Load-lifting crane safety device with graphic display (versions)

FIELD: transportation.

SUBSTANCE: device contains the boom equipment load and spatial position pickups, the output device, the graphic display with the graphic memory unit and the processor connected with the said pickups, graphic display and output device connected to crane actuators. The processor generates a schematic image of the crane and its operating area on the screen of the graphic display. In the first version of the device, the processor produces a dynamic image on the display of the crane operating area proceeding from the necessity to prevent the crane overload and its collisions with obstacles. In other versions of the device, the operating area is generated on the display by the signals received from outside moving or stationary objects using the crane operating area locator signals, using boom equipment extreme coordinates in motion and/or signals generated by operator acting on the sensor display screen capable to output 3D images.

EFFECT: higher safety of the load-lifting crane operation.

20 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to protection systems for cranes that have the ability to provide the operator with information about safe modes of operation of the crane.

Known safety device load-lifting crane, a digital computing unit and the connected sensors operating parameters of the crane, a storage unit, the Executive unit and block visual indication made in the form of seven-segment display LCD-display, in particular type IEC-4/7 [1].

Its disadvantage is the low information content display information about the operation of the crane caused disabilities seven-segment display-the display not to display graphical and textual information (except for a small number of letters that can be synthesized using 7-segment indicator).

The closest to the invention is a protection device lifting crane, containing the sensors placed on the crane and designed for generating signals that characterize the load and the spatial position of the boom system, a keyboard, an output device, LCD graphic display and memory unit graphic data and a processor associated with said sensors, keyboard, graphics display, the output device, connected to the actuators of the valve. The processor is configured to generate and periodically update the graphics information on a conventional image of the crane in the memory unit depending on the output signals from the sensors, determine the commands coming from the keyboard and write to the memory block information about the working area of the crane, as well as playing on the screen of the graphical display a still image of this zone simultaneously with the conventional image of the crane in the dynamics [2].

In this device, the graphical display provides simultaneous display of the movements of the crane and the crane operator is permitted area of his work that improves the convenience of the operator.

However, the parameters of the working zone is entered only by the crane operator, and its image on the display screen in a dynamic modes of operation of the valve remains stationary. It does not take into account other (also entered by the operator) limits the working area, necessitates frequent switching of the display modes on the display in the process of lifting and moving cargo crane. Such switching distract the operator from the control valve and, accordingly, reduce the safety of his work.

Technical results, seeks to achieve the invention, the show is as follows:

- improving the safety of operation of the crane by implementing additional functions to limit movement of the valve and reduce the distraction of the operator from the process control work operations of the crane;

- improving the usability of the crane on the crane by increasing the information content of the information displayed on the display, and simplify the input parameters of the working area of the crane.

These technical results in the protection device lifting crane, containing the sensors placed on the crane and designed for generating signals characterizing the load and/or spatial position of his arrows and/or hauling, the output device, graphic display and memory unit graphic data and the processor associated with the aforementioned sensors, graphical display and output device, the outputs of which are connected to actuators crane, and the processor is arranged to generate and periodically update the graphics information on a conventional image of the crane in the memory unit depending on the output signals of the sensors, the entries in the memory block information on the working area of the crane, and image playback this zone simultaneously with the conventional image of the crane in the dynamics of on screen graphical display, are achieved by the fact that h is about depending on the implementation options of device:

- the processor is configured to periodically determine to be written to the memory block information about the working area of the crane in the dynamics of terms of prevention as overload of the crane and its collisions with obstacles, in particular, depending on the output signals of the sensor length of the boom and/or the position of the counterweight;

a processor configured to determine information about the working area of the crane using the signals received from the positioning device located outside the load-lifting crane on moving or stationary objects, or using signals locator view of the working area of the crane;

- the processor is configured to switch to setting mode at the command of the operator and definitions in this mode, information about the working area of the crane to be written in the memory block, by determining the positions most distant point of the boom and/or lifting of the body of the faucet using the output signals of the sensors of the spatial position of the boom and/or lifting of the body of the faucet or the output signals from the receiver system global positioning satellite;

- graphic display equipped with a touch screen that is configured to generate signals when exposed to the operator and connected to the processor, which is made with the possibility of forming a working area of hoisting crane or the mode of its operation with the use of these signals, including, in particular, the possibility of setting the operation mode of the boom system and/or position of the supports of the crane;

display and a processor configured to play conventional three-dimensional image of the crane and/or its working area.

In addition, to achieve the said technical result, in any version of the proposed device are possible:

- the use of manual controls input parameters of the working zone, connected to the processor, which is designed with the ability to change the working area of the crane, depending on the signals of these authorities;

- implementation of the processor with the ability to determine the working area of the crane using the signals received from the positioning device located outside the load-lifting crane on moving or stationary objects to which it relates, in particular, another crane, or a vehicle or a stationary obstacle or person. As the positioning device can be used in the receiver system global positioning satellite, and the transmission of information from this device in the processor may be implemented using wired or wireless interface, for example, radio channel, for which the positioning device and the processor is equipped with, respectively, the transmitter and priemnik the information about the spatial position of the object.

