Reed laminose material and equipment for its manufacture

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: reed laminose material is made of dace or southern reed, contains odd, maximum 15, quantity of the layers executed from cut lengthways on thin strips of a reed stalks and laid in an is mutual-perpendicular direction. Strips are impregnated by carbamide, urea-formaldehyde or phenol-formaldehyde gluing compositions with hot solidification and are pressed in compression moulds at temperature 100-140°C and pressure 0.8-1.5 MPa. Equipment for manufacture of a reed-layered material has the conveyor consisting from plates for feed of a reed slab, the slab piercing gear, the directive conveyor connected to hydraulic system and executed with possibility of its movement by the rail together with a cutting frame by means of the longitudinal feed gear. Equipment also contains the horizontal dividing device for reed layer partitioning off from a total mass, directive bulwarks for the reed layer feed on a slab, glue feed system for reed impregnation by glue, the elevating device, the device for lowering of a reed layer on size of the removed layer, with possibility of feed of the received laying in system of hydraulic pressing for formation of a reed-layered material.

EFFECT: invention will allow receiving a material with high technological properties.

2 cl, 5 dwg

 

1. The technical field. Woodworking industry.

1.2. The prior art. According to the method of manufacture of the object of the invention is an ancient Egyptian papyrus. Papyrus (papyrus-lat.) an ancient writing material was derived from papyrus - herb of the sedge family (Cyperaceae Juss). The core of the stem is thick hand cut into thin strips. Then these strips were placed on a smooth table in a row, one next to another. On top put the other strips, but in the transverse direction, knock, extruded through a flat stone. Then the resulting material was dried in the sun. The remaining irregularities polished. Due to the resinous substance was homogeneous solid material light-yellow color, if he was old. Over time, the papyrus was getting dark and lose their elasticity, become fragile and brittle. The most ancient of existing papyri belong to 3 thousand years BC (Hey, Gneder, Nscontext. The history of the Ancient world. Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 1997 School encyclopedia. The history of the Ancient world. Moscow. OLMA-Press Education. - 2003).

Common reed (Phragmites communis) belongs to the family Poaceae bārnhart) therefore, the structure of the stem of the cane differs from stem of papyrus.

Reed layered plastic unlike the papyrus consists of several tens of layers, etc is impregnated with synthetic resins and glued under high pressure and temperature.

The closest analogue for the purpose of the claimed invention is plywood GOST 3916-55.

Plywood consists of three or more layers of veneer sheets glued together at mutually perpedicular the location of the wood fibers. Plywood is manufactured from birch, alder, ash, elm, oak, beech, Linden, aspen, pine, spruce, cedar (Vpiugv, Pageonce, Spherosyn. Reference joiner and carpenter. Voronezh book house, 1962).

1.3. Disclosure of the invention. The implementation of this invention will:

1.3.1. The increase in the reproduction of fish stocks in the Volga Delta. In the spring fish spawn in shallow water. On sloping sites the water will be better to warm up, the sun's rays will enable the development of high zooplankton abundance that will create an excellent forage base for juvenile.

1.3.2. Will create an unfavorable basis for pathogenic viruses in the Volga Delta. On sloping sites due to the constantly blowing winds and temperature fluctuations, and in the spring due to the warm sunlight, which is rich in ultraviolet radiation, will be created unfavorable basis for pathogenic viruses that are migratory birds. Even fluctuations of positive temperatures is harmful for viruses, as long reeds and cattails are an excellent basis for the onservative and further morphological changes of viruses.

1.3.3. Will prevent swampness watercourses and to promote the self-purification of water bodies of the Volga Delta. Intervention in the hydrological regime of the Volga river and its canals turns them in slow succession reservoirs: the process of eutrophication, caused by the increase in their batteries. In the ecosystem of the waters of the Volga Delta is dominated detrital type of energy transfer: the sun's rays on the sloped areas will contribute to the rapid absorption and energy transfer, since the young cane will intensively grow and consume food elements.

