, containing 2.5 wt.% carbon black and which used agricultural film;

- DGDK-3364 Natural: polyethylene high density production of the Dow Chemical company;

- recycled high density polyethylene: contains 10 wt.% isotactic polypropylene, which are used bottle (Breplast);

- DGDK 6059 Black: linear composition of low density for cable sheath, manufactured by Dow Chemical company.

The melt flow index (MFI) was measured at 190°S, with a load of 2.16 kg according to ASTM D1238-00.

The density was measured at 23°according to the standard CEI EN 60811-1-3.

The melting temperature and enthalpy of melting (Hm) were measured by instruments Mettler DSC (second value melting) at a scanning speed of 10°C /min (type head device - DCS 30; type of microprocessor - FC 11; software - Mettler Graphware THAT).

The content of carbon black was determined by the instrument Mettler TGA in the following way:

- heating with 20°850°With a scanning speed of 20°C/min in N2(60 ml/min);

- keeping at 850°C for 1 min in N2(60 ml/min);

- keeping at 850°C for 10 min (60 ml/min).

The obtained data are presented in Table 1.

Table 1
ComponentFlow index

melt

(MFI)
Density

(g/CC)
Melting point

(°C)
The enthalpy of melting

(J/g)
Carbon

soot (%)
Utiliser.

PE
0,450,9201211102,5
DGDK-3364

Natural
0,700,945127180-
Utiliser.

PE high

density
0,210,960131156-
DFDG 6059

Black
0,600,932--2,6

The coating materials are presented in Table 2 (number of components are given in weight% the total weight of the coating material), were prepared as follows.

Agricultural film was applied on the conveyor, and debris (metal, paper, etc.) were removed manually. Then the same conveyor tape fed into the mill to obtain flakes average diameter size essentially from 0.1 cm to 2.0, see

The resulting flakes were washed in water and then filtered to remove impurities, having a density of more than 1 kg/L. Flakes are then dried in the drying device, and dry air.

Wysu the military flakes, thus obtained, Vibatan PE black 99415, Anox HB, DGDK 3364, recycled high density polyethylene in amounts according to Table 2, was sent to the first single-screw extruder configuration 32 D, with a rotation speed of about 60 rpm, with the temperature in different zones of the extruder 215-225-225-220-225-225°C, with the temperature of the extrusion head 220°C. the resulting mixture was filtered (cell size: 180 μm), and then directed into a second single screw extruder configuration 32 D, with a speed of about 100 rpm, with temperatures in different zones of the extruder 128-167-167-177-190-206°s, and the head temperature was equal to 200°C. the resulting mixture was filtered (cell size: 110 μm), and was then granulated with a cutting device in the form of rotating blades with obtaining granules of an average diameter 4 mm

Then, the obtained pellets were cooled in water and dried in the drying device warm and dry air.

Table 2
Examples1(*)2345(*)
Recycled PE100565651-
Vibatan PE Black 99415-333-
Anox HB -111-
DGDK-3364

Natural
--40--
Recycled PE high

density
-40-45-
DFDG-6059

Black
----100
(*): comparative

Vibatan PE Black 99415: 40% dispersion of carbon black in the low-density polyethylene (VISA Group);

Anox HB: polymer of 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline (Greate Lakes Chemical)

The obtained granules were then analyzed.

Heat under pressure

Test heat under pressure at 115°it was conducted according to the standard IBC 60811-3-1.

For this purpose, the plate thickness of 1 mm were prepared by direct molding at 190°C and 20 bar after pre-heating for 10 min at the same temperature.

Thus obtained wafer was subjected to temperatures 115°C under load 475 g during 6 hours. Then was measured residual thickness. Check heat resistance under pressure is a measurement of the residual thickness in percent of the initial thickness. The data obtained are given in Table 3.

Hardness/p>

The shore hardness D was determined according to ASTM D2240-03.

For this purpose, the plate thickness of 8 mm were prepared in accordance with the above method. The data obtained are given in Table 3.

Resistance to cracking under the influence of the environment

This test was performed according to the standard D-1693 Cond. A.

For this purpose, the plate thickness of 3 mm and a slice thickness of 0.65 mm in the case of the coating material according to Example 1 (comparative), and with a thickness of 2 mm and a slice thickness of 0.4 mm in accordance with the present invention and Example 5 (comparative) was prepared according to the described above method. The measurement was performed at a temperature of 50°With, in the presence of 10% Igepal solution. The data obtained are given in Table 3.

Table 3
Example1(*)2345(*)
Heat under pressure (%)3097,5969790
Resistance to cracking

(watch)
<24969672>500
The shore hardness D5055555756
(*) comparative

The above data show that the coating materials according to the invention (Examples 2-4) give the values of the resistance under pressure and shore hardness D higher compared with the values provided only one recycled polyethylene (Example 1), and are comparable with the values of industrial product (Example 5), or even exceed them. With regard to resistance to cracking under the influence of the environment, the coating material according to the present invention exhibits improved performance in comparison with material obtained from only one recycled polyethylene.

