Method and device designed for heating and cooling with environmental heat based on self-organization effect

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agriculture, industry, power engineering and can be applied for room heating and cooling. Environmental heat based on developed method and device for heating and cooling of industrial and agricultural facilities, accommodation spaces with environmental heat by means of natural self-organisation effect, i.e. ensuring maximum efficiency of heat energy conversion to electric energy, and possibility of operation without primary energy supply owing to use of environmental heat. Method of heating and cooling with environmental heat based on self-organisation effect by start of accumulator, switch box, capacitive heat converter to electrical energy and heat pump, used for energy heat closure by means of capacitive converter, and by capacitive converter in heating mode moved outside the heated room. At that automatic control of heat pump is matched with control of capacitive converter moving away from the heated room, as well as by the fact that to provide maximum efficiency of heat energy conversion to electric energy, operating mode of capacitive converter is performed at golden ratio of charge-discharge stroke Sc/Sd=0.618. Electric power of capacitive converter is set up not lower 25% of pump heating capacity. Besides, device for heating and cooling with environmental heat is described.

EFFECT: availability of widely used energy source.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the fields of agriculture, public utilities, industry, energy, greenhouse crop production, and is intended for heating and cooling in crop production, livestock production, industrial production, energy and technical fields.

Known methods of heat and refrigerating most objects agriculture and industry of the Russian Federation based on the use of boilers, using as an energy source flammable substances, in particular of hydrocarbon energy.

The disadvantage of the traditional method and device for its implementation is the need for fuel, the complex structure of the boiler, the dimensions, the high accident rate. Traditional heat and holothurioidea using combustible materials, usually accompanied by environmental pollution.

The disadvantage of the traditional method of power supply are the high technological intensity of production, low efficiency of use of primary energy carriers. This energy exergy primary energy source (gas, oil, coal) is implemented with low efficiency or is not fully used. In the continuous growth of energy prices, the profitability of enterprises, the supply of which provides the I boiler-houses, falls sharply.

The reason for the feasibility of using the proposed method of power supply is the need of industry and agriculture in an economical and energy-efficient methods and devices produce heat and cold, using renewable low-grade heat energy environment. In the inventive device are heat pump, transferring heat to the environment indoors or out as needed, and an electric capacitor Converter directly converts the heat of the environment into electricity. The advantage of these devices is their high energy conversion efficiency, for example a heat pump for every 1 kW·h consumption of the electric energy uses 3-4 kW·h heat environment. This is due to the use of these converters vysokoenergetichnykh samoorganizuyuschihsya processes, including phase transition evaporation-condensation, which is not consistent with the second law of thermodynamics and cannot be explained based on it. Natural self-organizing systems can be explained only on the basis of the law, the opposite is essentially the second beginning. This law identified and given the name of the law of survival. An important feature of these processes is not in TRISTANIA them in entropy, and a decrease in the self-organization process. Theoretically and experimentally justified in the study of an outstanding Russian physicist-theorist Ullamaija (Klimontovich UL : a) Reduction of entropy in the process of self-organization. S-theorem (on the example of crossing the threshold). Technical physics letters, 1984, v.9, s; b) the Afterword. // Prigozhin I. From existing to emerging. M, URSS, 2002, s-274;) Statistical theory of open systems. T.1, M., Janus, 1995). The inventive device can use any natural sources of heat, including groundwater and artesian water, soil, etc. As the temperature of the ground water and soil at a sufficient depth during the year remained virtually unchanged, the efficiency of the proposed method and the device does not depend on the outdoor temperature and even in the cold period covers the entire heating load of the room. When using heat groundwater at the year-round temperature of about 5°setting when operating in the heating system provides a water heated to 55°C. each 1 kW of electricity the plant produces about 3-4,5 kW of thermal energy. When operating in the cooling mode in the cooling capacity of the heat pump is about 3.5 kW, 1 kW of electricity.

