# Device for selection of observation object from space vehicle

FIELD: physics; space.

SUBSTANCE: device relates to space technology. The device consists of a globe with a map on it, two rings bracing the globe, the centres of which coincide with the centre of the globe, an element in the form of spiral coil, corresponding to the average turns of orbits of the space vehicle moving in an almost circular orbit, starting from the ascending node of the turns of the orbit, given in the right Cartesian coordinate system OXYZ, the centre of which coincides with the centre of the globe and the OZ axis is directed on the axis of rotation of the globe, with coordinates calculated from the formulae: x = r(cos (Δλu / (2π) ) cos u - sin (Δλu / (2π)} sin u cos i), y = r(sin (Δλu / (2π)) cos u + cos (Δλu / (2π)) sin u cos i), z = r sin u sin i, where i is the inclination of the orbit; r is the radius of the second ring; Δλu is the angular inter-turn distance of the orbit on the equatorial scale of the map; u is a parameter assuming values from 0 to 2π. The first ring is fixed over the terminal points of the globe with provision for rotation of the ring around the axis of rotation of the globe. The second ring is installed in the plane of the equator of the globe and is fixed on the first ring at the point of intersection of the first ring with the plane of the equator of the globe. The element in the form of a spiral coil is fixed to the second ring at the point of intersection of the second and first rings, by its middle point, corresponding to the value of the parameter u, which equals π. The technical outcome is the determination and selection of observation objects.

EFFECT: possibility of determination and selection of observation objects from an orbiting space vehicle.

3 dwg

The invention relates to the field of space technology and can be used to identify and select object observations from orbiting SPACECRAFT), moving in a near-circular orbit.

Known the globe (see [1], pp.93-97), which can be used, in particular, to identify and select objects observations performed with the AC. The disadvantage of this device is the lack of elements that can display information about the orbit and track the SPACECRAFT. Also known training device for navigation [2], includes a base, a rack, a model of the planet, which is made in the globe, the model orbit, made in the form of a ring mounted on the bearing stand. Using this device, it is possible, in particular, to simulate the position of the orbit above the globe is a model of the planet - and to select objects on the surface of the planet accessible to observation SPACECRAFT.

The closest analogues adopted for the prototype, is the device [3], including star globe with covering its two rings set with fusion centers rings with the center of the globe. One ring attached above the points of the poles of the globe can be rotated around the axis of rotation of the globe, passing through the poles of the globe, and another ring mounted for exhibition rings under any set the angle to the equator of the globe.

The appearance of the device [3] is presented in figure 1.

Working with the device is as follows. The globe rotates relative to the ring, allowing the exhibition of the ring relative to the globe at any specified angle to the equator of the globe, in a position in which the ring is the equator of the globe angle equal to the inclination angle of the orbit of the SPACECRAFT. Thus, this ring simulates a round orbit. Further rotation of the globe about the axis of its rotation set the globe in a position in which the ring crosses the equator of the globe at the point of the equator with longitude equal to the value of the longitude of the ascending node of the considered orbits orbit. This ring will show on the globe instantaneous projection of the orbit on the surface of the globe. As possible objects of observation SPACECRAFT select objects located on the surface of the globe along the simulated position loop orbit.

If this device as a globe to use the globe of the Earth (i.e. to display on a spherical surface of the globe instead of a map of the celestial sphere map the earth's surface), this device allows you to display the instantaneous projection of the orbit onto the surface of the earth globe. Given that the orbital SPACECRAFT moving in inertial space, relative to which the Earth makes one revolution in the ducks and there is the effect of the precession of the orbit of the SPACECRAFT in inertial space, the instantaneous projection of the orbit on the surface of the globe will continuously change as the motion of the SPACECRAFT in its orbit - that is, it is impossible to obtain simultaneous display of all round orbit on the surface of the globe. This effect exists for celestial globe, and the globe of the earth surface. If in the first case, the effect is not so great and often not considered in the second case, it is significant and its accounting is required.

