Filtering material made from polyvinyl alcohol

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed filter for filtering a water stream consists of filtering material made from a water soluble fibrous material, made from polyvinyl alcohol, and a carrier for the fibrous material, in which the filtering material contains a thread or bundle made from polyvinyl alcohol and the carrier has a core. The thread or bundle is wound around the core. A method of filtering a stream of water using the given filter is also proposed.

EFFECT: invention is efficient for eliminating wastes.

20 cl, 5 dwg

 

The technical FIELD TO WHICH the INVENTION RELATES.

The present invention relates, generally, filtering materials made of polyvinyl alcohol.

The prior art INVENTIONS

Over the last 60 years, international treaties, acts of Congress and Executive orders has led to a number of rules and standards governing all aspects of environmental protection and health and safety practices in the workplace. In particular, are heavily regulated and controlled removal of industrial waste. National dumps were closed, and the industry was forced to turn to the use of alternatives such as conservation, reuse, mixing of fuel injection in deep wells and burning. In these conditions, the industry is mainly focused on the reduction of the discharge of hazardous and toxic wastes in the face of increasing costs for treatment and disposal, providing increased safety of workers and the control detection. "Responsibility from cradle to grave", which must now be borne by the industry, greatly increased the importance of minimizing waste, while the safety rules in the workplace has focused on the detection and monitoring of hazardous and toxic waste generated. This minimization ododo who becomes the center of attention in many industries as a means of control disposal of their hazardous waste while maintaining high levels of security jobs and impact control.

A typical example is the medical industry that generates millions of pounds of waste each year. A large amount of data waste refers to the use of disposable materials such as personal protective clothing, equipment and accessories necessary for patient care, which are contaminated with human excreta, human waste and/or chemicals, which makes them dangerous for reuse. To prevent the spread of the disease is necessary and required by law to get rid of these materials and not to use them again regardless of the level of contamination of the product.

In addition, the nuclear industry also generates millions of pounds of waste each year. In the nuclear industry, most of the waste likewise relates to the use of disposable materials such as personal protective clothing, bags, hats, rags, and other accessories, which are contaminated with even small levels of radioactive materials and, therefore, are dangerous and impractical for reuse. The practice of recycling and burying the waste in the nuclear industry is carefully regulated, and locations for nuclear waste are becoming more rare and more expensive.

Various other industrial sector the STI also generate waste streams with similar characteristics. In search of alternatives to landfill and incineration were developed water-soluble products. In some cases water-soluble products can be neutralized with basic equipment for processing of water or similar. Thus, in some cases, water-soluble products are a convenient and economical alternative to conventional means of disposal of waste. These products provide a means for separating dirt and easy and cheap to remove most unspoiled part in streams municipal or ordinary waste, thus greatly reducing the total amount of hazardous waste that must be recycled in accordance with special regulations (and expensive) methods of disposal.

Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is the most commonly used material for the manufacture of disposable personal equipment, such as clothing, linens, Drapes, towels, swabs, gauze, utensils, rags, mops, and other needed items normally used in an industrial environment. These items are often made from non-woven, woven, knitted or otherwise formed thermoplastic polymer films, fabrics and fibers of polyvinyl alcohol that is water soluble, giving data subjects described above advantages for recycling.

the conventional filter materials, used in industry, especially during the filtration of hazardous or toxic waste, made of water-insoluble materials and do not provide the advantages of water-soluble products, such as those described above. Due to increased disposal costs and regulations many nuclear plants have programmes filters, preferring to use long-term local storage as an alternative to burial. Although it is designed to solve the urgent problems of the utilization of filters in supercompression space nuclear disposal, it has long-term disadvantages. Conventional filter materials have a tendency to decay over time. After several years of storage data filters, in the end, have to be tried and put in order. The probability of leakage of radioactivity due to the unstable filter materials increases with duration of storage.

Another problem related to the use of conventional filter materials, this overhead associated with persistence conventional filter materials. Special facilities must be constructed, maintained and monitored. This procedure leads to increased insurance premiums.

In the art the necessary filtering materials that (1) eliminate one or more problems, wired the x with the usual filter materials, (2) provide one or more possible advantages such as (a) reducing the generation of hazardous and toxic waste, (b) reducing the costs of waste management, (C) compliance with the rules for waste minimization and (d) increase workplace safety and staff and impact control.

The INVENTION

This application is addressed to some difficulties and problems discussed above by the discovery of new filter materials containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Filter materials of the present application provide one or more advantages including but not limited to, (a) reducing the generation of hazardous and toxic waste, (b) reducing the costs of waste management, (C) compliance with the rules for waste minimization and (d) increase workplace safety and staff and impact control. Data filtering materials can have a variety of filter configurations and may contain additional materials, other than PVA. In one desirable embodiment, the present invention filter media containing 90 percent by weight or greater of water-soluble PVA.

In one typical embodiment of the present invention a filter suitable for filtering the water flow. In this embodiment, the filter includes (a) filtering the material, containing water-soluble filament or bundle of polyvinyl alcohol and (b) a carrier for the filter material, and the carrier comprises a tubular core with flow channels passing through the side wall of the tubular core, and mentioned flow channels provide a fluid flow of the water flow through the tubular core and the flow channels, in this thread or harness is wound on the core and over the flow channels.

