FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: said invention relates to mining industry, in particular, to devices for percussion disintegration of high-strength rock and similar materials and may be used to disintegrate rock, concrete, as well as for frozen soil ripping and filling ground compacting. Engineering problem is to improve efficiency and reliability of the percussion device. The percussion device incorporates a body with non-stationary axial knocker and a co-axial percussion tool (a rod). The bottom three-step end of the body, step size increasing in the knocker travel direction, is encircled with partially axially mobile sleeve. In the recess of the sleeve solid bottom facing the surface of the material being processed, the tool shank is secured stationary, while the sleeve inner side surface is interfaced with corresponding surfaces of the smallest upper and the largest lower steps of the body. The inner cavity of the sleeve is filled with liquid and has a cross baffle, which contacts the body bottom end in the uppermost position of the sleeve. The baffle divides the said sleeve cavity into axial top and bottom chambers, interconnected by means of a coaxial opening in the baffle; diameter of the opening is similar to the one of the knocker. At the end of the working stroke, the bottom end of the knocker enters the bottom chamber through the opening near the uppermost position of the sleeve. On the top chamber side surface, there is a coaxial collar, which encircles the smallest step of the body near the uppermost position of the sleeve and forms a wide annular slot, while near the lowermost position of the sleeve it is interfaced with the side surface of the middle step of the body, so that they together form an isolated annular space interconnected with the sleeve cavity via a narrow ring slot.
EFFECT: improved durability and reliability of the percussion device.
3 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to the mining industry, namely, devices for impact fracture strength of rocks and protoptannyh materials, and can be used for breaking rock, concrete, loosening frozen and compaction of bulk soil.
Known impact device (hammers)supplied, for example, the German firm Krupp (see brochure of the firm Krupp), the Finnish company Rammer (see brochure of the firm Rammer), a French company Montaber (see brochure of the firm Montaber), the Japanese firm Huskie (see brochure of the firm Huskie, and the Japan patent No. 0236721) and many other, comprising a housing in which is movable along an axis established drummer and coaxial with it is a percussion instrument in the form of a cylindrical rod. The hammers have essentially the same design and differ in that in the end of the stroke is hard collision facing toward each other the ends of the drummer and percussion instrument, resulting in the energy of the striker is transmitted destructible material. To ensure the transfer process in the breed of the impact energy impact tool mounted in the guide housing with limited translational movement along the axis and protruding outside the working end of the tool during operation rests on the surface of the erodible material./p>
To commit a specified position in the housing of the tool on the side of the shank has at least one elongated along the axis of the shaped recess in the opposite transverse faces which in the extreme positions of the tool in case of its cylindrical lateral surface alternately abuts at least one fixedly mounted in the housing cylindrical finger, the axis of which is perpendicular to the axis of the tool.
In the process of collision tool accelerates and moving in the guide body, embedded in the rock. Is the destruction of the breed and simultaneous braking and stopping of the tool under the action of intense axial and lateral reactions that occur upon impact. The destruction of the breed is accompanied by the formation of a large number of abrasive dust, which together with atmospheric moisture gets into the guide tool without protection.
In the experience the following negative effects:
1) heavy wear of the guide housing and the tool during the relative sliding in the abrasive medium under the action of lateral loads.
Provided instructions daily lubrication of the guides visible effect, since on the one hand, the lubricant itself turns into an abrasive paste when injected into her abrasive particles, on the other hand, the lubricant is squeezed out of the gap. Currently no known means that can effectively protect the guides from ingress of abrasive dust and moisture while providing for retention of lubricant. Excessive wear and corrosion of expensive tools and guides corps necessitate frequent replacement, which is connected with additional costs.
2) the Hard collision of the tool with locking finger.
All of the above-described structures hammers in the case of "lumbago", i.e. in the absence of prior dispersed tool destructible obstacles, is the hard collision of the tool with the locking finger. The resulting peak load causing plastic deformation and premature failure of the locking finger, tools and even the body of the unit.
3) the Hard collision of the tool with the drummer.
As a result, in the transverse cross section of the colliding parts causes excessive surge voltage tension-compression, which reduces the reliability and durability of the impact device. An attempt to address this lack was made by the American firm of joy, which is offered in the hammer Hefti 514 (see brochure of the firm's joy, as well as U.S. patent No. 4089380) the shank of the tool to be placed in a cylindrical chamber filled with working fluid. Essentially the same resh is the proposed devices A.S. The USSR №927995, IPC IS 37/00, No. 977751, IPC IS 37/00. Entering the specified camera in the end of the stroke, the striker compresses inside the liquid, which in the chamber increases the pressure. As a result, there is axial force, due to which there is a transfer of energy. This eliminates the hard collision parts.
