Method of long-length blanks forging

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: forging is performed in several passes by means of an upper flat and a lower cut out strikers. The lower striker has an impression in a shape of a scalene triangle. During the first pass a blank by compression is shaped into a scalene triangle with an obtuse angle 100-105° and a lesser acute angle 29-34°. During the following passes the blank is placed in the same strikers with support of a lesser side of the triangle of its cross section on a bigger side of a scalene triangle of cross section of the impression of the lower striker.

EFFECT: risk of defect formation is excluded.

12 dwg, 6 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of metal forming, namely the techniques of forging long workpieces, and can be used in the shape-forming processes aimed at large message Ukolov metal without significant changes of the transverse dimensions of the workpiece.

Recently in the metal have a tendency to obtain methods of casting or powder metallurgy preforms a small cross-section, with the purpose of further processing pressure is not reduced cross-section, but only the study of patterns to improve consumer properties of the metal. That is why there is a need to develop processes large plastic deformation without significant changes to the shape of the workpiece.

As a result, in various fields of metal processing have been developed angular pressing [1, 2]. the twisting of the workpiece in the container [3] and others

In the field of forging have the following analogues of the present invention.

A known method of manufacturing forgings [4], including the alternating deformation of the billet passes with Kontokali workpiece 90° and its offset after each pass and kantowski 180° after each compression in the strikers with trapezoidal protrusion and depression. The invention is intended for large messages Okulov is gotowke in order to reduce the intensities of the grain and improve the structure of the metal. This goal is achieved by additional shear strains due to the bending of the blank into the shape strikers, equipped with trapezoidal protrusions and depressions. Forging is conducted in the mode of transport, sequentially moving the workpiece through a knee-shaped deformation zone. It is noted that when the forging billet 60×60×500 mm for four passes obtained the workpiece 48×48×620 mm, i.e. the drawing ratio amounted to a value of 1.24. The disadvantage of this method is the presence of a significant coefficient hood.

Known trick accumulation of deformation during forging is sediment long billet of rectangular cross-section smooth strikers, accompanied by a casting-off of the workpiece 90° between transitions. Because of the increased length respected (at least approximately) the conditions of plane strain, which is difficult for the metal along the long axis of the workpiece. As a result, the cross-sectional area changes poorly. The disadvantage of this method is the possibility of buckling of the workpiece, resulting in the procurement form of a rectangular transforms into orthorhombic that does not allow you to continue forging process without additional forming operations. In addition, the lateral free surfaces of the workpieces are Bochorishvili that drive the t to the occurrence of tensile stresses and possible cracking.

In the prior art there is also known a method of forging a lengthy preparations [5, s], including compression of the original long billet flat top striker and lower cut-out striker, provided with a triangular brook (prototype). The cross section of the workpiece give in transition forging a triangular shape. More precisely, the cross-section of the preform has the shape of an isosceles triangle formed due to compression of the workpiece in the stream, also having the shape of an isosceles triangle. This technique is used on the prototype in order to obtain the result of forging billets triangular shape. The disadvantage of the prototype is the inability to continue forging preform having the shape of an isosceles triangle in the same stream. Said illustrated by figure 1, which shows a diagram of the first transition forging blanks of the prototype. Top die 1 has a flat working surface, and in the lower striker 2 cut the stream in the form of an isosceles triangle. The cross-section of the original piece 3 has the shape of a circle. The arrow shows the direction of movement of the upper firing pin. After filling the metal billet Creek cross-section of the workpiece takes the form of an isosceles triangle 4 (figure 2). Figure 3 shows the scheme of the possible kantowski triangular profile with a support side of the triangle on the surface of the stream Length of the sides of the triangular profile coincide with the lengths of the sides of the triangular profile of the stream, therefore, in the following passage the workpiece rests on a wall of a stream in the absence of broadening of the metal to one side. Figure 4 shows that the broadening of the metal to the left leads to the formation of the Burr, which is a manufacturing defect.

Thus, the disadvantage of the prototype is the inability to process the subsequent deformation of the workpiece in the same tool without danger of formation.

The goal of the project is in the process of forging billets without danger of formation.