The present invention is also directed to methods of making and use of filter materials containing PVA material. In one typical embodiment, filter materials can be used for implementation of certain objectives (i.e. filtering) and then eliminated by dissolution of filter materials. Radioactive waste can be separated from the water soluble components of filter materials, essentially reducing the amount of radioactive waste and scrap.

The present invention is additionally directed to a method of reducing the amount of radioactive waste generated by a dirty filter, this method comprises the elimination of the filter by placing the filter in a water bath under such conditions that at least part of the filter is dissolved. Preferably, if a water-soluble component of the filter contains the PV is. This method can optionally contain one or more additional stages, including, but not limited to, separation of radioactive material from the dissolved parts of the filter in a water bath.

In one typical embodiment of the present invention a method of reducing the amount of radioactive waste generated by a contaminated filter contains (a) filtering the aqueous stream containing radioactive material, the filter containing water-soluble fibrous material of polyvinyl alcohol, at this stage filtration leads to foul the filter; (b) removal of contaminated filter by placing the contaminated filter in a water bath under such conditions that at least part of the contaminated filter dissolves and (C) the Department of radioactive material from the dissolved material in the water bath with the technology Department.

The present invention is also directed to a method of reducing the amount of radioactive waste generated by at least one contaminated product, this method contains (i) the elimination of at least one contaminated product by placing at least one contaminated product in a water bath under such conditions that at least part of this product is dissolved and (ii) the filter is their any undissolved material from the water bath using, at least one filter containing a water-soluble material is polyvinyl alcohol. In a subsequent operation or step of the method, at least one filter containing a water-soluble material of the polyvinyl alcohol may be removed by dissolving water-soluble components, at least one filter, further reducing the amount of radioactive waste in the way.

The present invention is additionally directed to a method of processing material containing at least one polymer containing phases (i) introducing at least one oxidizing agent and a material containing at least one polymer in an aqueous environment, with at least one above-mentioned polymer is a polymer capable of developing, decompose or disintegrate in at least one decomposition product; (ii) transformation, decomposition or dissolution of at least part of at least one polymer in conditions effective to provide at least one decomposition product, and (iii) filtering the water environment using a filter containing a water-soluble material is polyvinyl alcohol. In a subsequent operation or step of the method, the filter containing water-soluble material of the polyvinyl alcohol may be removed by dissolving water-soluble com is onenew filter, additionally, reducing the amount of radioactive waste generated in the method.

In an additional embodiment, the present invention is directed to a method of processing aqueous medium containing at least partially dissolved, potentially radioactive material consisting of at least one water-soluble polymer, this method comprises the steps of (a) providing aqueous medium containing at least partially dissolved, potentially radioactive material consisting of at least one water-soluble polymer and (b) filtering at least part of the dissolved material from the water environment using at least one filter containing water-soluble material of the polyvinyl alcohol.

Data and other characteristics and advantages of the present invention will become apparent after consideration of the subsequent detailed description of the disclosed embodiments and the appended claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

Fig. 1 depicts a typical filter material of the present invention having the twisted design of the cartridge;

Fig. 2 depicts an end view of a typical filter material with Fig. 1 seen along the line A-A;

Fig. 3 depicts a partial section of a typical filter material with Fig. 1, if e is ω part of a twisted fibrous material removed from the core;

Fig. 4 depicts a typical filter material of the present invention, with the design of corrugated filter; and

Fig. 5 is a diagram of a typical system for processing waste streams using one or more filter materials of the present invention.

DETAILED description of the INVENTION

The present invention is directed to a filter material containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The present invention is also directed to methods of making and use of filter materials containing PVA material. Polyvinyl alcohol has some unique and positive physical and chemical characteristics for the production of filter materials. Excellent stability of polyvinyl alcohol to chemicals, acid and basic, solvent and oil, and grease PVA makes an excellent material for use in nuclear, industrial and other environments.

For example, the following table compares the impacts of conventional oils and solvents to fully gidralizovanny PVA resin. As shown in the table, the PVA resin is essentially not exposed to most of esters, ethers, ketones, aliphatic, aromatic hydrocarbons and higher monohydroxy alcohols. Lower monohydroxy alcohols having some swelling action is e on the resin, but this effect is insignificant. Conventional varieties PVA will not be exposed to animal and vegetable oils, greases and petroleum hydrocarbons. In the table below the percentage increase in weight of molded and not plasticized PVA resin was measured when immersed in the solvent for 10 days at 25-35°C. the lower the value, the better the stability of the PVA resin to the chemicals.

CategorySolventsPVA resin,

fully hydrolyzed
AlcoholsMethanol

Ethanol 95%

N-butanol
0,4

< 0,1

< 0,1
EstersThe ethyl acetate

Amylacetate
< 0,1

< 0,1
EthersEthyl ester< 0,1
KetonesAcetone< 0,1
HydrocarbonsHeptane

Kerosene

Toluene

Turpentine
< 0,1

< 0,1

< 0,1

< 0,1
Chlorinated hydrocarbonsCarbon tetrachloride

Tetrachlorethane

Dichlorethylene

Trichloroethylene
< 0,1

< 0,1

< 0,1

< 0,1
OilMarine #10 oil

Pork fat

Cottonseed oil is

Raw linseed oil
< 0,1

< 0,1

< 0,1

< 0,1
MiscellaneousOleic acid0,9
Sources: DuPont ELVANOLTMAvenue * Percentage increase in mass of the cast is not plasticized PVA, immersed in the solvent for 10 days at 25-35°C.

