Method of hydrocarbons conversion and convertor for its implementation

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: converter includes housing and devices for input oxygen enriched air, fed of vapour-hydrocarbon mix and bleeding of converted gas. The housing is provided with inner fikking designed as two cylindrical tubes installed one inside the other and forming with the converter housing two radial clearances: the outer clearance for input vapour-hydrocarbon mix and inner one for output of converted gas. At that the packing made of channeled plates is provided for inner fikking, this packing forms the channels of square section; the upper part (1/20-1/25) of channels is provided with perforation track, the middle part (1/5-1/6) of channels height located lower than perforation track is filled with catalyst used for primary and secondary hydrocarbon conversions; and the lowest part (1/6-1/8) of channels height is filled with catalyst used for preliminary hydrocarbon conversion. The device for input oxygen enriched air is positioned in the upper part of channels. The method is implemented in converter. Hydrocarbon material heating and converted gas cooling are carried out by the way of its passing through heat exchanger and mixing of hydrocarbon material with water vapour, then vapour-hydrocarbon mix is fed downstream through outer radial clearance and further it is delivered up the channels through catalyst bed for implementing of preliminary and primary conversions. Then through perforation track it is fed down the channels for converted gas oxidizing and secondary vapour conversion with subsequent converted gas upflow takeoff through inner radial clearance.

EFFECT: increasing of hydrocarbon material conversion and reduction of probability of free carbon formation.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of processing of light hydrocarbons under pressure by the method of steam, steam-air or steam-oxygen conversion and can be used at the enterprises of chemical and petrochemical industry, producing ammonia, methanol and hydrogen.

A method of refining natural gas (Patent RU №2142325, IPC7B01D 53/00, SW 3/38, publ. 10.12.99), including preliminary steam catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons in the adiabatic Converter, the decomposition of the gas mixture obtained in stage steam reforming in a tubular Converter and subsequent dayslounge on stage oxygen conversion in the shaft reactor, and the gas mixture obtained after oxygen conversion, pre-served in the annulus of the tubular Converter.

The disadvantages of the method include the presence of a large number of devices and the connecting elements, the need to use special gear collectors apparatus of the first-stage steam reforming to the unit air conversion due to high temperature environments found in these devices, due to the use of this method.

Known Converter for catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons (Patent RU №2131765, IPC7B01J 8/06, SW 3/38, publ. 20.06.99), consisting of the Vuh-speed, placed in a refractory-lined casing with the reaction tubes at the bottom, filled with a catalyst for the first stage of conversion, which is performed in the form of modules, and the catalyst layer of the second step of the conversion is placed in the upper part of the body.

The disadvantages of this Converter are: the complexity of the layout design, the presence of a complex set of parts potokoprovodyaschih devices, inefficient use of the internal space of the apparatus, as well as low operational suitability.

Closest to the claimed invention is a method and apparatus that uses plate design for heating the reagent (US Patent No. 6180846, IPC7SS 1/02, SS 5/367, SW 1/00, F28D 7/00, B01J 8/02, from 30.06.2001).

The method includes the stage of primary steam reforming of hydrocarbons, phase oxidation of combustible products of primary steam reforming of hydrocarbons, the stage of secondary steam reforming of hydrocarbons, Converter, heating peopletoday mixture and cooling products secondary steam reforming of hydrocarbons, in the heat exchanger.

This includes the housing, the input device, oxygen-enriched air supply progresterone mixture and removal of the converted gas nozzle made using corrugated plates forming direct canaliculata section, partially filled with a catalyst for the primary and secondary steam reforming of hydrocarbons.

The disadvantage of this method is its complexity, irrational conduct heat peoplelocation mixture and cooling the converted gas in the heat exchanger, and also in the Converter, insufficient use of heat converted gas.

