Plane table for observation object selection from an orbiting space vehicle

FIELD: physics; space.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to devices for space navigation and is directed at providing for the possibility of selecting under conditions of a space vehicle, observation objects with simultaneous consideration of the stipulated conditions, related to objects on the earth's surface and in the celestial sphere. This result is provided for due to that, the plane table for selection of the observation object from an orbiting space vehicle consists of a plate with a map of the earth's surface, a semitransparent plate with an image of the curved line of the orbit pass of the space vehicle from its ascending node, installed over the map of the earth's surface with provision for displacement along the equator of the earth, a semi transparent plate with an image of the objects on the stellar map, installed over the map of the earth's surface with provision for movement along the earth's equator line, and a device providing for mutual displacement of plates along the equator line. On the axes, perpendicular to the equator, the scale of the stellar map and the corresponding size of the plates with the given map coincide with the scale of the map of the earth's surface and the corresponding size of the plate with the map of the earth's surface, and on the equatorial axes, the scale of the stellar map and the map of the earth's surface have a ratio of 1:K, where K is the coefficient of concordance for the scales of the equatorial scales, defined from the formula K=1-Tω/(2π+Δ Ω), where T is the orbiting period of the space vehicle around the earth, ω is the angular velocity of rotation of the earth in the inertial space, Δ Ω is the turning precession orbit in the inertial coordinate system. The maps are made with the longitudinal dial of the earth's surface in the range from 0 to 4π+Δ Ω-Tω and the straight ascendancy scale of the stellar map in the range from 0 to 4π+Δ Ω, and the size of the plates with orbit and with maps of the earth's surface and the celestial sphere along the equatorial axes are in the ratio (2π+Δ Ω-Tω):(4π+Δ Ω-Tω):(4π+Δ Ω-Tω-2πTω/(2π+Δ Ω)).

EFFECT: possibility of selection of observation objects under conditions of a space vehicle.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of space technology and can be used to identify and select objects on Board an orbiting SPACECRAFT), moving in a near-circular orbit.

Known maps of the earth's surface: communalisation map of the mission control Center (MCC) [1] and maps of the sky [2], which can be used to identify and select geophysical and astronomical objects for observations performed with the AC. The lack of maps is that they do not have graphical information about the orbit of the SPACECRAFT.

Known tablet for the identification and selection of objects geophysical observations aboard orbital space stations [3], which contains two copies of a map of the earth surface caused on the basis of (a flexible tape)mounted above the base card translucent plate with the image of the spiral orbit from the ascending node and the device providing movement of the base map along the plate with the image of the orbit.

The shape of the curve lines round the orbit is determined by the inclination and height of the orbit and associated circulation period of the SPACECRAFT around the Earth. While the device providing relative displacement maps and plates with the image of the route round the orbit along the equator line cards are made in two variations the tah:

1) a device providing movement of the tape with the card along the plate with the image of the orbit of the two spaced apart and fastened together in parallel between the shafts, when this card is printed on the tape with the combined end point of the equator the first card and start point of the equator of the second card, and the tape is made of a closed and tight on the shaft with a circular movement along the line of the equator card;

2) a device providing movement of the plate with the image of the orbit relative to the basics with a map consisting of a plate (base plate), which is a map and guide holding plate and the moveable plate with the image of the orbit relative to the plate with the card along the fixed direction of the line of the equator of the map.

Tablet [3] is presented in figure 1. This tablet is used in RSC Energia and the Russian MCC for planning geophysical observations from orbiting space stations.

As the prototype described selected tablet [3] using the second execution device providing relative displacement maps and plates with the image of the orbit. This choice is justified by the ease of implementation tablet prototype.

Working with the tablet as follows. With the help of the device provide mutual lane is a mix of maps and plates with the image of the route round the orbit along the equator line card connecting point of the ascending node of the orbit round, depicted on the plate, with the point of the equator of the map corresponding to the value of the longitude of the ascending node of the considered loop. In addition, the line of the route round the orbit shows on a map the route of this loop that allows you to define and select a point of the surface for observation at this stage orbit.

Tablet, taken as the prototype, has a major drawback - it is not possible to identify and select objects on the earth's surface simultaneously take into account the conditions and restrictions associated with objects on the celestial sphere.