Because of those distinctive characteristics, provides a two-dimensional or three-dimensional zone of valid provisions of the boom system of the crane is given as coordinate the implementation of the protection of the crane, and limiting its maximum load. Implemented automatic change of this area when you change the settings on the boom system of the crane, in particular, the length of his arrow, and when you change the environment. Provides automatic input parameters of the working area of the crane shown on the display, by controlling the movements of the boom system of the crane, or by the influence of the operator on the touch display, or on the basis of data received from locator overview of the work area cranes, or transferred with an external object. These objects include, in particular, other cranes, vehicles and persons in the working area of the crane and provided with corresponding positioning devices and data.

These distinctive features are improving the safety of crane and enhance the experience of the operator and, accordingly, are in direct causal connection with the achievement of these technical results.

In figure 1 the example shows a functional diagram of the protection devices crane with graphitesimilar, figure 2 is an example of reproduction of information on modes of operation and the working area of the crane on the screen of the display.

The protection device lifting crane (figure 1) contains the processor 1, implemented on the basis of the microcontroller and the connected interface devices providing coordination of inputs/outputs of the microcontroller with an external communication lines. The processor is connected sensors operating parameters of the crane 2, placed on the crane and designed for generating signals characterizing the load and/or spatial position of his arrows and/or hauling. These include, in particular, strain gage force sensor installed in the rope on the boom or in the cargo of the polyspast, or strain gauge pressure sensors installed in the lift cylinder boom, sensor boom angle (micromechanical accelerometer/inclinometer), sensor azimuth angle, the sensor length of the boom, made in the form of a cable drum with gear, limit switches limit lifting lifting body, the provisions of the controls of the hydraulic system of the crane, the provisions of the supports and the counterweight of the crane, the proximity sensor to the power line, etc. the sensor 2 is determined depending on the requirements to the protection device and constructive pH is she lifting crane.

The sensors 2 can be analog, in particular, current, and digital outputs (in any combination). In the first case, the connection of the sensors 2 to the processor 1 is carried out by separate wires, and the processor 1 (microcontroller or any front-end circuit) contains the ADC, in the General case of multi-channel. If the sensors are made with 2 digital outputs - multiplexed communication channel, each sensor 2 includes serially connected primary Converter, ADC, microcontroller or microcontroller with built-in CPU and controller, the transceiver or the driver multiplex communication channel serial interface LIN (Local Interconnect Network), J1850 (SAE), Controller Area Network (CAN), RS-485, USB, and other Similar controller, transceiver, or the driver multiplex channel has a processor 1. In this case, the sensors 2 are connected in parallel to the multiplex communication channel. To the same channel can be connected and an output device 3, if the transmission of control signals to the actuators of the valve 4 is also implemented on the multiplex channel.

It is also possible wireless transmission of data from sensor 2 to the processor 1 via radio of any type.

To the CPU 1 connected additional controls 5, made for example in the form of buttons or switches, and gra the systematic matrix display 6, mainly LCD, and memory unit of graphic information 7 on the display. The display 6 may have a touch screen, the outputs of which are directly or via an additional controller touch screen connected to inputs of the processor 1.

The security device may further comprise connected to the processor 1: a device for receiving/transmitting data from some external object (for example, a transceiver for radio communication), the position determination device of the crane or boom (for example, the receiver system global satellite positioning GPS), an additional block of memory Registrar settings, radar or ultrasonic device view of the working area of the crane, the real-time clock, optional devices, sound and light alarm, etc. (figure 1 conventionally not shown).

The output device 3 is made in the form of a set of power electronics switches or solenoid relay with the appropriate drivers. This device 3 can also be made on the basis of the microcontroller and connected to the power electronics switches or solenoid relay. Depending on the version output device 3 for its inputs or bidirectional inputs/outputs, connected to the processor 1, respectively, using a individual who's lines or multiplex communication channel.

Output (outputs) of the Executive device 3 is connected (attached) to one or more of the execution units 4 crane, made for example in the form of electro-valves or contactors (starters)implementing blocking of dangerous movements of the crane.

The processor 1, the output device 3, the management bodies 5, the display 6 with the memory unit 7 and other functional blocks (if any) can be made in the form of a single electronic unit - display unit, data processing unit, the Central controller system security, etc. are also Possible multiblock implementation of the protection device, in which, in addition to the sensors 2, there are two or more electronic unit. For example, the output device 3 can be placed in a separate unit (output unit, the expansion unit, the Executive controller of the security system and so on). With some sensors, such as limit switches, can be connected to that particular block.

Before you begin lifting the valve protection device (automatically when the original power supply, or using controls 5) is placed into the setup mode operating status of the valve. In this mode, the operator using controls 5 are set and entered into the microcontroller the processor is a 1-mode information and the operating parameters of the crane and, accordingly, the protective devices - type used on the boom equipment (availability and the angle of inclination of the jib, number of hoist winch part of the polyspast and the like), the position of the supports, etc. if it is necessary for the design of hoisting crane. When entering this data, the microcontroller processor 1 generates a graphic image elements faucet designs and writes them to the memory unit 7. Further, these images are displayed on the display 6, allowing the operator to control the correctness of the input data (parameters).