1.3.4. To reduce industrial load on the forest due to the rational expansion of the Arsenal of alternative means. One hectare of cane can give the average 10,96 m3dry mass. The total area of reed-beds in the Volga Delta is greater than 200 ha Coordinating with local ohotinspektsiya and foresters, can be cut to 25 hectares In total, you can get 274 thousand m3cane weight. Conditionally: 1 ha of forest network 400 m3lumber, it is possible to save 685 hectares of forest. Reed layered plastic in their technological properties can compete with wood-shaving plates. Chipboard - sheet materials obtained by hot pressing of wood particles with svyatouspenskom. On the strength of particleboard are approaching the wood of coniferous breeds. One thousand m3waste wood, spent on the production of wood-based panels, replaces 4 thousand m3sawn timber. This allows you to maintain the area of harvested forest approximately 30 hectares By calculation to 685 hectares of forest, you can add another 8220 ha

Add to this that the state of adulthood hardwood reaches over 40 years, and coniferous - 80 years or more. With proper mowing in winter by the end of April at the same place the height of the young cane is from 0.6 to 1 meter by the end of may from 1.5 to 2 meters. The process of intervention in the ecosystem is minimal.

1.3.5. Special conditions of use of the invention.

Speaking about organized mowing reeds for industrial purposes, it is necessary to bear in mind the following; wetlands in the Volga Delta are of international significance that is provided by the Ramsar Convention. Therefore, the impact on the ecosystem must be reasonable to be saved properties of renewable resources. Reasonableness is determined by the relevant organizations: forest management enterprises, ohotinspektsiya, and the degree of technical influence on the cane. Industrial mining cane was practiced before for the needs of the Astrakhan CTC, which led subsequently to the degradation of the reed, and then, and soil salinization. This is about what went because the extraction was carried out using heavy caterpillar equipment, which summarize the soil and thereby damaged root system and winter underground shoots of cane. Therefore the implementation of this project for cutting cane to use a light wheeled equipment or in places difficult to produce manually and follow the rules of mowing reed: "In the coastal part of the Volga Delta (kultuks, estuaries, Erice and others), nesting birds and habitat of valuable animals should be left uncut 30-40% thickets within a 500-metre strip from the seashore. If harvesting of the cane inside the Islands every 1000 meters to leave the scenes (band) reed width of 40-60 meters. The protective boundaries for birds and animals zones cane consistent with local ohotinspektsiya." (Ahelegbe. Pheasant in the Volga Delta. Astrakhan, Volga, 1962.)

1.3.6. The features that characterize the invention

Raw material for production of cane laminate is the common reed (Phragmites australis |Cav| Trin ex Stend) or cane South. Ecosystems cane have high biological productivity of over 2 kg/m2in year. Reed widespread species. In its elemental chemical composition similar to wood. Reed laminate has all the properties of plywood.

Undoubtedly the Finance cane laminate comes from cane: layers put together when mutually perpendicular strips of cane. The adhesive composition standard; hot glue hardening: urea-17, where the hardener is applied ammonium chloride GOST 2210-51; urea-formaldehyde ISF-1, M-48, MG-4, M-60, M-70; ( C-1, C-35, the resin B.

The amount of glue, the time when the bonding is determined by the native glue, temperature, size, and form of bonded products. The parameters of temperature on average from 100 to 140 degrees Celsius. The amount of glue on average 1 m2: for phenol-formaldehyde - 250-450 g, urea-formaldehyde hot hardening of MG-4, ISF-1, M-60, etc. - 200-400, the Pressure during pressing, IPA: 0,8-1,5.

All these parameters are defined in a practical way for each type of glue and depending on the destination cane laminate. The number of layers must be odd for ease of sanding along the grain of the finished product at the output. The maximum number of layers 11-15. Already from the finished sheets reed laminate on the same principle it is possible to form plates, boards, planks and beams, proKLIMA between sheets of fabric in several layers or metal mesh in a heated mold. In their technological properties of boards and timber will yield a wooden lumber, so as nails fastening material is not suitable, and screws, screws and bolting quite suitable.