Thus, the device adopted for the prototype, has a major drawback - it is not possible to simultaneously display on the globe printed on the card the whole route round the orbit of the SPACECRAFT.

The task of the proposed device is the identification and selection of objects, observations, performed with the AC for a round orbit by providing a display on the globe with the map at the same time the entire length of the considered orbits orbit.

The technical result is achieved in that the device for selection of a monitoring object with an orbital spacecraft includes the globe coated with a card, two covering the globe rings, the centers of which are aligned with the center of the globe, the element in the form of a spiral, the corresponding averaged coil orbit moving in a near-circular orbit of the spacecraft, since the ascending node of the orbit round, ass the config in the right-hand Cartesian coordinate system OXYZ, the center of which is aligned with the center of the globe and the OZ axis is directed along the axis of rotation of the globe, the coordinates calculated by the formula:

x=r(cos(Δλu/(2π))cosu-sin(Δλu(2π))sinucosi),

y=r(sin(Δλu/(2π))cosu+cos(Δλu/(2π))sinucosi),

z=rsinusini,

where i is the orbital inclination; r is the radius of the second ring; Δλ - turn-to-turn angular distance of the orbit on the Equatorial scale maps; u is a parameter that takes values from 0 to 2π; the first ring attached above the points of the poles of the globe with the possibility of rotation of the ring around the axis of rotation of the globe, a second ring mounted in the plane of the equator of the globe and is secured to the first ring at the point of intersection of the first ring with the plane of the equator of the globe, and the element in the form of a spiral, the middle point corresponding to the parameter value u, equal πmounted on the second ring at the point of intersection of the second and first rings, and its start and end points corresponding to the values of the parameter u, is equal to, respectively, 0 and 2πfixed points of the second ring, which is from the other point of intersection of the second and first rings on the angular distance - Δλ/2, respectively, along and against the direction of the positive reference Equatorial scale of the map.

In the proposed device, unlike the prototype, we have introduced the element is in the form of a spiral, form of which is calculated by the values of the orbital inclination and angular turn-to-turn distance orbit and which proposed fixed manner on the second ring, and uses a map of the surface representing the objects to be monitored from the SPACECRAFT, in the form which acts as a map of the starry sky, and a map of the Earth or another planet.

The device illustrated in figures 1, 2, 3. Given: figure 1 - device-prototype; figure 2 - view of the proposed device with the front side figure 3 - view of the proposed device from the opposite side.

Figure 2 and 3 introduced the notation:

1 - globe coated with a card surface representing the objects to be monitored from the SPACECRAFT;

2, 3 - first and second rings, respectively;

4 - element in the form of a spiral;

5 - the equator of the globe;

And the pole of the globe;

C, D - attachment point of the first and second rings;

E, F - start and end points of the element in the form of a spiral.

G, H - projection of points E, F on the equator of the globe.

Taking into account the introduced notation: axis AB is the axis of rotation of the globe; the point D is the midpoint of the element 4; HG - turn-to-turn angular distance of the orbit of the SPACECRAFT.

Round orbit, moving in a near-circular orbit around a planet, is set in the right-hand Cartesian coordinate system OXYZ with the center in the center of the planet and the OZ axis, yavlennoi axis of rotation of the planet, the coordinates calculated by the formula (see [4], p.18):

where i is the orbital inclination; R is the radius of the orbit; λ - the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit; u is the current value of the argument of latitude is the parameter that takes on orbit orbit values from 0 to 2π.

When driving on near-circular orbit within the loop orbit is λvaries from values λ_{0}equal to the longitude of the ascending node of the considered orbits orbit and the corresponding point u=0, to the value λ_{0}+Δλequal to the longitude of the ascending node of the next round of the orbit and the corresponding point u=2π:

where Δλ - turn-to-turn angular distance along the equator. Value Δλ when the movement of the SPACECRAFT around the Earth is determined by the formula (see [5], str):

where Δ Ω - the winding precession of the orbit in the inertial coordinate system; T - period of the SPACECRAFT around the Earth; ω - the angular velocity of the rotation of the Earth in inertial space; R_{e}- Equatorial radius of the Earth; R - focal parameter of the orbit; i - inclination orbit; I_{2}=-1082,2·10^{-6}- the ratio of the potential of the gravitational field C is the YPD.