Expediency used the I of the proposed method and device for heating and cooling due to the possibility of their Autonomous work regardless of the availability of primary energy sources. In terms of increasing the cost of electricity and other energy sources become relevant low-power stand-alone installation. This possibility can be realized, due to the energy circuit of the heat pump via an electrical capacitor of the Converter. The ability to convert heat to the environment directly into electrical energy based on nonlinear capacitors (variantov) was theoretically grounded in the nineteenth century by Professor MSU Bay. Capacitor converters of heat into electrical energy based variantov developed and tested Nesheim and employees (Zaev N.E., Spiridonov US the capacity of the Converter heat environment into electricity. Electrical engineering, No. 12/98, p.53-55). When they test conditions room temperature, it is shown that the energy discharge Mariconda more than the energy of the charge at 32%, which ensures the autonomy of the proposed method and device.

In the proposed method the proposed operation of capacitor Converter with a ratio of cycles of charge-discharge 0,618, which corresponds to the Golden ratio (RF patent No. 2108029, CL 01J 5/007). When this is achieved the maximum efficiency of conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy. This is another novelty and distinctive feature of allaamah method.

The task of the invention is the use of widely available renewable energy source - the heat of the environment based on the development method and device for heating and cooling, industrial, agricultural and domestic premises warmth of the environment through the use of natural phenomena of self-organization.

In use of the present invention is the use of heat to the environment without connecting to the mains or other traditional media, the method and the device can operate in standalone mode.

The above technical result is achieved by the fact that in the proposed method of heating and cooling a heat environment on the basis of the phenomena of self-organization by running a battery of electrical energy, switch, capacitive Converter heat into electrical energy and heat pump, carry out power circuit heat through condenser transducer, as well as the fact that when operating in the heating mode capacitive Converter move outside the heated space; automatic control of the operation of the heat pump coordinate with management removal capacitive Converter from heated areas, as well as the fact that to achieve the Maxim is through the efficiency of conversion of thermal energy into electric mode capacitive Converter carried out at a ratio of cycles of charge-discharge on the Golden proportion TK/TP=0,618, moreover, the electric capacity of the capacitor of the Converter is installed not less than 25% of thermal capacity of the heat pump.

The result is also achieved by the fact that in the proposed device heating and cooling a heat environment on the basis of the phenomena of self-organization, containing the starting battery electrical energy, a switch, a capacitive Converter heat into electrical energy and heat pump, heat pump energetically connected with the capacitor inverter, electric power is not less than 25% of thermal capacity of the heat pump, when operating in heating mode capacitive Converter placed outside the heated area, and the scheme of automatic control of the heat pump is supplemented by an agreed management removal capacitive Converter from the heated premises.

When this mode periods of the charge-discharge is carried out according to the Golden proportion with a ratio of cycles of charge-discharge on the Golden proportion TK/TP=0,618.

The proposed device for implementing the method of heating and cooling a heat environment on the basis of the phenomena of self-organization, containing a heat pump, condenser Converter of thermal energy into electrical energy, a battery and an electronic switch, which produces a charge-discharge capacitor of Preobrazovatel is. The device differs in that in the heating mode capacitive Converter is removed from the heated area.

The essence of the invention is illustrated by drawings.

Figure 1 shows the electrical schematic diagram of a device.

The electrical circuit contains the starting battery (AK), the switching device (COMM), field-effect transistors (VT1-VT2), the battery variantov brand VK-BS (Un=160)x, the step-up transformer 160/220 (T), ballast inductance (Lbengine heat pump (M), switches (SA1-SA2).

Figure 2 presents a structural diagram of a device.

The proposed device consists of a battery 1, the device that controls the battery charging 12, Converter DC to AC of the desired frequency 2, Converter heat into electrical energy with self-organizing workflow 3, device management ludopatia 35, heat pump 4, cooled to 5 and heated 6 premises, controls the performance of the heat pump.

The method is as follows.