The proposed method involves the compression of the original long billet flat top striker and lower cut-out striker, provided with a triangular stream having an obtuse angle at the vertex, opposite the plane of the upper firing pin, making the cross section of the workpiece in the transitions forging the shape of a triangle having one vertex with an obtuse angle and two peaks with sharp corners. Unlike the prototype in the first transition of the workpiece placed in the stream bottom cut-out striker, has a cross-sectional shape neuravnoveshennogo triangle. Compression of the upper firing pin cross-section of the workpiece shape neuravnoveshennogo triangle when values of the obtuse angle in the range 100-105° and a smaller acute angle 29-34°and follow what their transitions harvesting have every time in the same strikers to support the lower side of the triangle in its cross-section on a large triangular side of the stream.

When values of the obtuse angle triangular cross-section of the workpiece outside of the interval 100-105° comes buckling profile. If the values are smaller acute angle triangular cross-section of the workpiece outside of the interval 29-34°, is the overflow of a stream on one side and not filling the Creek on the opposite side, resulting in defects.

Usually forging long billets are in short streams feed. However, there is intense elongation of the workpiece that is suitable for receiving elongated items, but not suitable for messages of high ukawa, since the area of the cross-product is continuously decreasing and it is not enough to fill the stream. So in this way it is suggested to forging the entire length of the workpiece, and not in forge mode of transport. This creates conditions of plane strain, characterized by the absence of elongation.

Use as a tool Creek cut-out striker, having the form neuravnoveshennogo triangle allows you to place the following passage received a triangular profile in the same stream with the casting-off profile without danger of formation of burrs. Thereby eliminating the drawback of the object prototype - the possibility of defect formation due to overflow of the stream.

Figure 1 - shows the sequence of deformation of the metal prototype while figure 1 illustrates the task all of the original piece in the stream that has the profile of an isosceles triangle. Figure 2 shows the filling of the metal profile of the stream. Figure 3 shows a variant of kantowski profile for the next hop in the same stream. Figure 4 presents the time of occurrence of the defect - Burr.

Figure 5-8 shows the sequence of steps of the proposed method. Figure 5 illustrates the location of all of the original piece in the stream profile neuravnoveshennogo triangle. Figure 6 shows the moment of filling of the metal stream. Fig.7 illustrates the casting-off of the workpiece support smaller base of the triangle on a larger triangular Creek. On Fig shows the moment of filling the streams with the metal of the proposed method.

Fig.9 illustrates the possibility of buckling in the appointment of an obtuse angle neuravnoveshennogo triangle outside the claimed range. Figure 10, 11 and 12 shows the filling of a stamp, characterized by lower corners of the triangle are equal, respectively, 20, 29 and 39°.

Example 1. Consider forging lengthy preparations in the combined strikers of the prototype. Between the flat top striker 1 (figure 1) and lower cut-out striker 2 having a triangular profile of the stream, is the round billet 3. The triangular profile of the stream made balanced cnym about a vertical axis and so it has the shape of an isosceles triangle. The result is compression of the billet top a busy harvesting becomes a triangular shape 4, repeating the profile of the stream (figure 2). On the prototype, the workpiece 4 is to be folded and passed to continue forging in the same stream or brook smaller profile. When crafting in the orthorhombic cut strikers (prototype, s) rhombic procurement chantuese 90° and this is possible because the workpiece occupies a stable position, centerwas long axis of the diamond in the triangular cutouts Boykov. However, when crafting a triangular profile this casting-off impossible because of the unstable position of the triangular profile. To stabilize the profile can be positioned with the support side of an isosceles triangle on the same side of the stream, as shown in figure 3. While the length of the sides of the triangles coincide. However, further forging leads immediately to the overflow of the Creek due to the broadening of the metal and the formation of the influx of metal 5 (figure 4) outside the profile of the stream. Such flow is considered a defect, as in the following passages he will be bound with the formation of the clip.

Example 2. In the proposed method provided by the compression of the original lengthy preparations 3 flat top striker 1 (figure 5) and lower cut-out striker 2, provided with a triangular stream, giving the cross-section of the workpiece in the transitions forging regolini form. When you first move the workpiece is placed in the stream bottom cut-out striker 2 having the form of neuravnoveshennogo triangle with a short side 5 and the long side 6. Compression of the upper firing pin 1 is the cross-section of the workpiece shape neuravnoveshennogo triangle 7, having a short side 8 and a long 9 (6).