Examples 6-10

Small cables were prepared by extrusion of the coating materials according to Examples 1-5 on a single copper wire with cross-section 1.5 sq. mm, to obtain a cable with a thickness of 3.4 mm Extrusion was performed using 45 mm single screw extruder Bandera configuration 25 D, with a speed of rotation of about 45 rpm operating speed was 10 m/min, the temperature in different zones was 115-160-190-180°and the temperature of the extrusion head was 180°C.

The samples were manually embossed extruded layer to measure the mechanical characteristics in accordance with standard CEI 20-34, Section 5.1, using the app is RA Instron, at a speed of stretching of 25 mm/min, the Obtained data are given in Table 4.

Table 4
Examples6(*)78910(*)
Ultimate tensile stress (MPa)15,819,418,919,820,9
Elongation at break (%)515622629650710
(*) comparative

The above data show that the coating materials according to the invention (Examples 7-9) have higher mechanical properties compared with the characteristics of only one recycled polyethylene (Example 6), and are comparable with the properties of the manufactured product (Example 10).

As mentioned above, two samples were also examined for defects the surface of the extruded layers of coating: the accompanying photograph (Fig. 8 - in full scale) shows that the extruded coating layer obtained only from one recycled polyethylene (Sample 6 - sample (A)), has the defects on the surface (for example, there are small agglomerates); and, on the contrary, extruded coatings obtained and the coating material according to the present invention (Examples 9 - sample (C)), does not have on its surface visible defects.

1. A cable containing at least one core having at least one transmissive element and at least one coating layer made of the coating material, and the said coating material contains

at least a first polyethylene having a density of no more than 0,940 g/cm3and a melt flow index (MFI), measured at 190°with a load of 2.16 kg according to ASTM D1238-00, between 0.05 g/10 min and 2 g/10 min, in fact the first polyethylene obtained from waste and is present in the coating in amounts of between 30 and 90 wt.% the total weight of the coating material;

at least a second polyethylene with a density of more 0,940 g/cm3where the above-mentioned second polyethylene is present in the coating in amounts of between 10 and 70 wt.% the total weight of the coating material.

2. The cable according to claim 1 where the above-mentioned first polyethylene has a density of at least 0.910 g/cm3.

3. The cable according to claim 1 or 2 where the above-mentioned first polyethylene has a density between 0,915 and 0,938 g/cm3.

4. The cable according to claim 1 where the above-mentioned first polyethylene has a melt flow index (MFI), measured at 190°with a load of 2.16 kg according to ASTM D1238-00, between 0.1 and 1 g/10 minutes

5. The cable according to claim 1 where the above-mentioned second polyethylene has a density of not bolee,970 g/cm 3.

6. The cable according to claim 5 where the above-mentioned second polyethylene has a density between 0,942 and 0,965 g/cm3.

7. The cable according to claim 1, where the above-mentioned coating layer is the outer layer of the cable, performs a protective function.

8. The cable according to claim 1 where the above-mentioned first polyethylene has a melting point below 130°C.

9. Cable of claim 8 where the above-mentioned first polyethylene has a melting point between 100 and 125°C.

10. The cable according to claim 1 where the above-mentioned first polyethylene has an enthalpy of melting (ΔNmbetween 50 and 150 j/g

11. Cable of claim 10 where the above-mentioned first polyethylene has an enthalpy of melting point between 80 and 140 j/g

12. The cable according to claim 1, where the first mentioned polyethylene contains carbon black in the amount of more than 2 wt.% the total weight of the polyethylene.

13. The cable indicated in paragraph 12, where the first mentioned polyethylene contains carbon black in amounts of between 2.5 and 4.0 wt.% the total weight of the polyethylene.

14. The cable according to claim 1, where the first mentioned polyethylene chosen from low-density polyethylene, linear low density polyethylene, polyethylene, very low density, or mixtures thereof.

15. The cable 14 where the above-mentioned first polyethylene is selected from mixtures of low density polyethylene in an amount of not more than 15 wt.% the total weight of the polyethylene, linear low density polyethylene.

16. The cable according to claim 1 where the above-mentioned paragraph is pout polyethylene is present in the coating in amounts of between 40 and 60 wt.% the total weight of the coating material.

17. The cable according to claim 1 where the above-mentioned second polyethylene has a melt flow index (MFI), measured at 190°with a load of 2.16 kg according to ASTM D1238-00, between 0.05 and 2 g/10 minutes

18. The cable 17 where the above-mentioned second polyethylene has a melt flow index (MFI), measured at 190°with a load of 2.16 kg according to ASTM D1238-00, between 0.1 and 1 g/10 minutes

19. The cable according to claim 1 where the above-mentioned second polyethylene has a melting point above 120°C.

20. The cable according to claim 19 where the above-mentioned second polyethylene has a melting point between 125 and 165°C.