The closest to the technical nature of the claimed device is a device as. the USSR №564415, IPC IS 37/00, selected as a prototype.
The known device comprises a cylinder and placed in it an axially movable firing pin and movably mounted in the cylinder working tool that interacts with the striker. At the end of the cylinder are interacting with a work tool hydraulic plungers, United their cavities with vsodaxes hydraulic chamber which is communicated with the drain chamber when the rebound striker after impact. In addition, in the described device is reduced, the rigidity of the collision is brisk and the tool by installing the firing of the percussion piston, communicating with the latter through a rubber damper.
A disadvantage of the known device is that its a work tool movable in the guide cylinder. While working through the gap in the guide into the cylinder penetrates the abrasive dust, which causes not only stand the high tool wear and guides but also makes inefficient hydraulic plungers due to leakage due to failure of the sealing elements.
The disadvantages of the device is also extremely low reliability and durability of the rubber shock absorber built into the head. Due to the high internal friction of the rubber is observed hysteresis operating voltage elastic compression and absorption by absorbers of a significant part of the transmitted elastic energy. This part of energy is converted into heat. The result is invalid heating and subsequent burning of the shock absorber. To prevent the described phenomenon is impossible due to multiple and short process of the collision of the firing pin with the tool.
In addition, despite the removal of hard hitting (in comparison with analogues), remains the tool sliding in the housing. Consequently, the main cause of premature parts failure in the known device (prototype) is not resolved. In addition, as a result of such improvements operating costs would not decrease, but additionally will increase, as now, at the same time the replacement will be subject to a more sophisticated, and thus more time-consuming details.
Thus, the disadvantages of the known devices include low n is dejnost and durability.
Task to be solved by the present invention is directed, is to increase the durability and reliability of the device.
To solve the problem the essence of the invention is that, in contrast to the known device, comprising a housing movable along the axis of the firing pin and coaxial with him (drums) percussion instrument in the form of a rod, according to the invention the lower three-stage end of the building, steps whose size increases in the direction of the stroke of the striker, covered partially movable along the axis of the Cup, in deepening the deaf bottom of which is directed toward the surface of the processed material, its shank fixedly mounted tool, and the inner side surface of the glass paired with the corresponding surfaces of the least upper and greatest lower levels of the housing. Internal closed cavity of a glass filled with liquid and provided with a transverse partition wall in contact with the bottom end of the body in the extreme upper position of the glass, which divides the said cavity of the glass along the axis of the upper and lower chambers, constantly communicated with each other via formed in the bulkhead coaxial holes, same with drummer diameter, through which the lower chamber in the end of the stroke is lower the second end of the striker near the extreme upper position of the glass. By limiting the upper chamber side surface of the nozzle coaxial annular protrusion, which is near the extreme upper position of the glass covers the lowest level of housing, forming with her (estimated) broad, circular slit, and near the extreme lower position of the glass paired with a lateral surface of the middle stage of the casing, together with the latter forming an isolated annular space communicated with the cavity of the Cup through a narrow annular gap.
At the top of the camera constantly, through the orifice communicated with a source of working fluid through the check valve from the drain tank through the channels located in the side walls of the Cup and the casing above the annular ledge.
In addition, the shank percussion instrument is interfaced with a lateral surface of the recess in the bottom through the shell of elastic material calculated thickness and at the end provided with a spherical surface, constantly in contact with the corresponding surface of the recess.
The technical result that can be obtained through use of the invention is to improve reliability and durability. The inventive device free from the above disadvantages. Really existing sliding glass fitted deaf the bottom, together with the housing forms a fluid-filled insulated cavity, which effectively protects the guide housing from dust and moisture, which prevents increased wear of the components of the unit. Interacting with the material to be processed percussion instrument fixedly mounted in the bottom of the glass. Necessary for energy transfer axial movement of the tool is due to the slip of glass under it covers the surface of the housing. The working fluid that fills the cavity of the Cup, on the one hand, provides lubrication of the mating surfaces of the Cup and the housing and, on the other hand, serves to transfer energy from the striker Cup and rigidly associated percussion instrument.