PVA fiber for use in the present invention, it is desirable to obtain from the fully hydrolyzed PVA resin. In addition to the chemical stability of the PVA resin properties of the resulting fiber can be further improved by physical treatment, such as heating and orientation of the fibers. Chemical stability of the PVA fiber is even better than the stability of the PVA resin.

PVA fiber is not affected by the levels of ionizing radiation, usually observed in nuclear filtering operations, making it suitable for nuclear filtering operations both high-and low-level radioactivity.

I.PVA filter production and use

The filter on the basis of PVA can be obtained, used and dismantled in the same way as modern filters. However, PVA filter material has a particular advantage in the ability to change its shape and to reduce the volume under the action of chemical oxidation or simply what about the dissolution. In both cases, the components cease to exist in the form of a filter, preferably a filter material should be turned into a liquid and drain or filter for removal of radioactivity and other pollutants. In nuclear and other industrial applications, this translates filtered radioactive or hazardous contamination in a much more stable and desirable form of waste. The user provides a significant economic benefits, as the provisions governing the disposal of high radioactivity or filters containing hazardous materials will not be further used. Businesses will no longer pay for the disposal of these filters in the usual form, saving a significant amount of money for maintenance, packaging, transportation and disposal.

PVA filters can be manufactured to cover a wide range of filtering capabilities, for example, from about 0.1 to about 2500 microns. PVA shows a high efficiency in the removal and retention of particles. For example, when the PVA filament is used in kotovych twisted filters instead of the usual material (for example, polypropylene, cotton and/or polyester) and twisted under the same technical conditions for special micron nominal PVS usually exceeds the designed performance parameters that are expected for the original the initial material. This is due to weak extension PVA material under the action of water, creating a tight, more tortuous path for the filtered particles and, consequently, improved filtration efficiency.

The strength of the PVA fibers makes them very resistant to destruction under the action of pressure surges or high differential pressure conditions high flows. The temperature of dissolution of the PVA can also be configured during the manufacturing process to ensure the integrity of the material in the temperature range observed during the filter operation. The capacity and performance of the PVA filter of the present invention may be identical to or very close to the parameters of conventional filter materials.

PVA filters of the present invention can be used in any application for filtering water or air, including nuclear applications. Other uses for the water filter of the present invention include, but are not limited to, the production of electronic components, medicine, wastewater treatment, drinking water, industrial cooling water and domestic use. Air filters of the present invention include fibers that are used in applications including, but not limited to, industrial gas filtration, respirators, ventilation of buildings/houses and automotive manufacturing is Yu. Other uses industrial uses include water or air filtering asbestos or fiberglass.

PVA-containing filters of the present invention can be manufactured in a variety of configurations and designs, suitable for both liquid and gas applications. In one embodiment of the present invention, the filter has a twisted design of the cartridge. This design is shown in Fig. 1-3. In this filter material10PVA fiber is twisted into a rope/thread11which then retinue around the Central carrier core12. The core of the12may be metal, plastic or other material. As shown in Fig. 3, the core12has openings to allow flow channels through the filter of10. This type of filter is common for many types of existing designs water filters, such as for home use. The same filters are widely used for filtration of low activity in boiling water reactors (SCWR) throughout the nuclear industry. Cord twisted filters can be made of any length to fit to any existing filter compartment. Filtration capacity (micron class) may vary in a very wide range depending on the manufacturing parameters, such as density filaments and Natai is the winding, and the nature of the winding. Achievable classes filtering about 0.1 micron and below. When dissolved from the original filter Assembly will remain only the Central supporting core.

In some embodiments, implementation of the present invention the Central supporting core12can be made of a water-soluble, biodegradable water or dispersed in water material. Suitable water soluble materials include, but are not limited to, polyvinyl alcohols used for the manufacture of filter component (e.g., harness/thread11filter material10shown on Fig. 1-3) filters of the present invention. In this embodiment, the Central supporting core12can be melted under the pressure of PVA material only or in combination with one or more degradable water or dispersed in water materials. Suitable degradable water or dispersed in water materials include, but are not limited to, polymers described in U.S. patent No. 6162852 issued by Microtek Medical Holdings, Inc., which is completely entered here by reference. In this embodiment, the Central supporting core12also dissolves and/or disperses under the action of alkali with water temperature above 37°additionally decreasing the amount of waste produced from fil the tank materials.

It should be noted that, although the filter10in Fig. 1-3 has a cylindrical design twisted cartridge, filter10can have any three-dimensional shape other than a cylindrical shape (for example, a configuration with a circular cross section). Suitable configurations of the sections other than the configuration with a circular cross section for the twisted design of the cartridge include, but are not limited to, triangular, square, rectangular, oblong, oval, star-shaped, parallelogram, rhombic, hexagonal and octagonal configuration section. Additionally, the cross-sectional area of the filter design twisted cartridge can be essentially constant along the length of the filter, or may vary along the length of the filter.