A disadvantage of the known device is the low use of heat converted gas, effecting combustion of the reformed gas directly into the catalyst for the secondary steam reforming of hydrocarbons, which extremely increases the requirements for heat resistance material corrugated plates and the catalyst, the formation of free carbon in the channels free from catalyst, prior to the implementation of the primary steam reforming of hydrocarbons, as well as in primary catalyst steam reforming of hydrocarbons.

The purpose of the Converter is a high degree of conversion of the hydrocarbons and the use of the reformed gas heat, achieving low unit size Converter, catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons, reduction of thermal loads on the body of the Converter.

The purpose of this method is the high efficiency of technological process steam CONV is these hydrocarbons due to greater use of heat converted gas achieving a high degree of conversion of hydrocarbons, avoiding the formation of free carbon on the surfaces and the catalyst in the Converter.

This goal is achieved by the fact that the Converter comprising a housing, input oxygen-enriched air supply progresterone mixture and removal of the converted gas, according to the invention has an internal nozzle, made in the form of two placed one within another cylindrical cups, forming with the housing of the Converter two ring gap, external incoming progresterone mixture and internal facing the converted gas, the internal nozzle with a nozzle of the corrugated plates forming the channels of square cross section, the upper 1/20-1/25 some of the channels are made with perforations, 1/5-1/6 of the height of the channels below the perforation filled with a catalyst for the primary and secondary conversion of hydrocarbons and 1/6-1/8 of the lower part of the height of the channels is filled with a catalyst for pre-reforming of hydrocarbons, the device for introducing oxygen-enriched air is located in the upper part of the channel.

The use of the internal nozzle, made in the form of two placed one within another cylindrical glasses, you can reduce the heat load on the walls of the con is ertor and to reduce the thickness of the lining of the Converter, thereby reduce the specific dimensions of the Converter.

Implementation of the internal glass of attachment of the corrugated plates forming the channels of square cross section, the upper 1/20-1/25 parts of the channels with perforations, filling 1/5-1/6 of the height of the channels below the perforation a catalyst for the primary and secondary conversion of hydrocarbons and filling 1/6-1/8 of the lower part of the height of the channels catalyst for pre-reforming of hydrocarbons allows to achieve a high degree of conversion of the hydrocarbon feedstock and a high degree of heat converted gas outside the values specified intervals, the location of the catalyst heat balance will be broken and the specified purpose of the invention will not be achieved.

The location of the device to enter oxygen-enriched air in the upper part of the channels allows to localize the region of the oxidation of combustible gases after the primary steam reforming of hydrocarbons inside the tip of the corrugated plates, which reduces thermal load on the upper part of the housing of the Converter.

The method according to the invention is carried out in the Converter, for heating hydrocarbons and cooling them converted gas is passed through the heat exchanger, mixing the heated hydrocarbon feedstock with steam, progresterone mixture pod is tons downflow through the outer annular space, further, it serves up the channels through the catalyst for preliminary and primary conversion, then through the perforation channels it serves down the channels for oxidation of the converted gas and secondary steam reforming and subsequent removal of the converted gas upward flow through the inner annular space.

The execute method of converting hydrocarbons by passing hydrocarbons and cooling reformed gas through the heat exchanger improves the efficiency of the technological process of steam reforming of hydrocarbons due to greater use of heat converted gas.

The execute method sequentially through the stages of mixing the heated hydrocarbon feedstock with steam, feed progresterone mixture in a downward direction through the outer annular space, then feed it up through channels through the catalyst for preliminary and primary conversion, then feed it through the perforation channels down the channels for oxidation of the converted gas and secondary steam reforming and subsequent removal of the converted gas upward flow through the inner annular space allows to achieve a high degree of conversion of hydrocarbons due to a larger use of the heat envelopes the target gas.

The application of the pre-conversion of hydrocarbons allows to avoid the formation of free carbon on the surfaces and the catalyst in the Converter and to avoid overheating and destruction of the catalyst and metal surfaces.

Figure 1 presents the scheme of conversion of hydrocarbons.

Figure 2 presents a General view of the Converter of hydrocarbons.

Figure 3 presents a fragment of the channels of the corrugated plates of the inner nozzle Converter hydrocarbons.