The exchange of energy between the drummer and the glass is due to the fact that the inner cavity of the Cup is divided into upper and lower chambers by transverse partition with a through axial hole with the same drummer diameter. Entering the opening indicated at the end of its stroke, the drummer isolates the lower chamber and elastically gripping inside the fluid creates a force impulse, indicating forward motion of the sleeve from the tool without the hard collision last with drummer.
Due to the fact that the upper chamber is connected with a source of working fluid through the Rossel and to the drain tank through the check valve through the channels in the walls of the glass and the housing, guaranteed permanent presence in the cavity of the glass of the working fluid and is provided free draining excess fluid in the drain tank.
Reliability and durability of the device optionally also higher due to the fact that the tool shank is connected with the side surface of the recess in the bottom of the Cup through the shell of elastic material calculated thickness. This results in a more uniform load distribution on the contact surface of the tool and substantially reduced their peak values.
The spherical shape of the end face provides the possibility of the elastic compression of the elastic membrane by the action of the tool side loads.
The invention is illustrated in the drawing.
The drawing shows the claimed impact device in longitudinal section.
The device consists of a body 1, along the axis of which is movably installed drummer 2. The lower end of the housing 1 of the device is made of three-stage. The size of the steps 3, 4, 5 housing increases from top to bottom. Case outside covers partially movable along the axis of the Cup 6 with a blind plate 7.
In the recess formed on facing to the processed material side of the bottom 7, fixed shank percussion instrument 8, the spherical end of which is in constant contact with its corresponding form days is eat deepening, and the side surface is associated with a corresponding surface of the recess through the shell 9 of elastic material calculated thickness.
On the inner side surface of the glass is permanently connected with the upper minimum 3 and lower maximum 5 levels of housing and together with the latter forms a closed cavity 10, which is completely or partially filled with the working fluid 11. The cavity 10 of the transverse partition 12 is divided into upper 13 and lower 14 cameras that constantly communicate with each other through a coaxial hole 15 formed in the partition 12. The diameter of the said holes being equal to the diameter of the lower end of the striker 1. In the upper chamber 13 on the inner side surface of the Cup 6 is formed an annular projection 16, which covers a minimum level 3 of the housing 1, forming with it a circular slot large cross-section at the upper position of the glass shown in the drawing, and mates with the side surfaces of the middle level 4 near the extreme lower position of the glass. The channels in the side walls of the housing 1 and the glass 6, located above the annular projection 16, the upper chamber 13 continuously through the inductor 17 is connected with a source of working fluid 18 through the check valve 19 to the drain tank 20. To isolate the cavity 10 from the external environment is a soft seal 21.
The mouth of austo works as follows.
In the initial position of the tool 8 with a force provided by the manipulator base of the machine, its working end rests on the surface of the processed material. The Cup 6 is at the upper position, and the transverse wall 12 of the Cup abuts against the lower end of the body 1, while the annular projection 16 of the glass covers a minimum level 3 of the casing, forming together with it a wide annular gap. The inner cavity 6 cups filled with the working fluid 11 either in whole or in part, but in such a way that the middle step 4 was completely immersed in the liquid.
When enabled, a punch in the work of drummer 2 after platoon makes a stroke at the end of which the lower end of the striker with a given initial velocity is in the hole 15, the insulating liquid in the lower chamber 14 from the rest of the cavity of the Cup 6. Upon further movement of the striker 2 is the elastic compression of the fluid, resulting in the chamber 14 increases dramatically hydrostatic pressure. Under the effect of said pressure drummer 2 on the specified path is retarded and stopped. In the end, the entire kinetic energy of the striker is converted into potential energy of the compressed fluid. At the same time under the action of fluid pressure Cup 6 together with the tool 8 is rapidly moving in the direction of the processed material is as. Now the potential energy of the fluid is transferred into kinetic energy of the tool 8, and then is transmitted through contact of the processed material, causing its destruction.
Due to the deformation of the material of the Cup 6 in conjunction with the tool 8, decelerate, progressive move in the direction of the material. The volume of the lower chamber 14 is increased, and the fluid pressure in the chamber decreases proportionally to the end of the process compared to atmospheric. The transfer of energy to the material and, therefore, the duty cycle is completed.
If the impact tool 8 is either missing or is unstable material, there is a phenomenon called "idle-kick" or "shot". In this case the energy purchased by the glass 6 is not spent on the destruction of the material, and the glass with the move tool until, until you run into the upper end of the highest level 5 of the housing. If you do not take special measures, the contact of the glass body after the "shot" will be accompanied by their hard collision. In the proposed device, it is not.