In an additional embodiment of the present invention, the filter containing the PVA material is corrugated filter for use in air and water applications. This design is shown in Fig. 4. Corrugated filter40contains filter material41inside42. These filters40may have a checkered case42in which the filter material is fully supported on all sides (or combinations of more than one hand)to ensure the integrity of the filter. Case42may be metal, plastic or other material. The filter material41 exists in the form of woven, knitted or non-woven sheets, single or multilayer, which Gavrilovna to increase the filling and maximize the area of the filter surface. The filter material41can also exist in the form of extruded nanovoloknistykh design. Variations of this filter are used in high-performance air filters particles (VAWC) when venting radioactive systems are used in radioactive vacuum cleaners or other applications related to radioactive air pollution. Other variations pleated panel filters are used in water applications such as wastewater treatment systems in the reactor basins for treatment of spent nuclear fuel and filtering of added water. Pleated filters are typically used in home and industrial applications, such as those listed above.

In some embodiments, implementation of the present invention the body42can be made of a water-soluble, biodegradable water or dispersed in water material that is similar to the Central carrier core12described above. As discussed above, suitable water soluble materials include, but are not limited to, polyvinyl alcohols used for the manufacture of filter component (for example, the filter material is a 41corrugated filter40shown on Fig. 4) filters of the present invention. Suitable degradable water or dispersed in water materials include, but are not limited to, polymers described in U.S. patent No. 6162852 issued by Microtek Medical Holdings, Inc., included here in its entirety by reference.

In this embodiment, the case42also dissolves and/or disperses in the interaction with alkali with water temperature above about 37°additionally decreasing the amount of waste from the filter material.

It should be noted that, although the filter40in Fig. 4 has a cylindrical shell design, the filter40can have any three-dimensional shape other than a cylindrical shape (for example, a configuration with a circular cross section). Suitable cross-sectional configurations other than the configuration with a circular cross section for corrugated design include, but are not limited to, triangular, square, rectangular, oblong, oval, star-shaped, parallelogram, rhombic, hexagonal and octagonal configuration section. Additionally, the cross-sectional area through the corrugated filter design can be essentially constant along the length of the filter, or may vary along the length of the filter.

In an additional embodiment, the filter may be flat or gofer the form filter, having any of the above configurations section. In other words, the filter may have a triangular, square, rectangular, oblong, oval, star-shaped, parallelogram, rhombic, hexagonal or octagonal shape. The filter can have a structural carrier in contact with the filter or can be self-sustaining (i.e., the filter does not require support structures). Such filters are particularly suitable for the filtration of air, the air passes through the filter, going into the first major surface and leaving the second main surface. Non-limiting example of such a filter is rectangular corrugated filter, having a length of 60 cm, height 30 cm and a thickness of about 3 see

Other configurations can also be made with the use of technologies common to specialists in the field of production of filters. Patterns monolithic filters, membrane filters, and various other common forms of filters may be fabricated using PVA as a filter material instead of the usual water-insoluble materials.

Any of the above filters can contain 90 percent by weight (ppm) or more of water-soluble material, such as PVA. In one embodiment of the present invention, the filter contains at least about 50 ppm of water is soluble material, such as PVA, based on the total weight of the filter. In other embodiments, implementation of the present invention, the filter contains more than 60 ppm (preferably, at least about 70 ppm; more preferably, at least about 80 ppm; even more preferably at least about 90 ppm; even more preferably at least about 95 ppm, and even more preferably 100 ppm) water-soluble material, such as PVA, based on the total weight of the filter.

PVA filters of the present invention may contain only PVA or in combination with other water-soluble, biodegradable water or dispergirovannykh in the water content as described above. Suitable materials that may be used in combination with PVA include, but are not limited to, polyacrylic acid; polymethacrylic acid; polyacrylamide; water-soluble derivatives of cellulose containing methyl cellulose, ethyl cellulose, hydroxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and carboxymethylcellulose; carboxymethylchitin; polyvinylpyrrolidone; ester resin; water-soluble derivatives of starch, containing hydroxypropylmethyl and carboximetilkrahmal; water-soluble polyethylene oxides; alkaline water-soluble materials containing ethylene copolymers of acrylic acid (EAK) and methacrylic acid (EMAC) and their salts; and ionomers, with whom containing a series of acrylic acid and/or methacrylic acid.

In one embodiment of the present invention the filter material filter contains PVA material. Preferably, when the PVA material contains polyvinyl alcohol with or without acetyl groups, crosslinked or not crosslinked. In other embodiments, implementation of the present invention the filter the filter material is substantially or completely consists of PVA material. In still other embodiments, implementation of the present invention, all components of the filter, including the filter material, substantially or completely consists of PVA material.

II. Disposal (recycling) of filter material containing PVA

The solubility in hot water and chemical destruction PVA allow the filters of the present invention to disintegrate in the desired conditions, minimizing the total volume and mass of waste. Typical disposal methods for filters of the present invention and typical applications for filters of the present invention are described in U.S. patent No. 6623643; International Publication N WO03/074432 A1; U.S. patents NN 5181967; 5207837; 5650219; and 5885907, subject matter of which is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference.