Additionally, the crane operator using controls 5 introduces the MCU processor 1 parameters coordinate protection of the crane limits of the working area of the crane. These limitations can be, in particular, limit the maximum departure hauling, lifting height of the boom, the maximum angles of rotation crane to the left and/or right, etc. Input is carried out, in particular, by typing on the keyboard 5 of the numerical values of the parameters of the spatial position of the boom or lifting body. The obtained data are also stored in the microprocessor memory processor 1 or the optional block of non-volatile memory. Next, the microcontroller CPU 1 at a predetermined algorithm on the basis of the input parameters forms the raised area crane work in the confined space of valid provisions of the boom system of the crane and is recorded in the memory unit of graphic information 7. Formed a working area 8 (figure 2, where there's no shading area) is displayed on the graphic display 6.

As an example, figure 2 shows restrictions "rotate left" 9 "rotate right" 10, "the wall" 11 and "ceiling" (maximum height Hmax) 12 linear indicator of the height of the boom 13. The crane boom is shown by line 14, the end point (the cross) which shows the real position of the lifting body in the image of the working area of the crane in the plan. On the same drawing shows the position of the crane support legs 15.

Another way of putting in the device settings coordinate protection (information about the working area) is the switching device is in setup mode coordinate protection at the command of the operator (using one of the controls 5), movements of the boom and/or lifting of the body of the faucet with the coverage of the working area of the crane, definitions during these movements of the coordinates (positions) of the most remote point of the boom and/or lifting of the body of the faucet by appropriate processing of the output signals of the sensors 2 or output signals located on the boom receiver system global satellite positioning, their retention and subsequent use as boundary values of the working area of the crane. In this case, after exiting the setup mode, the coordinate C is shields (crane team), the microcontroller CPU 1 analyzes the memorized path of the remote point of the boom and/or lifting of the body of the faucet and, based on this analysis, forms the working area of the crane and writes the corresponding information in the memory unit 7 for subsequent display on the display 6.

When entering parameters coordinate protection, movement of the boom system can be replaced by the mechanical action of the operator on the display. In this case, the display 6 is provided with a touch screen, which transmits to the microcontroller processor 1 coordinates of those points touch screen (display), impacted by the crane operator. These coordinates with a certain scale correspond to the coordinates of the working area of the crane.

For convenience, the input parameters of the coordinate protection in this way, the coordinates of the points touch screen, impacted by the crane operator can be displayed in digital form on a free field of the display, for example, as values of departure and azimuth angle. This way it is possible to perform adjustment of the working condition of the crane - the input parameters of the boom system, the position of the supports of the crane, etc.

This method of input parameters is convenient for the operator - he supports his natural desire to change any setting of the device by touching the image ratio is estoodeeva conventional image of any node or crane mechanism or to the image boundary area of his work.

When using any input method settings coordinate protection, these parameters can be further adjusted by the operator by commands from the management bodies 5. Moreover, if multiple different ways of input parameters coordinate protection and they lead to different parameters of the working range, the MCU processor 1 generates the lowest operating area of the crane. Next, the operator, if necessary, conducts its correction with controls 5.

When the crane processor 1, while working on the program, pre-recorded in his memory of the microcontroller or additional block of non-volatile memory, on separate lines or on the multiplex communication channel, receives from the sensors 2, the current values of operating parameters of the crane. On the basis of these data, in accordance with a pre-recorded his memory procedure (algorithm) for processing these parameters, the microcontroller CPU 1 calculates the current load lifting crane and position it on the boom system. The calculation is performed, for example, using a mathematical model of the crane.

Allowable loading regimes in the form of cargo characteristics of the crane is stored in the microprocessor memory processor 1 or additionally, the block of non-volatile memory.

The microcontroller CPU 1 compares the actual loading crane with a maximum allowable, as well as comparing the actual position of the boom (lifting) equipment with valid area provisions of the boom and/or hauling. Further, depending on the results of these comparisons, the CPU 1 through a separate wire or multiplex channel of communication to an output device 3 and, accordingly, the actuator 4 is transmitted signals, blocking dangerous movement of the crane. This ensures protection of crane overload and crash protection boom system with obstacles (coordinate protection).

Additionally, the display 6 displays the main parameters of the load - lifting crane load crane truck moment (MC, %), the current value of the weight lifted cargo (Q, t), the maximum value of the mass is raised when the current value of flight (Qmaxt), the departure (R, m), height of lifting or hauling (N, m), the maximum allowed height with regard to restrictions (Nmax, m)boom length (L, m)boom angle (α, deg.) and the azimuth angle (γ, deg.), and warning messages to the driver 17 and the display modes or safety devices in General 18 (P1 P2, and so on).

The utilization of a crane truck can additionally be displayed on a linear indicator 19.

The boundary of the working area of the crane 16 displayed on the display (figure 2), corresponds to the maximum possible loading of the crane truck moment (MC=100%). Therefore, the approach of the lifting body (cross arrows 14) to this limit reflects the level of approximation of crane load to the maximum. At the same time approximation hauling (cross arrows 14) to the lines 9, 10 and 11 indicates a dangerous approximation of the boom system of the crane to the border of the permitted zone of operation for the coordinate protection.