In addition, the device may often be accompanied by "oblique shock when the tool axis is not perpendicular to the surface of the fractured material. In this case, the tool has substantial lateral forces under esteem which the tool due to the spherical shape of the end of the shank freely deviates from the original position, elastically deforming the shell 9 of elastic material placed between the side surfaces of the shank and recess. As a result, on the one hand, extends transverse momentum forces, on the other hand, increasing the contact surface of the shank with a glass. In the reduced surface pressure and increases the reliability and durability of the device.
1. Impact device comprising a housing movable along the axis of the firing pin and coaxial with it is a percussion instrument in the form of a rod, characterized in that the lower three-stage end of the building, steps whose size increases in the direction of the stroke of the striker, covered partially movable along the axis of the Cup, in deepening the deaf bottom of which is directed toward the surface of the processed material, its shank fixedly mounted tool, and the inner side surface of the glass paired with the corresponding surfaces of the least upper and greatest lower rungs of the housing, with an internal closed cavity of a glass filled with liquid and provided with a transverse partition wall in contact with the bottom end of the body in the extreme upper position of the glass, which divides the said cavity of the glass along the axis of the upper and lower chambers, constantly communicated among themselves what exploits formed in the bulkhead coaxial holes, same with drummer diameter, through which the lower chamber in the end of the stroke enters the lower end of the striker near the extreme upper position of the glass, while limiting the upper chamber side surface of the nozzle coaxial annular protrusion, which is near the extreme upper position of the glass covers the lowest level of housing, forming with it a wide annular gap, and near the extreme lower position of the glass paired with a lateral surface of the middle stage of the casing, together with the latter forming an isolated annular space communicated with the cavity of the Cup through a narrow annular gap.
2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the upper chamber constantly, through the orifice communicated with a source of working fluid through the check valve from the drain tank through the channels located in the side walls of the Cup and the casing above the annular ledge.
3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the shank percussion instrument is interfaced with a lateral surface of the recess in the bottom through the shell of elastic material and at the end provided with a spherical surface, constantly in contact with the corresponding surface of the recess.
SUBSTANCE: impact action device includes housing provided with an inner bore that receives and allows axial displacement of an impact piston and working tool (spear) arranged coaxially towards said piston. On the top portion of a tool shank there is an annular groove. The lateral surface of said groove mates a limitedly axially displaceable split ring receiving the working tool and at the same time mating the housing surface. Besides, the thickness of said ring is less than the thickness of said groove and its bottom end surface permanently contacts the top end of a rubber-metal shock absorber receiving the working tool. The bottom end of the shock absorber permanently contacts an annular boss formed on the inner side of the housing.
EFFECT: enhancement of reliability, design simplicity and economic feasibility of the device.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly well drilling methods and devices, namely drilling by use of heat, flame drilling.
SUBSTANCE: method involves obtaining hydrogen and oxygen by water electrolysis; supplying hydrogen and oxygen in combustion chamber with the use of compressor and converting combustion heat into working body heat to melt rock; inflaming and blasting detonating gas to create blast wave and to convert blast product energy into mechanical energy to rotate blades of rotor arranged in combustion chamber and connected with drilling screw installed outside of combustible chamber. Exhausted blast products are delivered to face to improve melted rock mass removal from well bottom to ground surface by means of electric pump. Device comprises derrick, drill pipes, power drive, tripping equipment, pump and drilling assembly. Supply chamber of drilling assembly is connected with electrolyzer vessel through oxygen and hydrogen supply pipelines. Drilling assembly is shaped as wolfram or molybdenum cylindrical vessel with molded air-tight end closures threadedly connected with the vessel. Longitudinal water cooling jacket channels are formed inside cylinder walls. Inserted in the vessel is rotor having blades, which separate vessel into four chambers. Reed switch is connected to inner vessel surface to provide automatic detonating mixture inflaming to blast content of one vessel chamber. Electrolyzer comprises accumulation vessel, vacuum cylinders with vacuum control means and vacuum pumps.
EFFECT: increased productivity and drilling efficiency, as well as extended technological capabilities.