Initial charging of the battery variantovxproduce from the accumulator AK. Then, when the switch SA1 turn off the circuit source and the device starts to operate in standalone mode. Using the switch and field t is ancestoral VT1-VT2 produce a switching circuit for charge-discharge cycles at a given frequency. On the battery output to receive the alternating voltage of specified frequency. This voltage is brought to a standard 220 V using the step-up transformer. The inductance Lband battery variantov form a resonant circuit and operate in resonance. The battery is recharged automatically.

A specific example of the method.

An example of the calculation of technical and economic efficiency of the method and devices of heating and cooling a heat environment on the basis of the phenomena of self-organization in relation to winter block greenhouse, located near dcasino Domodedovsky district, Moscow region.

The proposed method and device are compared with the traditional heating based on the use of boilers. For heating in the control variant (variant 1) has two gas-fired boiler Viessmann Vitogas 050 (Germany), with a capacity of 280 kW each. The total cost 1768 thousand rubles, the cost of installation works 188 thousand rubles, the gas pipeline 1050 m long, cost 2342 thousand rubles Centralized power supply. The strip transmission line 10 kV 820 m long, the cost of 420 thousand rubles, KTP 100 kW, the cost of 215 thousand rubles, the fee for connection to the power grid 12500 RUB per 1 kW.

Original estimates:

The required thermal capacity of the heating equipment 485 kW; required capacity of g is neration 98 kW; the consumption of heat 1288,6 thousand kW·hours/year; electricity consumption 321,4 thousand kW·hours/year.

In the proposed method (option 2) made 5 units Viessmann Vitocal 300 WW280 (Germany) with the electric power consumed by the units heat pumps of 98.2 kW each with an efficiency equal to 418% (when the parameters of the primary/secondary circuits 35°/5°). The heat source for which is the artesian well. The total cost 4062 rubles, the cost of installation works 1453 RR Electric power capacitor converters is approximately 25% of thermal capacity of the heat pump part of the unit. The total cost 4610 thousand rubles, the cost of installation works 95 RR

The criteria are adjusted cost (C)calculated by the formula:

3=Sq·Yong+ez → min,

where KV - capital investments;

Eh=0,1 is the coefficient of efficiency of capital investments;

Ez - operating costs, including costs associated with the use of the equipment:

KV=CPU+Mo+HP

where CPU is the purchase price,

Mo - the cost of installation of equipment,

HP - overhead (HP=CPU·0,1).

Calculate the capital investment for each option:

Q1=1768+188+1768·0,1+2342+420+215+1250=6359 thousand rubles

Qtr2=4062+1453+4062·0,1+4610+95+4610·0,1=11087 thousand rubles

Operating costs found by the formula:

<> EZ=Po+AO+Tr+NC+C;

where the salary - the salary of the staff, RUB;

AO depreciation, RUB;

Tr - expenditure on repairs and maintenance, RUB;

With the cost of energy, RUB;

NC - payroll charge = PO·35,8%, RUB;

LC=Np·tc·g·D·KD,

where Np is the number of personnel people.

tc - time load equipment per day, h;

Mr. hourly wage rate, rubles

D - number of days of work per year equipment;

KD - coefficient of additional remuneration.

Calculate wages staff:

LU1=SP=2·8·100·205·1,4=456 thousand rubles

Calculate payroll charge:

NC=3P·0,358.

NS=NS=163,6 RR

Calculate depreciation:

Ao=Sq·Q/100

AO=6359·6/100=381,5 RR

AO2=11087·6/100=665,2 RR

Calculate the cost of current repairs and maintenance:

Tp=Sq·Z/100

TP1=6359·3,2/100=203,5 RR

TR2=11087·3,2/100=354,8 RR

The cost of electricity and fuel:

Calculate the cost of electricity:

See=Q·Tee=321400·3.04 from=977 RR,

where: Tae - average rate of electricity taking into account possible growth of 10% per year (Tee=3.04 from R.),

Q - annual energy consumption, Gcal.

Calculate fuel consumption:

B=Q/(η·q)

where: Q annual heat consumption, Gcal,

q is the specific heat of combustion for natural gas,

q=7,9 kW·h/m3,

B1=1288,6/(0,92·7,9)=177,3 thousand m3.