Thanks to the crane operator, observing shown in figure 2 the image is able to assess the safety and the early detection of the approach of the crane to dangerous modes from the point of view of congestion and collisions crane with obstacles. When this switching of the display modes is not required, which improves the convenience of the operator and avoids diverting his attention from the control valve. This increases the safety of the crane.

The boundary of the working area of the crane by the maximum value of its load (curve 16) is not constant, but varies during operation of the crane. For example, changing the length (telescoperule the) boom leads to change the position of its center of gravity and, accordingly, to change the maximum capacity of the crane Qmaxwhen the same value of departure. In this case, the microcontroller CPU 1, after receiving data from the sensor the length of the boom 2, provides the formation of a new graphical image of the working area of the crane (new curve 16). The corresponding graphical information is recorded in the memory unit 7, and further together with the conventional image of a crane (figure 2, POS, 15) is displayed on the display screen 6. The same thing happens when changing other parameters of the crane, affecting the maximum permissible value of the load moment of the crane by changing the position of the counterweight, the angle of inclination of the jib, the position of the supports, etc.

Finally, in the dynamic modes of operation of the crane is carried out by changing not only the schematic image of the crane, including the position and length of its boom, but also images of the working area of the crane. This increases the information content of the display information on the display.

If technically possible, the same image can be three-dimensional displaying the schematic image of the crane and its working area.

To further improve the convenience of the operator and the safety of the crane in the protection device may be provided with an automatic setting or automatic correction (decrease) permitted work is her area of the crane, displayed on the display 6, in the presence of near crane any objects, collision with which is unacceptable.

This protection device is supplied with radar or ultrasonic locator, conducting survey (scanning) the working area of the crane and identifying various objects in this zone. In this case, the microcontroller CPU 1, after analysis of the surrounding crane space, generates or adjusts the boundaries of the permitted working area of the crane and then outputting it to the image on the display screen 6.

Another approach to solving this problem is to equip the crane (described device protection) and objects in the working area of the crane, the positioning device. Such objects can be, in particular, other cranes, vehicles, stationary obstacles (buildings, constructions) and stationed in the working area of the crane (at construction site). As a positioning device is convenient to use the receivers of the global positioning satellite (GPS).

Transferring information from a positioning device in the processor 1 is carried out through cables or wirelessly. Accordingly, the protection device (processor 1) and a device for positioning an object equipped with, respectively, the transmitter and receiver of the information about the spatial position of this object.

In the practical implementation of the device can be used in a variety of technical tools and various forms of displaying information on the display that does not matter. Regardless of this, the implementation of the protection devices crane in accordance with the proposed formula of the invention provides increased safety of operation of the crane and the convenience of the operator.

Sources of information

1. EN 2116240 C1, B66C 23/90, 27.07.1998,

2. EN 2093452 C1, B66C 13/18, 15/00, 23/88, 20.10.1997,

1. Protection devices crane with a graphical display that contains the sensors placed on the crane and designed for generating signals characterizing the load and/or spatial position of his arrows and/or hauling, the output device, graphic display and memory unit graphic data and the processor associated with the aforementioned sensors, graphical display and output device, at least one output of which is connected to at least one Executive unit load-lifting crane, and the processor is arranged to generate and periodically update the graphics information on a conventional image of the crane in the memory unit depending on the output signals sensors, recording in the memory block information about the working area of the crane, and is the playing of this zone simultaneously with the conventional image of the crane in the dynamics of on-screen graphic display, wherein the processor is configured to periodically determine to be written to the memory block information about the working area of the crane in the dynamics of the terms of preventing overload of the crane and collisions with obstacles.

2. The device according to claim 1, wherein the processor is configured to change the working area of the crane depending on the output signals of the sensor length of the boom and/or the position of the counterweight.

3. The device according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the processor is configured to determine to be written to the memory block information about the working area of the crane using signals received from at least one positioning device located outside the load-lifting crane on at least one movable or stationary object, or by using signals locator view of the working area of the crane.

4. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that the specified object is another crane, or a vehicle or a stationary obstacle or person.

5. Protection devices crane with a graphical display that contains the sensors placed on the crane and designed for generating signals characterizing the load and/or spatial position of his arrows and/or hauling, the output g is epicheskii display memory unit graphic data and the processor, associated with these sensors, graphical display and output device, at least one output of which is connected to at least one Executive unit load-lifting crane, and the processor is arranged to generate and periodically update the graphics information on a conventional image of the crane in the memory unit depending on the output signals of the sensors, the entries in the memory block information about the working area of the crane, and play in this zone simultaneously with the conventional image of the crane in the dynamics of on screen graphical display, wherein the processor is configured to determine to be written to the memory block information about the working area of the crane by using signals received from at least one positioning device located outside the load-lifting crane on at least one movable or stationary object, or by using signals locator view of the working area of the crane.

6. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that the specified object is another crane, or a vehicle or a stationary obstacle or person.

7. The device according to claim 6, characterized in that the positioning device using the receiver system of global satellite positioning.

8. The mouth of austo according to claim 5 or 7, characterized in that the transmission of information from the positioning device in the processor is performed using a wired or wireless interface, in particular radio channel, for which the positioning device and the processor is equipped with, respectively, the transmitter and receiver of the information about the spatial position of the object.

9. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that it additionally contains the bodies of manual input of parameters of the working zone, connected to the processor, which is designed with the ability to change the working area of the crane, depending on the signals from the controls.

10. Protection devices crane with a graphical display that contains the sensors placed on the crane and designed for generating signals characterizing the load and/or spatial position of his arrows and/or hauling, the output device, graphic display and memory unit graphic data and the processor associated with the aforementioned sensors, graphical display and output device, at least one output of which is connected to at least one Executive unit load-lifting crane, and the processor is arranged to generate and periodically update the graphics information on a conventional image of the crane unit PA is ATI depending on the output signals of the sensors, writing to the memory block information about the working area of the crane, and play in this zone simultaneously with the conventional image of the crane in the dynamics of on screen graphical display, wherein the processor is configured to switch to setting mode at the command of the operator and definitions in this mode, information about the working area of the crane to be written in the memory block, by determining the positions most distant point of the boom and/or lifting of the body of the faucet when it is moved.

11. The device according to claim 10, wherein the processor is configured to determine the positions most distant point of the boom and/or lifting of the body of the faucet using the output signals of the sensors of the spatial position of the boom and/or lifting of the body of the faucet, or the output signals from the receiver system global positioning satellite, located on the boom.

12. The device according to claim 10, characterized in that it additionally contains the bodies of manual input of parameters of the working zone, connected to the processor, which is designed with the ability to change the working area of the crane, depending on the signals from the controls.

13. Device according to one of p, 11 or 12, wherein the processor is configured to determine to be written to the memory block information, the working area of the crane with the use of signals, received from at least one positioning device located outside the load-lifting crane on at least one movable or stationary object, or by using signals locator view of the working area of the crane.

14. The device according to item 13, wherein the specified object is another crane, or a vehicle or a stationary obstacle or person.

15. Protection devices crane with a graphical display that contains the sensors placed on the crane and designed for generating signals characterizing the load and/or spatial position of his arrows and/or hauling, the output device, graphic display and memory unit graphic data and the processor associated with the aforementioned sensors, graphical display and output device, at least one output of which is connected to at least one Executive unit load-lifting crane, and the processor is arranged to generate and periodically update the graphics information on a conventional image of the crane in the memory unit depending on the output signals sensors, recording in the memory block information about the working area of the crane, and play in this zone simultaneously with the conventional image of the crane in the dynamics on the screen is not graphic display, wherein the graphical display provided with a touch screen that is configured to generate signals when exposed to the operator and connected to the processor, which is configured to form the working area of hoisting crane or the mode of its operation with the use of these signals.

16. The device according to item 15, wherein the processor is configured to set the mode of operation of the boom system and/or position of the supports of the crane.

17. The device according to item 15, wherein the processor is configured to determine to be written to the memory block information about the working area of the crane using signals received from at least one positioning device located outside the load-lifting crane on at least one movable or stationary object, or by using signals locator view of the working area of the crane.

18. The device according to 17, characterized in that the specified object is another crane, or a vehicle or a stationary obstacle or person.

19. Protection devices crane with a graphical display that contains the sensors placed on the crane and designed for generating signals characterizing the load and/or spatial position of his article is eeee and/or hauling, output device, graphic display and memory unit graphic data and the processor associated with the aforementioned sensors, graphical display and output device, at least one output of which is connected to at least one Executive unit load-lifting crane, and the processor is arranged to generate and periodically update the graphics information on a conventional image of the crane in the memory unit depending on the output signals of the sensors, the entries in the memory block information about the working area of the crane, and play in this zone simultaneously with the conventional image of the crane in the dynamics of on screen graphical display, wherein the display and processor made with the possibility of playing three-dimensional cosmetic lifting crane and its working area, which is formed by the CPU, depending on the signals added in the device manual controls input parameters of the working zone, or signals, at least one positioning device located outside the load-lifting crane on at least one movable or stationary object, or signals locator view of the working area of the crane.

20. The device according to claim 19, characterized in that the specified object is another crane or vehicle, or a stationary obstacle or person.



 

Same patents:

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SUBSTANCE: method includes periodical continuous polling during which signals are obtained, recorded and memorized which correspond to values of load characteristic of crane, crane geometry and operation conditions, obtained signals are compared with values of characteristics introduced into crane control system before its operation, and after comparing of signals received at polling with tolerable values of characteristics, if they exceed tolerable characteristics, commands of crane operator are cancelled. Introduced additionally into crane control system are parameters of crane operation conditions, speed of wind, ambient temperature and crane condition parameters, load, vibration, temperature of crane drive mechanism lubricants, and voltage in electrical devices. Maximum tolerable values of said parameters are introduced into control system to limit operation of crane drives at which operation of crane should be stopped or can be executed at introduction of definite limitations into operation of crane drive as to speed, accelerations, combined or successive travel motions of drives, obtained signals concerning operation and state of crane are compared with tolerable values, and possibility and conditions of execution of operator's commands are determined, command is left without changes or definite limitations are applied to operation of crane by introducing corresponding corrections to operator's command or execution of command is prohibited according to preset program.

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11 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; load-lifting machinery; safeguards.