2 cl, 32 dwg
FIELD: tunnel construction, particularly devices to construct hydroelectric power plant floodgates and to build motor roads and rail roads in mountains.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating conditions favorable for chemical reaction between chemical element oxides basically constituting rock and graphite for rock fusion. For this rock is heated up to high temperature at face by thermal electric arc energy transmission through metal front tunneling machine wall. Electric arc is generated between electrodes inside discharge chambers arranged on inner surface of front tunneling machine wall. Electric current is supplied to electrodes via graphite mass moving through electrically-insulated pipes. Graphite is forced via electrodes and introduced into face through nozzles connected to front tunneling machine wall.
EFFECT: possibility to regulate electric current power and graphite mass to select necessary excavation regimes.
FIELD: mining, particularly methods or devices for dislodging, particularly by electricity.
SUBSTANCE: method involves transferring high-voltage pulses with frequency defined by head rotation rate on rotary drilling head. Drilling tool includes serially connected drilling string 9, drilling head 1, high-voltage pulse source 11 arranged directly in drilling tool over drilling head 1 and charging means 12. The charging means 12 is arranged in drilling tool over high-voltage pulse source 11.
EFFECT: increased drilling efficiency due to increased operational drilling tool reliability.
3 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: mining, particularly for rock block separation from rock massif, to create roads and tunnels in rock, to produce row crystalline material, demolish old foundations and building structures.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises power cylinder with piston, rod with spacing wedge-like end passing through power cylinder so that it may slide in longitudinal direction. Device also has collet with tongues and engaging wedges connected to free tongue ends. The collet is put on rod and connected to power cylinder. Rod is secured to linkage and attached to piston. Spacing end thereof is made as truncated cone expanding towards free end of the rod.
EFFECT: increased device efficiency due to possibility to separate edges of crack to be formed enough for highly-viscous block separation from rock massif, simplified structure and provision of rock breakage through small blastholes.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly well drilling by use of heat, for example, flame drilling.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying oxyhydrogen mixture in drilling assembly; igniting the mixture to obtain high temperature. Oxygen and hydrogen contained in oxyhydrogen mixture are obtained by water electrolysis in movable plant arranged just near well and are delivered via flexible hoses. Drilling assembly is heated by oxyhydrogen mixture blasting inside drilling device body with predetermined frequency to create high-temperature and impact wave acting on rock-cutting tool by rock-cutting tool screwing in rock. Well drilling device comprises shell body with blasting chamber, working reagent delivery channel system and exhaust gas discharge channel system. Drilling assembly is made as cylinder of molybdenum or wolfram including tank and lid connected with each by means of screw connections. Longitudinal water jacket channels are arranged inside cylinder walls. Movable rotor blades fixedly secured to hollow shaft are arranged inside the cylinder to divide cylinder volume into several chambers. Supply chamber of drilling assembly is communicated with electrolyzer chamber through gas conduits, accumulator vessels, vacuum cylinders and vacuum pumps. Reed switch and spark-plugs connected with each other through electrical chain to provide detonating gas blasting inside chamber are built in inner cylinder side.
EFFECT: improved capacity and operational efficiency.
2 cl, 15 dwg
FIELD: construction and geology, particularly to break natural and artificial scale and deposits and to drill holes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying water under pressure at hydraulic cavitational device inlet; activating hydraulic cavitational process in the device with the use of cavitational body located inside the device; directing cavitation water jet from device outlet to surface to be eroded. Pressure of 90-200 atm is provided at device inlet. Space in front of surface to be broken is filled with water for height of at least 300 mm of water column. Distance between device outlet section and surface to be broken is 20-1500 mm. Hydraulic cavitational process has maximal power to provide vibratory super-cavitation with local medium heating, water ionization and cavitational erosion of surface to be broken. This is provided by two ways of water jet direction inside the device. In the first case water jet is directed through two-step chambers having different cross-sections. In the second case water jet passes trough hollow cavitational body made as contraction tube secured inside the chamber. Both water jets are mixed with each other at device outlet. Vibratory super-cavitation presence is detected. Device comprises hollow body with opposite opened ends, cavitational body secured in the body so that the cavitational body extends in longitudinal body direction, and hollow nozzle. Body interior is made as two-step cylindrical chamber. The first step is inlet step and has diameter not exceeding 0.5 of that of the second step. Cavitational body is hollow contraction tube having wavy surface and tapering in water jet direction from device inlet. Ratio between the smallest nozzle and contraction tube diameters is 1.25-2.0.
EFFECT: increased cavitational jet power.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: construction industry, particularly to drive heavy reinforced concrete and metal shelled concrete piles during ice-resistant fixed platform, including underwater one, construction.