21. The cable according to claim 1 where the above-mentioned second polyethylene has an enthalpy of melting (ΔNmbetween 125 and 200 j/g

22. The cable according to item 21 where the above-mentioned second polyethylene has an enthalpy of melting (ΔNmbetween 130 and 185 j/,

23. The cable according to claim 1 where the above-mentioned second polyethylene is a polyethylene obtained from waste.

24. The cable according to item 23, where the said polyethylene obtained from waste contains polypropylene in an amount of not more than 15 wt.% the total weight of the polyethylene.

25. The cable according to claim 1 where the above-mentioned second polyethylene is present in the coating in amounts of between 40 and 60 wt.% the total weight of the coating material.

26. The cable according to claim 1, where the said coating material contains carbon soot.

27. The cable on p, where mention is th carbon black is introduced into the coating material in amounts of between 2 and 5 wt.% the total weight of the coating material.

28. The cable according to item 27 where the above-mentioned carbon black is introduced into the coating material in amounts of between 2.5 and 4.0 wt.% the total weight of the coating material.

29. The cable according to claim 1, where the above-mentioned coating material is either stitched or unstitched.

30. The cable according to clause 29, where the above-mentioned coating material is seamless.

31. A method of manufacturing a cable containing at least one core having at least one transmissive element and at least one coating layer made of the coating material; and the above-mentioned method includes a stage

obtaining at least a first polyethylene having a density of no more than 0,940 g/cm3with a melt flow index (MFI), measured at 190°with a load of 2.16 kg according to ASTM D1238-00, between 0.05 and 2 g/10 min in powdered form, and referred to the first polyethylene obtained from waste;

obtaining at least a second polyethylene with a density of more 0,940 g/cm3in powdered form;

feeding at least one core containing at least one transmitting element, in an extruder, comprising a housing and at least one screw mounted for rotation in said casing, and the said body has at least one raw material hopper and at least one outlet;

filing upon the other of the first and second polyethylenes in the above-mentioned extruder;

melting and mixing the aforementioned first and second polyethylenes in the above-mentioned extruder with the formation of a homogeneous mixture;

the mentioned filtering the mixture;

the application mentioned mixture at the above-mentioned conductor containing at least one transmitting element, to obtain the coating layer.

32. A method of manufacturing a cable according to p where the above-mentioned first polyethylene has a density of at least 0.910 g/cm3.

33. A method of manufacturing a cable according to p or 32 where the above-mentioned first polyethylene has a density between 0,915 and 0,938 g/cm3.

34. A method of manufacturing a cable according to p where the above-mentioned first polyethylene has a melt flow index (MFI), measured at 190°with a load of 2.16 kg according to ASTM D1238-00, between 0.1 and 1 g/10 minutes

35. A method of manufacturing a cable according to p where the above-mentioned second polyethylene has a density of not more than 0,970 g/cm3.

36. A method of manufacturing a cable according to p where the above-mentioned second polyethylene has a density between 0,942 and 0,965 g/cm3.

37. A method of manufacturing a cable according to p where the above-mentioned extruder is a single screw extruder.

38. A method of manufacturing a cable according to p where the above-mentioned stage of melting and mixing is performed at a temperature between 150 and 250°C.

39. A method of manufacturing a cable according to p where the above-mentioned stage of melting and mixing apolnet at a temperature of between 120 and 230° C.

40. A method of manufacturing a cable according to p where the above-mentioned first polyethylene and the above-mentioned second polyethylene pre-mix stage before feeding them into the extruder.

41. A method of manufacturing a cable according to p where the above-mentioned first polyethylene obtained from waste in powdered form by the process comprising the following stages:

(a) removing debris, which is not necessarily present in the waste;

(b) supply of waste received at stage (a) in the mill with obtaining flakes with an average diameter between about 0.1 cm and about 2.0 cm;

(c) washing the flakes obtained in stage (b), in water and filtering them to remove impurities, the density of which is greater than 1 kg/l;

(d) drying the flakes obtained in stage (C) (for example in the drying device) with warm and dry air;

(e) feeding the dried flakes obtained in stage (d), in an extruder, comprising a housing and at least one screw mounted, with the possibility of rotation in said casing, and containing at least one raw material hopper and the discharge outlet;

(f) melting and mixing the above-mentioned cereals with obtaining a homogeneous mixture;

(g) filtering and granulating the homogeneous mixture obtained in stage (f), to obtain the product in powdered form;

(h) cooling the product and melcena, obtained in stage (g);

(i) drying the cooled product obtained in stage (h) with warm and dry air.

42. A method of manufacturing a cable according to paragraph 41, where the homogeneous mixture obtained in stage (f)is fed to the second extruder.

43. A method of manufacturing a cable according to paragraph 41, where the above extruders are single-screw extruders.



 

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