Calculate fuel costs:

Sgsm=177,3·2,5=443,3 thousand rubles,

where the value of 2.5 RUB 1 m3gas taking into account possible growth of 14% per year.

Calculate the total energy costs:

C=See+tow CGS EMU

C1=977+443,3=1420 thousand rubles

Now you can find ez:

As=2624,6 thousand rubles

As=1639,6 thousand rubles

Can now determine the costs shown:

Z1=3260,5 thousand rubles

Z2=2748,3 thousand rubles

According to the condition is the most economical option 2.

Table 1

Analysis of economic efficiency equipment.
№ p/pIndicatorsEd. MEAs.Estimated
12
1.InvestmentsRUB635911087
2.Energy costsRUB1420-
3.Operating costsRUB2624,61639,6
4./td> The adjusted costRUB3260,52748,3

Comparative economic effect for the billing period amortization period: (TP=10 years)

Kr is the coefficient of renovation(for Tp=10 yearsp=0,063)

Et=(ç1-ç2)/(CR+EN)=(3260,5-2748,3)/(0,1+0,063)=3142,3 thousand rubles

Average annual economic effect:

EHS=EB/Tr=3142,3/10=314,2 thousand rubles

The payback period of capital investments:

Current=(Qtr2-Q1)/(Es-Es)=(11087-6359)/(2624,6-1639,6)=4,8,

From the calculation results shows that the implementation of this method of producing electricity and heat advantageous due to the absence of fuel costs and electricity at their high prices and ever-increasing rates. Another advantage of this method is the ability to work offline without connecting to the gas and electric supply, which saves on construction of gas pipelines and power lines, as well as on the Board for connecting to networks. If this project turns out a substantial economic effect at short payback period.

1. The method of heating and cooling a heat environment on the basis of the phenomena of self-organization by running a battery of electrical energy, switch, capacitive Converter heat into electrical energy and heat pump, characterized in that the exercise of the power is practical circuit heat through condenser transducer, and also the fact that when operating in the heating mode capacitive Converter move outside the heated space; automatic control of the operation of the heat pump coordinate with management removal capacitive Converter from heated areas, as well as the fact that to achieve maximum efficiency of conversion of thermal energy into electric mode capacitive Converter is carried out at a ratio of cycles of charge-discharge on the Golden proportion TK/TP=0,618, and electric power capacitor Converter is installed not less than 25% of thermal capacity of the heat pump.

2. The heating device and cooling the heat of the environment on the basis of the phenomena of self-organization, containing the starting battery electrical energy, a switch, a capacitive Converter heat into electrical energy and heat pump, characterized in that the heat pump is energetically connected with the capacitor inverter, electric power is not less than 25% of thermal capacity of the heat pump, when operating in heating mode capacitive Converter placed outside the heated area, and the scheme of automatic control of the heat pump is supplemented by an agreed management removal capacitive Converter from the heated premises.

3. The device according to claim 2, trichomania fact, what mode periods of the charge-discharge is carried out according to the Golden proportion with a ratio of cycles of charge-discharge on the Golden proportion TK/TP=0,618.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mechanical engineering; reversible air conditioners.

SUBSTANCE: proposed air conditioner-heater consists of heat exchanger installed inside room and operating in summer period as evaporator, and external heat exchanger with fan operating in summer period as condenser, working medium, compressor with electric drive, four-way valve and branch pipes connecting above-indicated sets into common plant with possibility of reversing to make external heat exchanger operate as evaporator in cold seasons. Air conditioner-heater includes therosiphons in form of vertical gravity heat pipes whose evaporating parts are driven into ground, and condensing parts project over surface of ground being furnished with heat exchangers with air. Condensing parts of heat pipes with heat exchangers are enclosed, together with outer heat exchanger and fan, in sealed heat-insulated hood furnished with hatches to pass outer air into inner space of hood, when hatches are opened.