SUBSTANCE: electric hammer comprises body with three-phase winding of linear induction motor stator adapted to receive reciprocating hollow striking armature installed therein in fluid-tight manner. The striking armature is monolithic in lower part and includes short-circuited current-conducting winding formed from outer surface thereof. Hammer comprises anvil block with damping means. Linear induction motor stator winding is installed in upper part of cylindrical electric hammer body, which is provided with tubular striking armature position sensors. Cylindrical body of electric hammer is installed inside cylindrical sealed shell so that lower and upper chambers are created. Chamber lengths are equal to cylindrical body length and striking armature travel correspondingly. The upper and lower chambers are freely connected with each other. Upper chamber is communicated with striking armature interior. Lower chamber has pipeline with check valve. Lower chamber and striking armature interiors are partly filled with heat-conductive and electrical insulation liquid. Remainder zones of lower chamber, striking armature interior and total upper chamber are filled with high-pressure heat-conductive gas. Lower chamber has protective safety valve. Vacuum chamber is created between lower monolithic striking armature part and anvil block. Damping means is installed in lower monolithic part of cylindrical electrical hammer body in fluid-tight manner and may reciprocate relatively the body. Cylindrical fluid-tight shell has additional weight. Short-circuited current-conducting winding of linear induction motor stator is linked to frequency-regulated power supply and control system.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability.
FIELD: mining, particularly for mine excavation, well drilling, ore preparation, in geophysics for deposit exploration and probing.
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying pulsed electromagnetic field and elastic stress waves to rock, wherein rock is simultaneously treated with pulsed magnetic field having induction of 0.25-1.5 T, pulse duration of 100-300 microseconds and 1·10-2 - 5·108 Hz frequency, and elastic stress wave. As elastic compression stress waves act on rock magnetic field is created by positive current pulse half-waves. As elastic extension stress waves act on rock magnetic field is created by negative current pulse half-waves. As electric rock resistance decreases up to electric resistance of conductive and semiconductive minerals forming said rock electric current is passed through rock along with following magnetic field induction vector change to provide total rock loosening in treated zone. Magnetic field induction vector is directed orthogonally to elastic stress wave propagation and then the cycle is repeated.
EFFECT: increased degree of crystalline rock weakening due to destruction thereof, inter-crystalline bounds weakening along with decreased power inputs and material consumption.
FIELD: mining, particularly methods or devices for dislodging with or without loading.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling well; filling well with liquid and powder material; forming cracks in three planes simultaneously, wherein the planes pass through well axis and extend at 90-180° angle one relatively another. The cracks are created by impact waves applied to liquid with rod accelerated in free fall mode. Powder material is used for crack propping. Device comprises hollow body, rod with wedges connected to outer surfaces of rod wings and installed on the body, sealing elastic bush arranged from outer body side. One body end terminates in collet. Wings are installed along side edges of rod wings and define sharpened tips as the result of mutual contact thereof. Another body end is threadedly connected to pipe adapted to receive rod with annular extension. Distance member, which spaces apart collet wings, is installed in the body so that it may slide in longitudinal direction towards free end of the body. Sealing elastic bush is put on the body from collet side.
EFFECT: improved production well efficiency, rock piece separation from massif and elastic wave emission, increased rock cutting efficiency.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, construction, mechanical engineering, etc.