SUBSTANCE: strain-gauge transducers are installed on outriggers. Analog-digital converter is connected to outputs of strain-gauge transducers. On-board microprocessor is installed for processing data array formed by analog digital converter, control of hydraulic cylinders of support circuit by hydraulic distributor and putting out required information to operator's display. Moreover, on-board microprocessor is furnished with relay module, and mathematical model of load-lifting machine made with possibility of changing, depending on type of load-lifting machine used, is entered into its memory. Additionally hydraulic distributor is connected in parallel with said hydraulic distributor coupled through system of controllers with relay module of on-board microprocessor and designed for re-distribution of liquid from piston spaces of hydraulic cylinders in case of danger of turnover of load-lifting machine.

EFFECT: increased capacity of machine, improved safety at load-handling operations.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: materials handling facilities.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions is designed for protection of boom cranes at operation in confined areas and near electric power lines. According to first methods, sensor in form of electric antenna is mounted on boom to detect voltage, amplify it, filter and convert the voltage into emergency signal or crane motion blocking signal, additional vibratory displacements of sensor of sensor mounted on boom are provided. Reception of acoustic signal created by vibrating sensor and reflected from objects surrounding the crane can be provided and amplitude and/or Doppler frequency shift can be revealed and, basing on their values, distance to objects surrounding the crane or speed of their approach to crane can be determined, and at decrease of distance or increase of speed above tolerable values, emergency signal or crane blocking signal can be formed additionally. Forming of ultrasonic signal can be done not by mechanical vibrations of antenna, but by means of separate acoustic converter. Additional forming of modulation signals and acting by this signal onto amplitude or vibration frequency of sensor and determination of distance to objects surrounding the crane can be provided by measuring delay of received signal relative to modulation signal. According to second method, movement of crane boom and sensor mounted on boom are determined additionally and, depending on parameters of movement, sensor voltage amplification factor or indicated threshold level are determined. Direction of movement can be revealed additionally and, depending on said direction, sensor output voltage amplification factor or said threshold level can be changed. Revealing of boom movement can be done not by revealing the direction, but by revealing the speed, and sensor output voltage amplification factor can be increased or set threshold level can be reduced proportionally to said speed. Protection of crane from dangerous approach of boom to electric power line in traveling is provided owing to the fact that at revealing of boom movement speed, translation of crane is additionally taken into account. Direction of location of obstacle is revealed additionally and, if said obstacle approaches the crane with boom motionless, boom drive of crane is switched on to move in opposite direction to automatically prevent collision of boom with said obstacle. Device for implementing proposed method contains sensor mounted on boom and electronic unit whose input is connected to sensor and output is connected with input of emergency signaling or crane movement blocking device, and electromechanical converter connected to electronic unit. Sensor is fastened on electromechanical converter, and electronic unit is made for generating excitation signal of electromechanical converter. Acoustic signals can be received by means of additional acoustic converters connected to additional outputs of electronic unit.

EFFECT: provision of reliable protection of crane from dangerous approach to ac and dc electric power lines.

15 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: equipment for controlling and protection of load-lifting mechanisms from overloads and damage.

SUBSTANCE: method involves controlling load-lifting mechanism by measuring signals proportional to loading and/or geometry thereof; processing signals converted to digital form in accordance with preliminarily stored signals determining order of processing in real time and indicating resulting processing data; in case allowable values of signals are surpassed, generating control signals and delivering the latter to actuating device; providing additional processing of signals characterizing results of measurement of loading and/or geometry of load-lifting mechanism by filtering thereof, including leveling down of vibrations in dynamic modes of operation of load-lifting mechanism, or changing coefficients of amplification of these signals depending on preliminarily stored characteristics of measuring devices or values of said signals; processing resultant signals in digital form.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation of load-lifting mechanism and interchangeability of loading sensor and crane geometry.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; materials handling equipment.

SUBSTANCE: in proposed case functions of overturning moment and nominal forces of supports are synthesized from signals of support pickups. Overturning moment is reduced to one "window" whose upper limit corresponds to maximum of overturning moment, and operation of protection and is defined by constant value of restoring moment which depends on size of support outline and mass of counterweight. Created no-program device is adaptive to overturning moment and distribution of forces in supports and contributes to correct mounting of crane on supports from traveling position. Horizontal arrangement of platform and nominal distribution of forces of supports are maintained. Mounting of crane on supports is provided even is deviation of actual forces in supports from nominal values is revealed.

EFFECT: provision of protection of higher reliability and accuracy, improved service and dynamic characteristics of crane.

6 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; materials handling equipment.

SUBSTANCE: no-program method of moment protection is proposed instead of program protection by load characteristics effected in full compliance with moment equation functionally coupled crane loads with variable parameters of boom. Actual overturning moment is calculated and synthesized by protection device from signals of pickups and is reduced to one "window" whose upper limit corresponds to maximum of overturning moment and operation of protection and is defined by constant part of restoring moment which depends of size of support outline and mass of counterweight. Said equation is adaptive to moment loads and automatically takes into account their changes.

EFFECT: provision of protection of higher reliability and accuracy, improved service and dynamic characteristics of crane.