EFFECT: increased thermal energy transformation coefficient.

2 cl, 2 dwg

The invention relates to heat pump installations and can be used for hot water supply and heating of residential buildings, cottages and buildings of various types

The invention relates to heat transfer devices and can be used in the field of heat, in particular in heating systems or heat or air conditioning facilities for various purposes

The invention relates to heating from hot water installations in a closed heating system

The invention relates to heating from hot water installations in a closed heating system

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the sphere of agriculture and deals with growing agricultural plants in greenhouses. The suggested aeration system intended for heating and moistening the air, and heating, moistening and aerating the soil inside a solar greenhouse consists of a glazed frame, a soil medium and a subsurface aeration system equipped with perforated air and water pipe ducts. The hydraulic motor is connected via a spindle to the water pump. The liquid-gas ejector is connected to the solar greenhouse air exhaust line. The valves and the separator are connected to the input of one of the valves via air pipe duct. The valve output is connected to the greenhouse. The water pump output is connected to the input water nozzle of the liquid-gas ejector whose output is connected to the separator. The air pump duct is connected to the generator of negative-charged ions, with the gravel layer inside the greenhouse - via the second valve whose drive is connected to the control unit. The third valve output is connected to the input of the perforated air pipe duct via a washer plate. The third valve drive is connected to the soil moisture monitoring and control unit connected to a pressure gauge.

EFFECT: improving the quality of heating and moistening the air and heating, moistening and aerating the soil inside a solar greenhouse.

1 dwg

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for providing demanded temperature and illumination levels during plant growing in greenhouses.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has casing consisting of baffle screens attached to carcass of apparatus. Bimetallic plates are fixed in two opposite diagonally positioned pivotal joints of carcass. Heating members are made in the form of grid and fixed to inner side of carcass, along the entire perimeter thereof.

EFFECT: improved uniformity and increased efficiency in distribution of thermal and light energy.

2 dwg

FIELD: equipment for growing of plants in growing substrate within heated rooms.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has growing volume defined by wall spaced from base and made from rigid material. Wall is equipped with space regulating device made in the form of metal strips fixed on wall and connected to cover. Growth chambers are mounted on monolith base formed from cement mixture having thermal conductance of 0.87-0.9 W/(m· C). Base has internal shielded double-core heating cable having power level of 165-170 W. Cable is laid in zigzag manner with 60-90 mm pitch.

EFFECT: optimal microclimate parameters for growing of plants provided by regulating air admission into growth chamber volume and maintaining predetermined temperature of growing substrate.

2 dwg

Greenhouse // 2304876

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, design of agricultural cultivation constructions with protected ground, such as greenhouses.

SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has light transparent covering and above-ground heating system made in the form of closed underground zone communicated with atmosphere and space under light transparent covering. Greenhouse is equipped with exhaust shaft positioned in upper part of light transparent covering, at side of end opposite to end adjacent to which feeding branch pipe is disposed. Underground zone is made in the form of air duct-heat-exchanger formed as hollow rod having continuous wall, said hollow rod being buried into ground. Air intake device is positioned near one side of greenhouse and feeding branch pipe is located near opposite end of greenhouse.

EFFECT: improved parameters of microclimate within greenhouse, simplified construction and enhanced reliability in operation of greenhouse.

1 dwg

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, apparatus for growing of plants by exposing the latter to various temperature modes and various radiation levels.

SUBSTANCE: vegetation apparatus has two sections with movable partition. Emitters are positioned for movement by means of two gears, one of said gears being movable in horizontal plane and connected to adjustment handle of autotype transformer. There is air duct with air heating device. Temperature sensors are established within sections. Pipeline provided above baths is made perforated.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation.

3 dwg

Vegetation chamber // 2298911

FIELD: regulation and stabilization of wetting-heating modes in growing of plants under artificial conditions.