If the card uses a map of the celestial sphere, (3) remove the member corresponding to the rotation of the planet relative to inertial space. Note that the values Δλ and Δ Ω negative.

If the OX axis to direct the point of the ascending node of the considered orbits orbits (in this coordinate system λ_{0}=0) and substitute R for the radius of the second ring g (because modeling spiral orbit element in the form of a spiral is mounted on the second ring, then take the spiral radius equal to the radius of the second circle), then taking into account (2) formula (1) take the form:

x=r(cos(Δλu/(2π))cosu-sin(Δλu(2π))sinucosi),

y=r(sin(Δλu/(2π))cosu+cos(Δλu/(2π))sinucosi), (5)

z=rsinusini,

Working with the device is as follows. Let point G point of the equator (5) with the value of the longitude λ_{0}equal to the longitude of the ascending node of the considered orbits orbit. The rotatable ring (2) relative to the globe (1) so that the point E of the element (4) and ring (3) located above the point G of the equator (5) with the value of the longitude λ_{0}. In this position the element (4) at the same time simulates the location of all points within the loop orbit over the globe: element (4) shows the position of all points of the spiral orbit above the surface of the globe taking into account the motion of the SPACECRAFT along the coil Orbi is s,
rotation of the orbit plane and the Earth's rotation during the revolution orbit of the SPACECRAFT. As possible objects of observation SPACECRAFT select objects located on the surface of the globe along the modeled element (4) position loop orbit.

Describe the technical effect of the present invention. The proposed device allows choice of objects, observations, performed with the AC for a round orbit by providing a display on the globe with the map at the same time the entire length of the considered orbits orbit. The technical result is achieved due to the introduction of an additional element in the form of a spiral, the shape of which is calculated on averaged values of the orbital inclination and angular turn-to-turn distance of the orbit along the equator of the globe, as well as the proposed installation of the given element in the device.

LITERATURE

1. Handsome B. I. Nautical astronomy. M.: Transport, 1986.

2. Application for invention No. 93045113/12 from 1993.09.14.

3. Star globe ZG-AM.

4. Byabenin GG, Skrebowski BS, G.A. Sokolov System flight control spacecraft // M.: Mashinostroenie, 1978.

5. Engineering Handbook of space technology. Publishing house of the USSR, M., 1969.

Device to select the object of observation from an orbiting spacecraft, on the expectation globe coated with a card, two spanning the globe of the rings, the centers of which are aligned with the center of the globe, the element in the form of a spiral, the corresponding averaged coil orbit moving in a near-circular orbit of the spacecraft, since the ascending node of the orbit round, given in the right-hand Cartesian coordinate system OXYZ, the center of which is aligned with the center of the globe and the OZ axis is directed along the axis of rotation of the globe, the coordinates calculated by the formula:

x=r(cos(Δλu/(2π))cosu-sin(Δλu/(2π))sinucosi),

y=r(sin(Δλu/(2π))cosu+cos(Δλu/(2π))sinucosi),

z=rsinusini,

where i naklonenie orbit; r is the radius of the second ring; Δλ - turn-to-turn angular distance of the orbit on the Equatorial scale maps; u is a parameter that takes values from 0 to 2πwhile the first ring attached above the points of the poles of the globe with the possibility of rotation of the ring around the axis of rotation of the globe, a second ring mounted in the plane of the equator of the globe and is secured to the first ring at the point of intersection of the first ring with the plane of the equator of the globe, and the element in the form of a spiral, the middle point corresponding to the parameter value u, equal πmounted on the second ring at the point of intersection of the second and first rings, and its start and end points corresponding to the values of the parameter u, is equal to the corresponding is about 0 and 2π fixed points of the second ring, which is from the other point of intersection of the second and first rings on the angular distance -Δλ/2, respectively, and against the direction of the positive reference Equatorial scale of the map.

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