Task offered by the device, providing a selection of objects with the AC superimposed on observation of the conditions and restrictions associated simultaneously with the objects of the earth and the celestial sphere due to the simultaneous display of passing KA above ground objects, and objects of the celestial sphere.

This object is achieved in that the device for selection of a monitoring object with an orbital spacecraft includes a plate with a map of the earth's surface, a translucent plate with the image of a curve round the orbit of the spacecraft from its ascending node, installed over the map of the earth surface can move along the line of the equator maps of the earth's surface, a translucent plate with the image the feared object maps of the sky, installed over the map of the earth surface can move along the line of the equator maps of the earth's surface and the device providing reciprocal movement of the plates along the line of the equator cards, with axes perpendicular to equatoral, scale maps of the sky and the appropriate size plate with this card coincide with the scale of the map the earth's surface and the appropriate size plate with a map of the earth's surface, and Equatorial axes scale maps of the sky and the earth surface is made in the ratio of 1:K, where K - coefficient of compliance scale Equatorial scales, defined by the formula:

K=1-Tω/(2π+Δ Ω),

where T is the period of circulation of the SPACECRAFT around the Earth;

ω - the angular velocity of the rotation of the Earth in inertial space;

Δ Ω - the winding precession of the orbit in the inertial coordinate system;

moreover, cards are made with the scale of longitude maps of the earth's surface from 0 to 4π+Δ Ω-Tω and scale direct ascents maps of the sky from 0 to 4π+Δ Ωand the size of the plates with the orbit and maps of the earth and the celestial sphere along the Equatorial axis is made in respect of

(2π+Δ Ω-Tω):(4π+Δ Ω-Tω):(4π+Δ Ω-Tω-2πTω/(2π+Δ Ω)).

In the offer is ensete unlike tablet-prototype added semi-transparent plate with the image of the object maps of the sky, installed the suggested way (over the plate with a map of the earth's surface by combining lines of equatoral cards and can move along the line of the equator maps of the earth's surface), the device providing reciprocal movement of the plates along the line of the equator added elements that provide the ability to move the newly introduced plate along the other of the plates, engraved on the plate map of the earth and the starry sky perform in the proposed scale factor matching scales defined by the proposed formula, and plate from orbit and with maps of the earth and the celestial sphere is made of the proposed dimensions, the ratio of which is determined by the proposed formula.

The tablet is illustrated in figure 1 and 2. Given: figure 1 - tablet-prototype, figure 2 - the proposed design of the tablet.

In figure 2, which presents the proposed design of the tablet, introduced the notation:

1 - plate with a map of the earth's surface;

2 is a semi - transparent plate with the image of the object maps of the sky;

3 is a semi - transparent plate with the image of a curve round the orbit of the SPACECRAFT;

4 - a device providing reciprocal movement of the plates along the direction of equatoral card;

5 is a curve round the orbit of the SPACECRAFT;

6, - line equatoral maps of the earth and of starry heaven;

8 - projection of equatoral cards on the plate with the image of the orbit.

During the revolution plane of the orbit of the SPACECRAFT will rotate relative to the celestial sphere at angle Δ Ω, which is the winding precession of the orbit in the inertial coordinate system, defined by the formula ([4], str):

where Re- Equatorial radius of the Earth; p - focal parameter of the orbit; i - inclination orbit; I2=-1082,2·10-6- the ratio of the potential of the gravitational field of the Earth.

When the orbital inclinations of less than 90° (which corresponds to all research orbiting SPACECRAFT), the value of Δ Ω negative (orbit precessive in the direction opposite to the rotation of the Earth). For example, for the orbits orbital space stations (Salyut, Mir, international space station) Δ Ω is the value of the order of 0.3°.

Relative to the Earth during orbits the orbit plane rotates through the angle Δλ, which is the inter-track distance associated with the Earth coordinate system defined by the formula:

where T is the average period of treatment SPACECRAFT around the Earth, ω - the angular velocity of the rotation of the Earth in inertial space.

Note that the value of Δλ also negative.

For h the ordinary one and the same image orbit was applicable to both cards, it is necessary that the magnitude of their Equatorial axis - axis climbs maps of the sky and the axis longitude maps of the earth's surface were performed in proportions

or

where

The scaling (3)-(5) provides synchronization of the images of the sub-satellite point on the Earth with the Zenith point of the AC on the celestial sphere.