SUBSTANCE: vegetation chamber has section including emitting devices, said section being aligned with air preparation section. End of section including emitting devices terminates in movable valve which is capable of closing both sections. Illumination intensity sensor positioned within working section is electrically connected to movable valve controlling mechanism. Air preparing section is equipped with hopper for receiving of regenerated heat of emitting devices.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in regulation of wet-and-heat mode characteristics, reduced consumption of power for heating owing to utilization of regenerated heat from emitting devices within vegetation chamber.

1 dwg

FIELD: process and equipment for controlling of temperature in controllable climate chamber.

SUBSTANCE: method involves placing organism of plant or animal kind into controllable climate chamber; maintaining substantially constant temperature in controllable climate chamber, said temperature having predetermined value (T1); measuring at least one characteristic (G) of development of organism, such as generation of CO2; increasing or decreasing temperature in controllable climate chamber by predetermined value (δT); newly measuring value of characteristic of development of organism; determining changing (δG) of measured value of said development characteristic; regulating temperature in controllable climate chamber depending on changing (δG) of measured value of development characteristic, which had been previously determined.

EFFECT: increased efficiency by providing measurement of one or more predetermined characteristics of development of organism.

16 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, plant growing climatic chambers.

SUBSTANCE: vegetative-climatic chamber includes hollow cylindrical casing, light sources and guiding rail for moving of light sources. Guiding rail is made in the form of spiral and is positioned in horizontal plane above set of shelves with vegetative reservoirs. Fan is connected through flexible hose with carriage mounted on guiding rail. Light source is fixed on carriage, which is adapted for reversing displacement along guiding rail.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in plant irradiation owing to uniform distribution of flux over surface to be irradiated by altering spatial position of light source.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves drafting air from space under greenhouse shell by means of thermal fan; passing said air through heating device; discharging part of heated air through blowing branch pipe into space under greenhouse shell; feeding other part of heated air via metal pipes first into subsoil layer of greenhouse, then from subsoil layer through pipes directly into space under greenhouse shell. In greenhouse at one of its ends there is thermal fan. Suction pipe of thermal fan is inserted into volume under greenhouse shell and its discharge pipe is connected to metal pipe system positioned under greenhouse soil. System for heating of greenhouse volume with heated air is made in the form of two outer pipes arranged under greenhouse shell. Each of said pipes is extending in horizontal plane along greenhouse sides at height not in the excess of 1 m. Through openings are provided in said pipes through the entire length of side facing greenhouse shell. Each of said pipes is connected with its one end to metal pipe system arranged under soil surface of greenhouse.

EFFECT: substantial reduction of heat losses for heating of greenhouse, simplified construction of greenhouse and easy maintenance during heating season.

15 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, commercial plant growing.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining radiation energy absorbed by plants, said energy being used during photosynthesis process and corresponding to average spectral sensitivity of the given kind of plant; growing plant of the given kind by defining design value of total exoergy, with optical radiation wavelength values being taken into consideration; controlling during growing process actual resulting exoergy; ceasing plant growing process when actual resulting exoergy reaches said design value of total exoergy. Apparatus has photosynthesis irradiance sensor, plant kind setter, comparator, unit for calculating design value of total exoergy, actual resulting exoergy indicator, total exoergy design value setter, signaling unit, and controlled switch. Output of photosynthesis irradiance sensor is connected to first input of unit for calculating design value of total exoergy, whose output is connected to first control input of comparator and to input of actual resulting exoergy indicator. Plant kind setter is connected via total exoergy design value setter to second input of comparator, to output of which comparator are connected second input of total exoergy design value calculating unit and inputs of signaling unit and controlled switch. Apparatus is further provided with amplifier whose input defines first input of total exoergy design value calculating unit, and whose output is switched to first input of integrator. Output of said integrator is connected via peak detector and multiplication unit to output of total exoergy design value calculating unit. Connection of zeroing inputs of integrator and peak detector defines second input of total exoergy design value calculating unit.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and reduced operating costs for growing of farm plants.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has vented space, apparatus for removal of carbonic acid gas from atmospheric air and carbonic acid gas generator for generating of carbonic acid gas with low content of carbon 14 isotope. Temperature mode inside greenhouse is reliably maintained by air conditioning and by employment of shock resistant light-transmitting covering tending to retain infrared heat energy. Self-cleaning of light-transmitting covering is provided by means of oxide coating. Sealing capacity of greenhouse is not affected by passage of personnel and equipment therein owing to employment of double door, wherein doors are mutually blocked. Soil air drainage is used for preventing gaseous carbonaceous soil decomposition products from getting into inner atmosphere of greenhouse. Intensified ripening of plants is enabled by addition of ethylene into inner atmosphere of greenhouse.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction.