In the following passage of the workpiece have the same strikers to support the lower side 8 triangle 7 in a big way 6 triangular Creek (Fig.7). Long side 9 remains free from the influence of the tool. As can be seen from the drawing, with this arrangement remains the freedom to broadening of the metal as in the left and in the right direction without the formation of defects. An intermediate position of the metal when it is flowing within the stream shown in Fig. It is seen that the metal of the workpiece 7 undergoes plastic deformation inside the stream without any danger of overflow.

Example 3. If the obtuse angle of a triangle is characterized by a value lower than 100°then forming a triangular profile occurs with loss of stability, which is shown in Fig.9. When installing a triangular profile 7, having at the vertex of the obtuse angle equal to 91°drawing the lower side 8 triangle 7 in a big way 6 triangular Creek and the impact on the workpiece top striker 1 loss occurs is ustoichivosti cross-section of the workpiece, that makes it impossible to continue operations.

Example 4. Below are the results of forging when making procurement forms neuravnoveshennogo triangle when the values obtuse angle within 91-110°

Values obtuse angle at the vertex of the triangleResult
91Buckling of the cross-section profile
100Deformation without buckling
105The same
110Buckling of the cross-section profile

The table shows that giving the blank forms neuravnoveshennogo triangle when values of the obtuse angle in the range of 91 and 110° leads to loss of stability, and in the appointment of an obtuse angle within 100-105° deformation without buckling, so in this range of angles the technical result is achieved.

Example 5. Figure 10 shows the result of forging round billet obtuse angle of the triangular cross section of the stream 100° and a smaller acute angle of 20°. From the drawing it is seen that the left hand side of the brook was left blank, and the right part of the stream overflowed the metal with the formation of burrs. The presence of such a Burr will not allow to set the workpiece 7 in the following is arehole with the support of the smaller base of the triangular profile of the workpiece at a more triangular profile of the stream. In addition, the presence of the Burr may cause defects in the finished product. Therefore, this variant of the process does not allow to achieve a technical result.

Example 6. Figure 11 shows the result of forging triangular pieces at an obtuse angle triangular section 100°while less acute angle equal to 29°. From the drawing the figure shows that the stream of the stamp is not full. The same result was achieved at a smaller acute angle 34°. Forging in the stream with a smaller acute angle 39° (Fig) leads to the formation of Burr and severe failure to complete the left side of the stream. Thus, the interval smaller acute angles within 29-34° allows to solve a technical problem in the process of forging billets without danger of formation.

The technical result from application of the proposed method lies in the implementation process mnogovershinnoe forging the workpiece at the lack of lengthening in the same tool without danger of formation. Compared to hammering on the flat strikers additional technical result is to create a higher level of compressive stresses from the side walls of the Creek stamp that allows you to prevent crack formation in the case of forging maloplastichnye materials.

Bibliographic data

1. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2265491, MKI VS 25/00. Stamp to channel the corner pressing (options) / Pigarev, Ahikereru, Neelov, Intondod; the applicant is a Federal state unitary enterprise Russian Federal nuclear center - all-Russian research Institute of experimental physics - RFNC VNIIEF (RU) // Publ. 10.07.05.

2. Loginov YU.N., The Burkin S. p. Evaluation of non-uniformity of deformation and pressure at angular pressing. Forging and stamping production, 2001, No. 3. P.29-34.

3. Loginov YU.N., Bogatov A.A. Plastic deformation without changing the shape / Processing lungs and special alloys. M: VILS, 1996. S-279.

4. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2047415, MKI B21J 1/04. The method of manufacture of forgings / Abisaab; Gaasbeek; the applicant Gaasbeek // Publ. 10.11.95.

5. Okhrimenko AM Technology forging and stamping production. M: mechanical engineering, 1976. 560 S.

The method of forging long workpieces, comprising a compression source lengthy preparations for transitions flat top striker and lower cut-out striker, with the stream cross-section in the shape of a triangle with an obtuse angle at the vertex, opposite the plane of the top striker with making transitions in the cross-section of the workpiece shape of a triangle having one vertex with an obtuse angle and two peaks with sharp corners, characterized in that the first transition of the workpiece accommodated in the lower indented striker, has a cross-sectional shape neuravnoveshennogo triangle, and compression with side who are top striker attach the cross section of the workpiece shape neuravnoveshennogo triangle with an obtuse angle 100-105° and less acute angle 29-34°and in the subsequent transitions of the workpiece have the same strikers to support the lower side of the triangle in its cross-section on the big side of the triangle of the cross section of the lower firing pin.



 

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