When working with the tablet plate (3) with the image of the orbit with the help of the device (4) is moved relative to the plate (1) with the map of the earth surface to align the point of the beginning of the round orbit (the point of the ascending node of the orbit) with a point of the earth's equator (6)corresponding to the value of the longitude of the ascending node of the considered orbits orbits of satellites associated with the Earth coordinate system. Plate (2) with the image maps of the sky with the help of the device (4) is moved relative to the plate (1) with the map of the earth surface to align the point of the celestial equator (7)corresponding to the value of right ascension of the ascending node of the considered loop orbit in the inertial coordinate system, with the point of the earth's equator (6)corresponding to the value of the longitude of the ascending node of the considered orbits orbits of satellites associated with the Earth coordinate system. Then a curve round the orbits of (5) will show on the map C the me surface trace of this round, and on the map of the starry sky - the trail of the radius vector of the SPACECRAFT in the sky during the revolution. Thus, this graphical representation allows to define a point of the surface and the point of the celestial sphere, observable during the revolution of the orbit.

The nominal size of the Equatorial scale maps of the earth and the starry heaven, equal to [0, 2π]. To route round the orbit is fully reflected on maps of the earth and the starry sky, you want the Equatorial size of the scales of the maps was extended to the Equatorial size of the loop orbit, which is 2π+Δλ for maps of the earth's surface and 2π+Δ Ωfor maps of the celestial sphere. So the size of the Equatorial scale maps of the earth and the starry sky should be not less than [0,4π+Δλ] and [0,4π+Δ Ω] respectively.

In order to reduce the size of the tablet is taken to implement the minimum data size values Equatorial scale maps. When the linear dimensions of the orbit map of the earth surface and maps of the celestial sphere, measured along the line of the equator cards and denominated in the common scale of the earth's equator (taking into account the relation (4)), are:

or

Device is about the mutual movement of the plates along the direction of equatoral cards (4) may be made in the form of guides, retaining plate(1), (2), (3) and are capable of moving along a fixed direction, which coincides with the line equatoral cards.

Describe the technical effect of the invention.

The proposed device provides identification and selection of objects with the AC superimposed on observation of the conditions and restrictions associated simultaneously with the objects of the earth and the celestial sphere. For this purpose, the proposed device, the technical problem is solved simultaneous display of passing KA above ground objects, and objects of the celestial sphere. The technical result is achieved due to the introduction of the tablet additional plate with the image of the object maps of the sky, the proposed installation of the newly introduced plate, perform the suggested sizes and suggested scaling factors of maps and plates, as defined by proposed formulas.

Literature

1. Votyakov A.A. Theoretical geography-3. Map of a flat earth. - M.: Sofia, 2002.

2. Map of the starry sky with the zodiac constellations. - M: DI EM BI, 2004.

3. Map tablet 17K-7988. RSC "Energia".

4. Engineering Handbook of space technology. Publishing house of the USSR, M., 1969.

The tablet to select the object of observation from an orbiting spacecraft, including a plate with a map of the earth on top of the spine, a translucent plate with the image of a curve round the orbit of the spacecraft from its ascending node, installed over the map of the earth surface can move along the line of the equator maps of the earth's surface, a translucent plate with the image of the object maps of the sky that is installed over the map of the earth surface can move along the line of the equator maps of the earth's surface, and the device providing reciprocal movement of the plates along the line of the equator cards, with axes perpendicular to equatoral, scale maps of the sky and the appropriate size plate with this card coincide with the scale of the map the earth's surface and the appropriate size plate with a map of the earth's surface, and on the Equatorial axis scale maps of the sky and the earth surface is made in the ratio of 1:K, where K - coefficient of compliance scale Equatorial scales, defined by the formula:

K=1-Tω/(2π+Δ Ω),

where T is the period of circulation of the SPACECRAFT around the Earth;

ω - the angular velocity of the rotation of the Earth in inertial space;

Δ Ω - the winding precession of the orbit in the inertial coordinate system; and cards are made with the scale of longitude maps of the earth's surface from 0 to 4π+Δ Ω-Tω and the range of scales is direct ascents maps of the sky from 0 to 4π +Δ Ωand the size of the plates with the orbit and maps of the earth and the celestial sphere along the Equatorial axis is made in respect of

(2π+Δ Ω-Tω):(4π+Δ Ω-Tω):(4π+Δ Ω-Tω-2πTω/(2π+Δ Ω)).



 

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