Installations for the disposal of filter materials can be of any desired size. As described below, some of the methods of disposal may include the step of oxidation, which uses okoli the spruce for the decomposition of the polymers in the flow of the treated waste. In the steps of the method described below, the concentration of the oxidizing agent may vary, effluent can be filtered or not, etc. Processing may be performed by the customer or sent to a remote location. Effluent may also be subjected to ion exchange or not.

The solubility in hot water

In this typical scenario, the filter of the present invention is placed in a small setting (60 gallons nominal). The installation may be located at the top of the container containing the radioactive ion-exchange resin, which is prepared for recycling. The installation of the filter is filled with water and heated to a temperature of dissolution of the filter. The temperature of dissolution may be (i) higher than about 37° (ii) higher than about 50° (iii) higher than about 75° (iv) higher than about 90°or (v) is close to boiling conditions depending on the water solubility of the material used. The filter material is completely dissolved, leaving, for the most part, only the filter housing and/or supporting structure, although in some embodiments, implementation of the present invention the filter housing and/or supporting structures can also dissolve. The liquid mixture containing the dissolved liquid PVA, cools down the environment, then drained. In one application of the effluent may be directed into the vessel, with the containing a series of ion-exchange resin. PVA and radioactive isotopes are deposited in the matrix resin, mechanically attached in a meandering path or sticking to ion-exchange centers. The filter housing and the supporting structure is then removed and disposed of as low compact radioactive waste.

Chemical decomposition

In this typical scenario, the filter of the present invention is placed in a small setting (60 gallons nominal). The installation may be located on the upper part of the container containing the spent radioactive ion exchange resin which is prepared for recycling. The installation of the filter is filled with water, and any of the following components add-in installation: the reagent, the amplifying decomposition of the polymer, the precursor of the reagent, the amplifying decomposition of the polymer, an oxidant, ozone or a combination of both. It is desirable to add to the installation of a chemical oxidant (e.g. hydrogen peroxide) and a possible catalyst (for example, ferric sulfate or Fenton reagent). Water bath can be heated to near-boiling, as described above.

The filter material is completely dissolved, and its chemical form is processed in the dissolved aqueous mixture of organic acids, leaving, for the most part, only the filter housing and supporting structure, although in some embodiments, the implementation of this izobreteny the filter housing and/or supporting structures can also dissolve. The obtained liquid mixture containing an organic acid, cools the atmosphere, then poured into a container of resin. Organic acids are deposited in the matrix resin, where the radioactivity and acid attached to the ion-exchange centers. The filter housing and the supporting structure is then removed, when applicable, and disposed of as low compact radioactive waste.

In both the above scenarios, it should be noted that the filter housing and/or the core may contain water-soluble and/or degradable water polymeric material, as described above. In this case, they may not be the filter housing and/or the carrier structure remaining for disposal.

Pleated cartridge filters typically used in nuclear plants to maintain the purity of water in fuel pools and the pools of spent nuclear fuel. These filters are placed in the filter housing and placed in the appropriate pool. Water is pumped through a filter (attached pump), maintaining the concentration of radioactivity at an acceptable level. When the filter is decommissioned, it remotely removed from the body and placed in an underwater container recycling. This container is removed from the pool and the filter is transferred into the container high security (CWS) for storage until it can be processed for it to the final placement. Because of the strict rules of only a small number of filters can be Packed in the FAC, and this number is based on total radioactivity dose rate radiation and physical geometry. This leaves a large amount of unused space in the vessel disposal of filters, the space, the usefulness of which will be repaid, no matter what. From these strict rules, filters are derecognised, based on the dose of radiation, and not the expiration date, and disposal of filters is the final solution. Filter materials of the present invention eliminate many of the problems associated with conventional filters and methods of treatment with conventional filters.

Filter materials of the present invention have other advantages, namely, that the filters can be used up to much larger dose of radiation. As filter materials of the present invention does not require storage in the form of filters, the upper limit to the dose of irradiation is not necessary. This allows us to use fewer filters to do the same job, saving on additional filters and, more importantly, reducing simple and work on replacement, maintenance and disposal of additional filters.

III. Persons who nd use in the nuclear industry

Filter materials of the present invention can be used in a number of applications, including but not limited to, processing of polymer(ROS) as well as enhancing the decomposition of the reactants or their precursors, which may be present in the aquatic environment. This type of process is described in U.S. patent No. 6623643 and International Publication N WO03/074432 A1, the subject matter of which is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference.

In U.S. patent No. 6623643 and WO03/074432 A1 describes the ways in which the polymer is fully dissolved in the water environment. Undissolved polymer can be removed from the environment suitable means, such as filtration, and then returned or reused. Filter materials of the present invention can be used at this stage filtration. Additionally, U.S. patent No. 6623643 and WO03/074432 A1 describe ways of implementation, in which the polymer is dissolved before the introduction of the reagent, the amplifying decomposition, or its predecessor. In these cases the implementation may be desirable to filter out the undissolved material from the aqueous solution before the introduction of the reagent, the amplifying decomposition, or its predecessor, using the filter material of the present invention.

Similarly, the processes described in U.S. patent No. 6623643 and WO03/074432 A1, may include "post-processing" water cf the water. A specific type of post-processing may depend on the nature of the aquatic environment. Usually, when the polymer is decomposed to a product comprising one or more organic acids, these acids can then be reduced by biodegradation of organic acids.