1.3.7. The characteristics used to characterize the devices.

For convenience in describing the process chain will take the Astrakhan region. Harvested cane should be in late autumn, winter. The cut cane is delivered to the port of Olya, where he weighed as rough cane practically does not absorb moisture, but on the surface its moisture is available in the form of frost, condensation, so 3% discount on weight have to do. Next is the formation of the reed plates with the help of the press shown in figure 1. The press should be compact, so that it can be transported to any location. Pressure on the press is achieved in MPa: 1.2 to 1.5. The goal is to break the stalks of cane especially in the interstices with further firmware plate twine. This is necessary in order to reduce the volume of the slab due to the increase in density. For example, the density of the reed plate GOST 7483-58 from 200-250 kg/m3. In this case, the density of the reed plate is from 550 to 600 kg/m3. This will reduce transport plates in 1.5-2 times and convenient loading and unloading. The thickness of this plate is 100 mm, width - 200 mm Weight of such plate around 40-50 kg And before skip a specified number of reeds in the press, this number is divided into two parts, because the stalk of the cane is reduced to the top. So one part is put forward for the top, another base and per mesilat and then passed through the press for uniformity of compaction. Pressed plates warehoused in order to accumulate the required number for further shipment by rail or by water, if you will allow the weather, because winter. Send should be in Astrakhan: CTC, where you could put the equipment for manufacture of cane laminate. Next, the plate is treated with antiseptics and antipyrine. Removing the twine and cutting the length to the required dimensions of the plate, lay in the installation (figure 2, a top view and figure 4, the nodes installation) on 2 plates. Nodes And work at the same time: they are separated stalk cane stripes. As the stalk of the cane is not always smooth, it may happen that the stem will be cut unevenly. This will fix the guide shafts 18, 19. The nodes operate alternately, apply layers to each other. The site pervades glue. The guide shafts 18, 19 levelling the clutch, at the same time remove the excess glue in a bath heated 17. The feeder 14 feeds the clutch system hydraulic extrusion 21. Node D, where at a temperature of from 100 to 140 degrees Celsius at a pressure of from 0.8 to 1.5 MPa is used for bonding. Next is the process of sanding and trimming of the finished product. He to me has not been considered as it is possible to use standard equipment.

1.4. A brief description of the drawings.

The figure 1 shows re the axle apparatus for forming plates. It consists of a conveyor belt 1 assembled from plates to hold the pressure. Mechanism firmware plate 22 and guide conveyor 2, attached to the hydraulic system 3. The figure 2 shows a device for forming reed laminate. This figure shows the General layout of the nodes (top view). The figure 3 shows the cutting frame 6 site And figure 4 (front view). The figure 4 shows the design of the nodes a, b, C, and D. Node a consists of conveyor 1, are composed of plates, the guide conveyor 2, connected to the hydraulic system 3 and are moved along the rail 4, the cutting frame 6 with the flap 7 and the longitudinal feed mechanism 5 and the housing 8. The node consists of a body 9, the lifting device 10, the feed conveyor 11, the horizontal dividing device 12, the guide shafts 13, the feed mechanism 14, the feed ready impregnated with glue clutch node B. Node consists of a plate 15 to the hydraulic actuator, the glue supply system 16, a heated bath 17. Node D consists of guide shafts 18, 19. Guide shaft 19 is located on the hydraulic actuator 20 and hydraulic extrusion 21. The figure 5 shows the sample obtained in makeshift conditions.

1.5. The implementation of the invention.

Figure 1 depicts a portable device for forming plates. A specified number of cane is udaetsya on the conveyor 1, the guide conveyor 2 through 3 hydraulic system 3 compresses the cane and passes through himself in order to break the reed stems, especially in the interstices, flash twine, so as not to break the cane across. The figure 2 shows a device for forming reed laminate. It can be seen composition nodes. The device works as follows: nodes And work at the same time; they are separated stalks into strips. Reed plate is fed to the conveyor 1. When the oven reaches the cutting frame 6 includes the mechanism of longitudinal mechanical feeder 5 and moves the frame 6 in the opposite direction until it stops. The guide conveyor 2 by means of the hydraulic system 3 presses the plate and moves along the rail 4 together with the cutting frame 6 and serves to ensure that the stems were into fragments along, but did not break. After frame 6 has reached the stop mechanism 5 and missed the plate, valve 7 is closed and the frame 6, the guide conveyor 2 move to its original position, moving the cut along the reed plate in the node In reaching the initial state, the flap 7 of the frame 6 is raised, the hydraulic system 3 returns to its original position. Site And ready to accept the next batch. The pressure generated by the hydraulic system 3, in MPa: 1.2 to 1.5.