SUBSTANCE: machine includes barrel made of impact and static sections, mounted telescopically one in another with possible axial displacement, excluding axial impaction thereof to each other, while both sections are placed in resilient body, made of elastomer, and body has inner bead formed by coaxial recesses of greater and lesser diameters, while impact section is placed in recess of lesser diameter on the outer side of body, and static section is placed in body recess of greater diameter and has outer bead for interaction with appropriate inner bead of body, and also has longitudinal grooves on outer surface, made along forming lines, portion of which by radial drain ports near inner end of barrel are connected to straight drive chamber, and second part connected to back flow chamber by drain ports near outer end of barrel, below-valve and above-valve saddles, respectively covers for barrel and valve box, are made in form of straight and reversed cones, and valve is made of elastic polymer in form of two-tab construction, tabs of which consist of two hollow truncated cones, rigidly interconnected by bases, with forming of chamber, conical on both sides, and outer conical surfaces of upper and lower tabs match conical surfaces of respectively above-valve and below-valve saddles and interact with them in turns, impact mechanism is made of two masses serially placed in barrel - striker and piston, having spherical ends for interaction with forming of intermediate chamber between them, working implement holder lid, fixed on outer end of body, made of elastomer, has a recess in form of inner cone inside ring-shaped edge for interaction with appropriate outer cone on body and pass aperture in base near center, diameter of which matches diameter of bead on replaceable implement, holder of working implement is made of shockproof elastomer in form of cut bushing, having a bead outside for interaction with bottom inside lid and a cylindrical portion, diameter of which matches diameter of pass valve in lid, in which it is mounted, and inner holder diameter matches diameter of neck of replaceable working implement.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, lower vibration, higher effectiveness.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; jack hammers.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hammer has housing with two working chambers, upper and lower ones, arranged in tandem and divided by bridge with hole. Striker in form of rod with two pistons end ends, upper and lower ones, is installed in chambers. Striker is in contact with shank of working tool. Hammer is provided with air distributor and channels in housing. Channel along which compressed air is supplied to execute idle stroke of striker are laid only to lower part of upper chamber under upper piston. Chamber under lower piston is in constant communication with atmosphere through holes in walls of housing in zone of contact of striker with shank of working tool.
EFFECT: reduced back blow (vibration) and force to be applied to hammer at operation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device has impact assembly, support for fixing impact assembly, pneumatic tanks, mounted between impact assembly and support. Pneumatic tanks are interconnected constantly by air-conducting sleeve. One of tanks is connected to compressed air source by air-conductive sleeve, containing adjusting device for changing rigidity of tanks dependent on changes in physical-mechanical properties of destructed object.
EFFECT: higher reliability.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly use of explosive substances based on calcium oxide for developing decorative rock, for safe breaking building structures and objects taken out of service.
SUBSTANCE: method involves reducing limestone to powder state, mixing powder with fine solid fuel; granulating thereof; high-temperature roasting the obtained granules in bed by penetration method under temperature of not less than 1500°C; grinding roasted granules to obtain the following fractional composition (% by weight): particles with 0.1 mm or lesser size- 30-50, particles with 0.1-0.25 mm size - 25-40, particles with 0.25-0.5 mm size - 15-25, particles with 0.5 mm and greater size - up to 20. To provide increased expansion clinker binding agent, for instance Portland cement taken in amount of 10-30% of roasted product mass is added to roasted granules.
EFFECT: improved quality, increased inner friction of hardening mix, provision of breaking force exceeding 180 MPa and 1.5-2 fold cost reduction in comparison with prior art method using rotary furnaces.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has hollow cylindrical body with radial apertures and ring-shaped shelves at the ends and self-compacting collars. These are mounted on opposite ends of body and are adjacent by bases to its ring-shaped shelves. On the latter barrels are fitted with central apertures in bases. Through barrels and body a pipe is let with possible longitudinal displacement relatively to body, having radial apertures, ring-shaped shelf at one end and outer thread at other end. Pipe is pressurized on the side of ring-shaped shelf, its radial apertures are in zone of radial apertures of body, one barrel is stopped against ring-shaped shelf of pipe, and other barrel is connected to pipe by threaded connection.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly devices for drilling and reaming wells in hard rock.
SUBSTANCE: drilling device has drilling tool made as boring rod with rock-cutting members and flame-jet burner installed at end thereof. Device also comprises pipelines for supplying fuel, water and air from discharge compressor outlet to flame-jet burner, as well as compressor with filter arranged at suction pipe inlet. Filter comprises body with condensate-tapper, converging nozzle and deflector. Flame-jet burner is made as a plurality of nozzles. Number of burner nozzles is divisible by 2. Each nozzle has curvilinear grooves extending from inlet orifice to outlet one in longitudinal direction. Curvature of groove generatrix of one nozzle advances in clockwise direction. Curvature of groove generatrix of another nozzle advances in counterclockwise direction.
EFFECT: reduced power inputs due to improved parameters of temperature fields and fields of stresses in well body where high-temperature fuel combustion processes cooperate with rock of complex structure and texture.
FIELD: dislodging equipment for cutting rock, artificial frangible materials, for loosening frozen ground and for compacting fill-up soil, particularly replaceable tool adapted to be connected to shovel boom and operative tool of fixed high-strength rock dislodging plant.