If water must be biodegradable, pH should be adjusted to a value in the approximate range of from about 3.0 to about 10.0, or more preferably in an approximate range from about 5.0 to about 8.0 a, or even more preferably in an approximate range from about 6.0 to about 7.0 and. It is desirable to pass the flow of waste water through the cell reverse osmosis after biodegradation.

Biodegradation may include the introduction of seed microorganisms in an aqueous waste stream, such as aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria or anaerobic bacteria. Modified water or waste stream can be exposed to aerated liquefied layer in the bioreactor, which contains supporting materials, such as powdered activated carbon or plastic biserici. Modified aqueous waste stream may be directed into the reactor with a fixed environment or to the processing of activated sludge. Conventional extended aeration, step aeration, sequential batch reaction and to the stroke stabilization can also be used to reduce the content of organic carbon in a modified aqueous waste stream.

The biological activity of microorganisms can be enhanced by the introduction of nutrients containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium or traces of the mineral, in the bioreactor. The final resulting waste stream includes neutralized water liberated from the organic carbon which is suitable for delivery to the company for recycling or re-use or return.

In an alternative embodiment, described in U.S. patent No. 6623643 and WO03/074432 A1, concerning the processing of waste generated by nuclear enterprises, filtration and/or ion-exchange process can be used to remove radioactive material from a solution. For example, the stage of disposal of the radioactive material may be carried out by filtration of the solution through a micron filter, which has a nominal pore size in the range from about 10 to about 100 microns, to remove radioactive elements. Optionally, can also be used a second filter for particles with a nominal pore size from about 0.1 micron to about 1.0 micron, a reverse osmosis unit or block ion exchange, consisting of anionic layer, the cationic layer, or a combination of anion/cation layer, which reduces the content of radioisotopes at the elementary level. At any of these stages of filtration can be used to filter the respective material of the present invention.

It is desirable that the waste stream could also be adjusted to a higher pH. More preferably, adjusted to the pH of the waste stream could also be biodegradable to remove organic acids. If the waste stream is biodegradable, it is desirable to neutralize the waste stream by adding sodium hydroxide to a pH in the approximate range of from about 3.0 to about 10.0 g, preferably from about 5.0 to about 8.0 a, even more preferably from about 0 to about 7,0.

In the embodiment described in U.S. patent No. 6623643 and WO03/074432 A1, for processing materials that come from a source in which they may be exposed to radioactivity, potentially radioactive materials can be filtered using the filter materials of the present invention. Stage filtering can occur at any point method, for example, before adding the reagent, the amplifying decomposition (e.g., oxidizing agent), to the flow of waste water, after receiving the decomposition products (e.g. organic acids) of the polymer or after the processing of the decomposition products, for example, biodegradation of organic acids. Contaminated products (i.e. products subjected to radioactivity) may include, but are not limited to, at least, some clothing, protective clothing, working to Binatone, shoes, face masks, gloves, garments, linens, Drapes, towels, fabrics, films, articles of laminates containing at least one tissue or one film, sponge, sponges, nets, bags, gauze, pads, wipe materials, pillows, headbands, filters of the present invention or combinations thereof.

Filters for removal of potentially radioactive materials (e.g., transuranic elements, fission products, natural radioactive elements, products, activation of the nuclear process, medical isotopes or their combination) include particle filters according to the present invention with a nominal pore size from about 10 to about 100 microns and, possibly, the second particle filter according to the present invention with a nominal pore size from about 0.1 micron to about 1.0 micron, through which circulates the waste stream. Filtering may also contain a circulation flow of waste water through the ion exchange layer. For example, in one embodiment, this process includes: (a) filtering of potentially radioactive material from a stream of waste water; (b) neutralizing the pH of the stream water waste after the formation of organic acids; and (C) the removal of organic acids from the flow of waste water after pH neutralization. In any of the above steps of the method, requiring f is litraly, can be used filtering material of the present invention.

One typical process is described in U.S. patent No. 6623643 and WO03/074432 A1 contains stages:

(1) if necessary, the introduction of a polymer or polymer-containing material in an aqueous solution;

(2) if necessary, the addition of the reagent, the amplifying decomposition, or his predecessor to the solution;

(3) heating the aqueous medium to be forced to respond predecessor with the formation of the reagent, the amplifying decomposition, if necessary, and the interaction of the polymer with the formation of decomposition products;

(4) perhaps filtering undissolved material from the aqueous environment;

(5) perhaps the dimension of the indicator concentration of the polymer material in the aquatic environment;

(6) perhaps the filtering material, for example, radioactive material from the water environment;

(7) may change, for example, neutralization, the pH of the water environment;

(8) may biodegradation obtained decomposition products in the aquatic environment, for example, organic acids, with the formation of CO2N2Oh and biomass; and

(9) remove any insoluble components from the reactor.