The nodes In work peperami the but. Next, strips of cane are served in the casing 9 of the node B, the horizontal dividing device 12 separates the cane from the total mass of cane feed conveyor 11 passes cane through the guide shafts 13 and delivers it to the plate 15 of the node, where the cane is soaked with glue from the supply system 16. Next, a horizontal separating device 12 is returned to its original position. Lifting device 10 raises the weight of the cane on the value of the removed layer of cane, and the device 15 is lowered to the value of the removed layer. Then the operation is repeated, the horizontal dividing device 12 separates the cane, etc. up until the lifting device 10 is not in the upper extremity. Next, all the masonry by means of the feeding mechanism 14 is fed to the guide shafts 18, 19 node D. the Guide shaft 19 is located on the hydraulic actuator 20, in order to regulate the pressure on the reed masonry, since the adhesive can be of different brands. The guide shafts 18, 19 are served clutch system hydraulic pressing 21, where the formation of cane laminate. Depending on the type of bonding products and kind of adhesive temperature from 100 to 140 degrees Celsius, the pressure in MPa: from 0,8 to 1,5

Sources of information

1. School encyclopedia. The History Of The Ancient World. Moscow: OLMA-Ol the SS Education. 2003.

2. Have. Gneder. Nscontext. The History Of The Ancient World. Moscow: Prosveshchenie. 1997.

3. Polytechnical dictionary. Moscow: Soviet encyclopedia, 1989.

4. Ahelegbe. Pheasant in the Volga Delta. Astrakhan, Volga, 1962.

5. Nveh. Field practice in ecology for students. Astrakhan, 2000.

6. Iaarabene. Are. Vaudine. Handbook of labour training. Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 1992.

7. NWA. Via. The basics of woodworking. Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 1988.

8. Nfvanculalu. Gstamatelou. Can. The use of natural resources. Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 1994.

9. Bemerken, Lgema. Ecology Of Russia. Moscow: Sustainable peace, 2000.

10. Questions Virology No. 3, 2004. "Medicine"

11. Screw-cutting lathe (model TV-4) guide for the care and maintenance.

12. Vpiugv. Pageonce. Spherosyn. Reference joiner and carpenter. Voronezh publishing house. 1962.

13. The geography of the Astrakhan region. Volgograd: the lower Volga publishing house. 1998.

14. Common reed http:www.Agroportal.Ru/manuals/plant/spisok/trostnik htm.

15. Uschanov. Louchakova. Mwihava. Fundamentals of ecological knowledge. Astrakhan. 1999.

1. Reed layered material made of ordinary or South cane containing odd, a maximum of 15, the number is the creation of layers, made of cut lengthwise into thin strips of reed stems and placed in mutually perpendicular direction, the strip impregnated with urea, urea-or phenol-formaldehyde adhesive compositions of hot-curing and pressed in molds at a temperature of 100-140°and a pressure of 0.8-1.5 MPa.

2. Installation for the production of cane-layered material, characterized in that it has drawn from the plates of the conveyor plate reed, mechanism firmware plate, the guide conveyor connected to the hydraulic system and executed, with the possibility of movement on the rail together with the cutting frame through the mechanism of the longitudinal feed, the system includes a horizontal separating device for separating the layer of cane from the total mass, the guide rollers for feeding a layer of reeds on the stove, the delivery system glue to glue impregnation cane, lifting device, a device for lowering a layer of reeds on the value of the removed layer, with a possibility of the obtained clutch system hydraulic pressing for the formation of a reed-layered material.



 

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FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: reed laminose material is made of dace or southern reed, contains odd, maximum 15, quantity of the layers executed from cut lengthways on thin strips of a reed stalks and laid in an is mutual-perpendicular direction. Strips are impregnated by carbamide, urea-formaldehyde or phenol-formaldehyde gluing compositions with hot solidification and are pressed in compression moulds at temperature 100-140°C and pressure 0.8-1.5 MPa. Equipment for manufacture of a reed-layered material has the conveyor consisting from plates for feed of a reed slab, the slab piercing gear, the directive conveyor connected to hydraulic system and executed with possibility of its movement by the rail together with a cutting frame by means of the longitudinal feed gear. Equipment also contains the horizontal dividing device for reed layer partitioning off from a total mass, directive bulwarks for the reed layer feed on a slab, glue feed system for reed impregnation by glue, the elevating device, the device for lowering of a reed layer on size of the removed layer, with possibility of feed of the received laying in system of hydraulic pressing for formation of a reed-layered material.

EFFECT: invention will allow receiving a material with high technological properties.

2 cl, 5 dwg

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