6 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: series of inventions refers to the sphere of tower crane operation security engineering. The method in question presupposes exchange of information on the cranes locations, movements and equipment loads between the control and protection devices of all the "n" jointly operating tower cranes. Additional features: identification of the position of each crane and/or its equipment against the construction site plan, conventional graphical visualisation of the position within the construction site territory of a specified crane and/or its equipment (as well as that of the "neighbouring" cranes and equipment related to them) on the crane display. When the crane operator initiates relocation of equipment related to crane Ki the following is carried out: the intended equipment motion path tracing, display graphical visualisation of the intended motion path(s) of the equipment related both to crane Ki and the "neighbouring" crane(s) whose equipment is currently in motion (by means of exchange of information between the control and protection devices), estimation of the minimum distance between the above paths, graphical visualisation of the point of intersection on the crane Ki display and generation of a signal disabling operation of this crane equipment and light and sound alarm signals in case the paths as having been traced happen to intersect. In order to enable further motion of the crane Ki equipment there is an additional line to be plotted by the crane operator which is intended to restrict motion of the crane equipment (the line becomes graphically visualised on the crane Ki, screen); in case the limiting line has been plotted erroneously operation of the crane Ki equipment and mechanisms is automatically disabled when at the paths intersection point.

EFFECT: improving the hoisting cranes operation standard of safety.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: method includes determination of crane equipment position and estimation of weight gripping device load, initiation of crane equipment movements by operator and disconnection of equipment crane drives in case of overload. Before crane equipment position is determined, coordinates of obstacles on the site are memorized. Contours of obstacles are formed in the memory of processor and are represented on the display, and basing on the signals of crane equipment position sensors the coordinates of initial position of weight gripping device are determined, coordinates of final position of weight gripping device are set, then memorized and displayed. When crane operator initiates crane equipment movements, expected trajectory of weight gripping device is defined and displayed. If no contours cross, directions of crane equipment independent movements are determined, every one separately, for delivery of weight gripping device into the final destination point along the shortest route in the shortest time period, and in case of obstacles contours crossing by expected trajectory of weight gripping device movement, the optimal trajectory is determined, memorized and displayed. Movement of weight gripping device is done in loads bouncing suppression modes, overload crane protection and obstacles collision protection modes, under weight gripping device movement speed reduction with further braking and movements block. Device contains processors, "n" crane equipment position sensors, load detector, unit of obstacles coordinates setting and setter of final coordinates of weight gripping device, display, and drive control unit.

EFFECT: reduces dynamic loads and increases safety.

7 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to load-lifting and transportation equipment and it can be used in protection systems of load-lifting cranes. According to proposed method, tolerable loads are determined and memorized in form of function of spatial position of boom, measuring current value of load in process of operation of crane, comparing it with tolerable load and generating warning signal or signal to crane mechanisms aimed at limiting or preventing overload. In process of lifting and/or shifting of load, change of linear or angular position of crane part is revealed additionally whose change is not allowed in current stage of load lifting and/or shifting process. Depending on value of said change of position, additionally warning information signals or crane mechanism control signals are formed aimed either to prevent further increase in said change or to return said part of crane, for instance, boom, into initial position. Protection of crane from overload is implemented with due account both of absolute value and change of value of angle of tilting of crane component part from horizontal or vertical position in process of lifting and/or shifting of load.

EFFECT: improved safety of crane in operation.

21 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; tower cranes.

SUBSTANCE: method includes periodical continuous polling during which signals are obtained, recorded and memorized which correspond to values of load characteristic of crane, crane geometry and operation conditions, obtained signals are compared with values of characteristics introduced into crane control system before its operation, and after comparing of signals received at polling with tolerable values of characteristics, if they exceed tolerable characteristics, commands of crane operator are cancelled. Introduced additionally into crane control system are parameters of crane operation conditions, speed of wind, ambient temperature and crane condition parameters, load, vibration, temperature of crane drive mechanism lubricants, and voltage in electrical devices. Maximum tolerable values of said parameters are introduced into control system to limit operation of crane drives at which operation of crane should be stopped or can be executed at introduction of definite limitations into operation of crane drive as to speed, accelerations, combined or successive travel motions of drives, obtained signals concerning operation and state of crane are compared with tolerable values, and possibility and conditions of execution of operator's commands are determined, command is left without changes or definite limitations are applied to operation of crane by introducing corresponding corrections to operator's command or execution of command is prohibited according to preset program.

EFFECT: improved safety of operation of tower crane.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; lifting and transportation machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in control and protection system of load-lifting cranes. Proposed system contains load pickups 1, boom tilting angle pickups 5, parameters indicator 6 and series-connected tolerable load setting unit 8, comparator 9 and actuating unit 10 whose output is connected to first input of parameters recorder 11, unit to record designed values of parameters 12, correction unit 3, load weight check unit 2, scaling unit 4, variable coefficients unit 14, change-over switch 15, boom deflection recording unit 13 and boom reach calculating unit 7.

EFFECT: improved safety of crane owing to increased accuracy of control of its parameters.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: hoisting and transportation machinery, particularly to control and protect hoisting machines against overload.