At stage (4) the aquatic environment, it is desirable to filter through a strainer to remove any undissolved polymer material and water-insoluble components of the polymer in restoreultra the strainer can be manufactured using the above-described PVA material for the formation of the filter material of the present invention. In a desirable embodiment, the strainers have a cell size in the approximate range from about 20 to about 50 mesh. In a more desirable embodiment, strainers have a cell size of about 30 mesh. Undissolved material captured by the strainers may be returned for a final dissolution. In a desirable embodiment, the polymeric material will be the approximate range of from more than 0% to about 10.0 percent by weight. in the solution. In a more desirable embodiment, the polymeric material will be the approximate range from about 4.0% to about 6.0 percent by weight. in the solution. In a more desirable embodiment, the polymeric material is present in an amount of about 5.0 percent by weight. in the solution. In addition, in a more desirable embodiment, the temperature of the solution during the filtration step of the method is maintained at or above about 150°F to prevent deposition of PVA solution to its decomposition.

At step (6) of the filter material of the present invention can be applied to filter and reduce the radioactivity in solution. This step of the method is possible and is applicable only when the water-soluble material contains potentially radioactive waste. This step may be required or not, for example, nuclear enterprises the party. If the polymer material is subjected to radioactivity, which affects the utilization of the properties of the solution, this step of the method should be added. Adding this step of the method creates the control system of low level nuclear waste. This waste management system can be used an alternative approach to modern methods of processing active dry radioactive waste. This step of the method of removal of radioactivity is usually done to biological decomposition. More detailed desirable to implement this step of the method includes the basic steps:

(a) filtering the solution and

(b) ion exchange solution.

Nuclear enterprises radioactivity may be present in the working fluid in the form of elements and particles. Filtering solution removes radioactive particles. In a desirable embodiment, the solution passes through the particle filter with a nominal pore size in the range of about from about 10 to about 100 microns. In a more desirable embodiment, the solution then passes through the second particle filter with a nominal pore size in the range of about from about 0.1 micron to about 1.0 micron. As described above, the filter material of the present invention can be used for data e is apah filtering.

In another typical method described in U.S. patent No. 6623643 and WO03/074432 A1, the method comprises the steps:

(1) if necessary, the dissolution of water-soluble polymeric material in the aquatic environment;

(2) filtering the undissolved material from the aqueous environment;

(3) adding a reagent, the amplifying decomposition, or its predecessor to filtered environment;

(4) when using the precursor reagent, amplifying the decomposition reaction of the precursor with the formation of the reagent, the amplifying decomposition and reaction of the polymer;

(5) perhaps the dimension of the indicator concentration of the polymer material in the aquatic environment;

(6) perhaps the filtering material, for example, radioactive material from the water environment;

(7) may change, for example, neutralization, pH;

(8) may biodegradation decomposition products such as organic acids, in solution with the formation of CO2N2Oh and biomass; and

(9) remove any insoluble components from the reactor.

This method differs from the above discussed method in connection with steps (1)to(5), which include the dissolution of the polymer prior to the introduction of reactant/precursor enhancing decomposition and the formation of the reagent, the amplifying decomposition of the precursor. The formation of the reagent, the amplifying decomposition of predecessors is tenika may contain the irradiation of a solution of electromagnetic radiation, heat or a combination of both, as explained in U.S. patent No. 6623643 and WO03/074432 A1. As for the above-described method, the filter material of the present invention can be used in the steps (2) and (6) of this method.

A suitable system for implementing the second method, discussed above, is shown in Fig. 5, where the numerical reference 100 refers mainly to the vessel for a solution. In a desirable embodiment, the vessel to a solution of 100 represents the autoclave. The vessel for the solution100preferably made of stainless steel or similar corrosion resistant material. The vessel for the solution100connected the water line102with the filtration system104. Filter system104connected the water line106with pump108. In a desirable embodiment, the water supply line112crosses and connects the water line110with heat exchanger114. The heat exchanger114connect the water line116again with the vessel for the solution100forming a communication recirculation.

Pump108connected the water line110with a photochemical reaction vessel200. The reaction vessel200preferably made of stainless steel or similar corrosion resistant material. In one embodiment, photochemically the reaction vessel 200contains a set of individual photochemical reactor (not shown)installed in a certain order within the reaction vessel. In this embodiment, a mechanical mixer (not shown) is located within the reaction vessel200to ensure the recycling of content. Each reactor contains at least one ultraviolet light element high intensity. In a more desirable embodiment, photochemical reactors within the reaction vessel200generate ultraviolet radiation with a wavelength of between about 185 and about 250 nanometers.

The input system oxidizing agent300connected the water line302with the reaction vessel200. In a desirable embodiment, the input system oxidizing agent300contains programmable logic controller, sensor, data logger and distribution mechanism is the same, as is well known in industrial chemistry. Photochemical reaction vessel200connected the water line202with pump204. Pump204connected the water line206with the vessel to neutralize the400. In a possible embodiment, the water supply line208crosses water line206and is connected to the reaction vessel200giving the possibility is ü pump to operate recirculating, processed photochemically solution.

Neutralization system pH402connected the water line404with the vessel to neutralize the400. In a more preferred embodiment, the aftertreatment system pH402contains an automatic pH controller. Vessel to neutralize the400connected the water line406with pump408. Pump408connected the water line410again with the vessel to neutralize the400forming a communication recirculation. Vessel to neutralize the400connected the water line412with bio-cells500. Bio-cell 500 are preferably fixed media aerobic type or treated activated sludge. Input devices made for the introduction of air, bacteria and food in the bio-cell by any method well known in the industry. Bio-cell500connected the water line502with pump504. Pump504connected the water line506again with bio-cells500forming a communication recirculation. Bio-cell500connected the water line508with the release.