SUBSTANCE: device has resilient seals, hydropneumatic accumulator piston movably installed in device body and comprising cylindrical shaft connected to piston end facing hydraulic chamber thereof and mating device body. Cylindrical shaft has annular groove formed in medium part thereof and brings end chamber of distribution means having larger diameter into communication with draining pipeline or with working liquid source through body channels. End chamber having lesser diameter permanently communicates with working liquid source. Rear cavity of working stroke chamber located behind working end of percussion piston communicates with working liquid source or with working stroke chamber through body channels and two check valves.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, simplicity and reliability, reduced cost and size, improved manufacturability, prevention of working fluid flow between working stroke chamber and idle stroke chamber, increased impact frequency with a given pump capacity and impact energy.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly hand tools or hand-held power-operated tools specially adapted for dislodging minerals.
SUBSTANCE: pneumatic hammer comprises arm with cup, executive tool, body with outlet channel closed with lid from arm side and defining annular prechamber for system air between cup and lid, working and idle stroke chambers, displacement chamber located between lid and larger body step and pressurizing chamber defined by recess with cut-off edges permanently formed on inner side surface of central stepped channel by annular prechamber communicated with compressed air system. Hammer also has inlet throttle channel formed in pressurizing chamber wall, annular neck portion located in central stepped lid channel between pressurizing and displacement chambers, bypass displacing channel having radial outlet formed in the body and communicating with working stroke chamber arranged between pressurizing chamber and outlet channel formed in the body and striker with upper and lower cut-off edges located in central stepped channel along body axis. Distance between the striker edges is greater than distance between displacement chamber outlet and cutoff edge of larger central channel step. Hammer is additionally provided with inlet throttle channel made in the lid and permanently communicated with annular prechamber. Radial bypass displacing channel inlet is formed in the annular neck portion between pressurizing and displacing chambers from displacing chamber side so that distance between cut-off edges of displacing chamber on side central stepped body channel surface is greater than distance between cut-off striker edges.
EFFECT: increased power of hammer stroke.
FIELD: mining, particularly hand tools or hand-held power-operated tools specially adapted for dislodging minerals.
SUBSTANCE: pneumatic hammer has body with radial outlet channel and central channel, lid with annular shoulder and central orifice supported by body end in air-tight manner, striker with through axial channel dividing central body channel into working and idle stroke chambers, tube having blind shoulder arranged from lid side, longitudinal and radial channels. The tube is installed coaxially in central body channel and cooperates with through axial channel of the striker and with central lid orifice by side wall thereof so that annular dap is created between tube and lid. The annular gap may be closed with blind lid shoulder. Hammer has cup, which is air-tightly installed relative annular shoulder and body so that annular accumulation chamber is formed between side cup surface and lid. Annular accumulation chamber is permanently communicated with idle stroke chamber by radial bypass channel in the body. Annular lid shoulder and cup with air inlet channel define prechamber. Air inlet channel permanently communicate prechamber with compressed air system through air hose and nipple releasable connected to the cup. Hammer comprises ring with outlet orifices forming outlet chamber between the body and outlet channel, executive tool with shank and shoulder cooperating with body end and with shank cooperating with hammer, cap with annular shock absorber retaining executive tool from falling out of central body channel. Executive tool shank is provided with central blind hole for receiving tube rested upon bottom thereof. Side surfaces of the tube and central blind hole cooperate to define annular channel having throat, which is not less than that of longitudinal tube channel.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability and power of hammer stroke.
FIELD: mining and building, particularly control methods for hydraulic driven pulse systems, to design hydraulic percussion machines.
SUBSTANCE: method involves permanently connecting return stroke chamber to system comprising liquid source and accumulator; connecting forward stroke chamber alternately to liquid source or to drain means adapted to discharge liquid into vessel through hydraulic distribution means including the first and the second control chambers, wherein forward stroke chamber is connected to liquid source in response to a control signal which controls striker shifting into forward stroke, and forward stroke chamber is connected to drain means in response to a control signal which controls striker shifting into return stroke after striker fixation; exerting permanent additional force upon the second control chamber connected to upper striker location sensor. Above alternate connection between forward stroke chamber and liquid source or drain means is carried out by means of quick-acting valve connected to liquid source, to drain means and to the first chamber of hydraulic distribution means. Above control signals for striker shifting into forward or return strokes are transmitted to quick-acting valve from control unit. Time delays for control signal transmission are set manually or with the use of control unit to provide quick-acting valve shifting relative synchronization moment set by timing sensor in accordance to operation condition sensor signal magnitude.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and operational reliability.
2 cl, 1 dwg