SUBSTANCE: system comprises the first control means group installed on support structure or on equipment parts not to be separated from structure. The first control means group includes digital data processing unit 2 having output connected to executive and signaling device 4, 5 units, the first data input-output unit 3 linked to digital data processing unit with two-directional data exchange channel, crane 6 parameter sensors and power supply unit 1. Power supply unit 1 has one clamp connected to load-lifting machine body and another clamp secured to power supply system bus. The second control means group is supported by movable structure or equipment to be demounted and includes crane parameter sensors 10. The first and the second control means groups are linked one to another through two-directional radioline. The first control means group is provided with the first receiving/transmitting radio station, independent power source 15 and switchboard 16.

EFFECT: increased safety system reliability, simplified assemblage and installation thereof on load-lifting machine.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to safety and control systems of load lifting cranes. Proposed method of supply of measuring and control component part of safety and control system arranged on boom or tackle block of load-lifting crane comes to use of self-contained supply source with automatic charging the source from generator - converter of mechanical energy of moving load or boom wire rope of load-lifting crane or block directing or supporting the wire, rope, into electric energy. According to invention, said component part of safety and control system of crane provides measuring of at least one operating parameter and control of loads, particularly, marker light and/or headlight. To charge self-contained supply source, in additional of wire rope motion energy, use can be made of energy of external mechanical actions, solar energy or heat energy of surrounding medium. Transmission of data between component parts of system can be provided by wireless data exchange channel.

EFFECT: facilitated maintenance, increased reliability, provision of serviceability of safety and control system of crane.

16 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; materials handling facilities.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in load-lifting crane control and protection system. Proposed protection system of load-lifting crane contains digital calculator 1, external memory 2, actuator unit 3 and crane parameter pickups 12 - 14. Digital calculator contains boom reach calculating unit 5, unit 6 to calculate load on load-lifting member, torque metering unit 7, three comparators 8, 9 and 10 and OR gate 11. Outputs of crane parameters pickups are connected to first input of digital calculator, and external memory is connected to second input. Corresponding input of actuator unit are connected to first and second outputs. Invention provides safe and effective operation of crane at small reaches owing to disconnection at overloads the motion which might lead to rise of load. Moreover, requirements to accuracy of calculation of load on hook at operation in zone of large reaches are reduced.

EFFECT: simplified production and reduced cost of operation and maintenance of protection system.

2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; lifting and transportation equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to protection devices for load-lifting machines used in construction engineering. According to proposed method, by successive polling of signals of first complex of pickups by data processing base unit and by transmitting of commands through drum with current carrying ring to controller of extendable part for connection of technical devices and receiving information from second complex of pickups, drives of load-lifting machine mechanisms are switched off when actual characteristics exceed tolerable values. Provision is made for connecting current-carrying ring of drum through marker light switch of one terminal of supply source whose second terminal is connected with metal structure of load-lifting machine.

EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities of load-lifting machine, provision of convenient and reliable transmission of commands for selective connection of devices arranged on extendable part and reception of information from pickups arranged on said part.

7 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering: materials handling facilities.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in control and safety systems of boom-type load-lifting cranes. Proposed system contains main controller to outputs of which input of emergency signaling module, first control input of travel motion interlock module, dangerous voltage protection unit and maximum height pickup of load grip whose output is connected to information input of main controller. System contains boom head controller and pickup of load grip lowering mechanism, and travel motion interlock module is provided with second and third control inputs. Boom head controller is connected by two-way communication line with dangerous voltage protection unit and is connected with main controller by two-way or wireless data exchange channel. Connected to second and third control inputs of travel motion interlock module are, respectively, maximum height pickup of load grip and pickup of load grip lowering mechanism.

EFFECT: improved safety under abnormal conditions owing to preservation of function of limiting of hook maximum lifting height at interlocking of functional of disconnection of crane travel motion by main controller.

8 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; material handling machinery.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measuring or crane loads, traveling of crane with load and time of operation of crane mechanisms, recording of data and comparing them with normal characteristics of crane. In process o measurement, crane operating cycle is found. Beginning of cycle is determined by switching on any other mechanism after switching on load lifting mechanism at G>Gnl and L>Lnl where G is actual load from load on crane hook, Gnl is load at no load on crane hook, ZL is displacement of center of gravity of hook casing relative to center of gravity of load, Lnl is maximum tolerable displacement of center of gravity of hook casing relative to center of gravity of load. End of cycle is found by beginning of following cycle after execution of load lifting in case of no load on crane hook at G>Gnl and operation of any mechanism of horizontal displacement of load at L>Lnl. Simultaneously with determination of beginning and end of cycle, load G is measured at beginning of load lifting in period from moment of exceeding of load Gnl to moment of switching on any other load horizontal displacement mechanism. Current mean value of load is calculated within time interval Δt. Maximum value of current mean load is determined also within said period. Basing on maximum value of current mean load, mass of load is determined, and crane cycle with obtained mass of load is recorded. Then cycles with corresponding load masses are summed up. According to obtained data crane is classified to group of class, data obtained in each group of class are compared with normal characteristics of crane according to specifications and , basing of results on comparing, crane is placed in operation, or crane operator is warned or operation of crane is prohibited. Proposed device contains sensors of load and horizontal displacements, processing unit and comparing unit. Device includes also crane operation cycle revealing unit, cycle recording unit, load mass metering unit, AND and OR units and crane state evaluation unit.

EFFECT: provision of reliable data on conditions of crane, improved safety.

3 cl, 1 dwg

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