In an alternative preferred embodiment, the water supply line602crosses and connects the water line206with the filtration system of radioactive materials600. The filtration system of radioactive materials600 connected the water line604again with tap line206forming a communication recirculation. It is possible that the filtering system of radioactive materials600connected the water line606again with the reaction vessel200forming a communication recirculation, in which the reduction of radioactivity may be held in conjunction with the oxidation-recovery solution. The filtration system of radioactive materials600an alternative may be connected to an open system anywhere between a vessel for the solution100and the vessel to neutralize the400.

While in the description have been disclosed in detail specific embodiments of the specialists in this field when reading the above can easily imagine ways equivalent to these options implementation. Accordingly, the scope of the present invention should be assessed, as it follows from the attached claims and any equivalents.

1. Method of filtering water stream containing stages:

passing at least part of the aqueous solution through a filter containing filter material containing a water-soluble filament or bundle of polyvinyl alcohol, and media to the filter material, and the carrier comprises a tubular core with protoc the diversified channels, passing through the side wall of the tubular core, and the flow channels provide a current of fluid water flow through the tubular core and the flow-through channels, with water-soluble thread or harness of the polyvinyl alcohol is wound on the core and over the flow channels.

2. The method according to claim 1, in which the water stream contains radioactive material and the above-mentioned method leads to clogging of the filter.

3. The method according to claim 1, in which the water stream contains radioactive material and dissolved water-soluble polymer, the product of decomposition of water-soluble polymer, or combination thereof, and the above-mentioned method leads to clogging of the filter.

4. The method according to claim 3, in which is dissolved a water-soluble polymer or a decomposition product of water-soluble polymer produced from contaminated water-soluble product, and polluted water-soluble product contains radioactive material on or in clothing, protective clothing, overalls, shoes, face mask, gloves, clothing products, linen, curtain, towel, fabric, film, product of a laminate containing at least one fabric or a film, a sponge, loofah, mesh, cheesecloth, burlap, lining, cleaning material, a pillow, a bandage or a combination of both.

5. The method according to claim 4, in which contaminated water soluble cont the CT contains a water-soluble material, selected from the group consisting of polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyacrylamide, water-soluble cellulose derivatives containing methyl cellulose, ethyl cellulose, hydroxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and carboxymethylcellulose, carboxymethylchitin, polyvinylpyrrolidone, ester resin, water-soluble derivatives of starch, containing hydroxypropylmethyl and carboximetilkrahmal, water-soluble polyethylene oxides, alkaline water-soluble material containing a copolymer of ethylene and acrylic acid (EAK) and methacrylic acid (EMAC), and their salts; and ionomers containing acrylic acid and/or methacrylic acid.

6. The method according to claim 5, in which contaminated water-soluble product contains a water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol.

7. The method according to any of claim 2 to 6, in which radioactive material contains transuranic element, the product of the decay of natural radioactive element, an activation product of a nuclear process, medical isotope, or a combination of both.

8. The method according to any of claim 2 to 6, in which radioactive material is the nuclear industry.

9. The method according to claim 2 or 3, wherein the method further comprises the stages of: decontamination of contaminated filter by placing the contaminated filter in water is Anya under such conditions, that at least a portion of the contaminated filter becomes soluble, and separating at least part of the radioactive material from other materials in a water bath.

10. The method according to claim 2 or 3, wherein the method further comprises the stages of: decontamination of contaminated filter by placing the contaminated filter in a water bath containing a reagent, the amplifying decomposition of the polymer, the precursor of the reagent, the amplifying decomposition of the polymer, an oxidant, ozone, and possibly a catalyst selected from iron sulfate, or Fenton's reagent, or any combination thereof under such conditions that at least part of the contaminated filter decomposes, forming one or more decomposition products, and separating at least part of the radioactive material from other materials in a water bath.

11. A filter for filtering water stream containing radioactive material produced by nuclear industry, and the specified filter contains: (a) the filter material containing a water-soluble filament or bundle of polyvinyl alcohol; and (b) a carrier for the filter material, in which the carrier comprises a tubular core with flow channels passing through the side wall of the tubular core, and mentioned flow channels provide a current of fluid water flow cher is C the tubular core and the flow channels, when this water-soluble filament or bundle of polyvinyl alcohol is wound on the core and over the flow channels.

12. The filter according to claim 11, in which it has a nominal pore size of from about 0.1 to about 2500 microns.

13. The filter according to claim 11, in which it has a nominal pore size of from about 0.1 to about 1.0 microns.

14. The filter according to claim 11, in which it has a nominal pore size from about 10 to about 100 microns.

15. The filter according to claim 11, in which the core contains a metal.

16. The filter according to claim 11, in which the core contains a water-soluble or degradable water polymer.

17. The filter according to claim 11, in which the core contains a water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol.

18. The filter according to any one of § § 11-17, in which it further comprises a radioactive material in or on the filter material, and mentioned radioactive material produced by nuclear industry.

19. The filter according to any one of § § 11-17, where it becomes water soluble at temperatures above about 37°C.

20. The filter according to any one of § § 11-17, where it becomes water soluble at temperatures above about 90°C.



 

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