14 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, cultivation of flowers, vegetables, decorative and tropical plants under home conditions.

SUBSTANCE: compact chamber is composed of at least two parts, that is, bath, extension rings-inserts, hood, and pan. Pan is placed into bath, ground is spilled, sown, watered and covered with hood. Said parts are secured to one another by adhesive tape. Compact chamber may have cylindrical or square volume of enclosure vessel subdivided into at least three main parts: lower part with bath for receiving of soil or other nutritive mixture, extension rings-inserts, and upper part with hood for creating closed space, wherein permanent humidity is maintained for creating advantageous conditions for plant growing. In case space is to be increased in vertical direction, ring-insert is positioned between bath and hood. For plant illumination, in case natural illumination is insufficient, lighting device is inserted into hood throat and switched to regulated pulse-duration power unit controlled from automatic program relay, which is turned-on and turned-off in accordance with set season, solar cycle, established at starting time by means of switches. Heating, air and moisture modes are regulated by means of vent windows defined by notches-depressions formed on vessel surface. Vent windows may be removed when necessary. Vent windows may be closed and opened by means of small windows set for predetermined threshold temperature values and automatically controlled by bimetal effect, and in case of necessity, heating system is switched on.

EFFECT: simplified and convenient maintenance, improved development of plants and reliable scientific results, when used in laboratory conditions.

10 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, method and equipment used in closed ground constructions, such as block greenhouses, for heating in winter or cooling in summer of useful air volume, as well as for regulating night and day temperature differences in autumn or in spring.

SUBSTANCE: method involves pumping out thermal energy from low-grade heat source into heating system with the use of heat pump; taking out low-grade heat from water of cooling system for cooling said water; spraying said water under roof for absorbing heat and collecting by means of water intake screen for further directing into cooling system tank, from which heat absorbed by water is pumped into heating system tank. Apparatus has heating system with water pump, heat pump equipped with evaporator and condenser, and cooling system comprising tank with heat pump evaporator built into tank, spraying pipes connected to tank through water pump and running to and under greenhouse roof, and water intake screen mounted under spraying pipes. Heating system is equipped with tank having heat pump condenser mounted into tank. Method and apparatus provide for year-round optimal temperature conditions for growing and development of plants.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of greenhouse production, reduced power consumed during heating period, provision for absorbing and utilizing excessive thermal energy during warm period of the year, and increased yield.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method involves heating trays and useful volume of greenhouse, with trays being heated with hydroponic solution having initial temperature below 300C and final temperature of at least 150C, when said solution is discharged from trays; keeping air temperature of at least 40C in useful volume of greenhouse; isolating useful volume of greenhouse from remaining volume.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of power for heating plants in hydroponic units of greenhouse, convenient maintenance and reduced costs of materials.

2 cl, 1 ex

Greenhouse // 2249344

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, constructions for protected ground.

SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has carcass for longitudinal walls, end panels and roof, light-transparent material for covering carcass openings, with part of carcass openings being adapted for closing and opening to provide for ventilation of green house interior, and drive for unit adapted to provide for automatic ventilation. Carcass openings are made in the form of air vents. Drive for automatic ventilation unit is equipped with system of levers pivotally secured to one another and to air vent flaps and rigidly fixed on member for securing of vacuum pipe with counterweight.

EFFECT: simplified construction and increased efficiency in creating of advantageous conditions.

2 dwg

Up!