The method of conversion of hydrocarbons is as follows, catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is carried out at a pressure of 2-5 MPa mainly on Nickel catalyst at temperatures 550-1750°when the initial ratio of the fluxes of water vapor to hydrocarbon of from 2.5 to 4.0 to 1. Hydrocarbons (1) with temperatures ranging from 0-170°served in the heat exchanger (2), where the stream is heated to a temperature of 400-420°With the warmth of the converted gas (3), which leaves the heat exchanger and is cooled to a temperature of 430-480°Since, further, the heated hydrocarbon feedstock (4) is mixed with water vapor (5), preferably close to or higher temperature than the flow of hydrocarbons, 350-450°and served in the Converter for the catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons (6). In the Converter the mixture of water vapor and hydrocarbons (7) the falling is the outer annular space (8), then enters the nozzle of the corrugated plates (9), the flow progresterone mixture passes upward in the channels of the corrugated plates (10) and heated to 490-530°Since, further, the thread progresterone mixture passes the catalyst prior to steam reforming of hydrocarbons (11), where the hydrocarbons are converted to methane 13-17%, next, the flow, heading up the channels (10), is heated to no more than 960°C, then the primary catalyst for steam reforming of hydrocarbons (12) hydrocarbons are converted to methane 3-4,5 vol.%, then through the perforation of the upper part of the height of the channels (13) the gas stream is routed down through the channels, then the oxidation part of the converted gas, then a hot stream passes the falling catalyst for the secondary steam reforming of hydrocarbons (14), where the hydrocarbons are converted to methane 0,15-0,24%, then the converted gas passing down through the channels, cooled to 500-530°and then converted gas is diverted upward flow through the inner annular space (15) of the Converter (6) in the heat exchanger (2).

For the conversion of hydrocarbons must be entered in the Converter (6) oxygen-enriched air (16) with the temperature not lower than 450°where the oxygen concentration should not be lower than 30,6%, for implementation of the program heat mode conversion process.

This column is lined apparatus operating under pressure 2-5 MPa. The inner nozzle Converter is designed as two placed one within another cylindrical glasses (17) and (18) of the heat-resistant metal, cylindrical glasses are in limbo for compensation of thermal expansions, cylindrical glasses form with the Converter casing two of the annular gap, the outer (8) for more incoming cold stream, and the internal (15) for coming out more of the hot stream. This design isolates the double annular space lined (19) the Converter casing from excessive thermal effects and to reduce the thickness of the lining and the size of the Converter. The attachment of the corrugated plates is located in the inner Cup (15). The channels formed by the attachment of the corrugated plates (9) and have a square profile. Channels in the upper 1/20-1/25 part of the height of the perforated channels (13) for the preferential passage through them converted gas after primary steam reforming of hydrocarbons to change the flow direction from upward to downward. Channels partially filled with a catalyst so that there are parts of the channels are filled with catalyst prior to (11), primary (12) and secondary (14) steam reforming of hydrocarbons and part of the channels without a catalyst is and. The catalyst prior to steam reforming of hydrocarbons (11) is located at the bottom 1/6-1/8 of the channels in which the gas flow is directed upwards. The primary catalyst steam reforming of hydrocarbons (12) is located in the upper 1/5-1/6 of the channels in which the gas flow is directed upwards. The catalyst for the secondary steam reforming of hydrocarbons (14) is located in the upper 1/5-1/6 of the channels in which the gas flow is directed falling. The channels in which the gas flow is directed upwards (10), and the channels in which the gas flow is directed falling (20), are arranged so that in cross section have a chess order. In the upper part of the channels in which the gas flow is directed falling over a catalyst for the secondary steam reforming of hydrocarbons is an input device oxygen-enriched air (21), represents a set of perforated inserts square profile of heat-resistant metal having a passage in the form of holes in the top of the inserts for the supply of the oxygen-enriched air inside the boxes, with perforation device is designed to pass inside inserts part of the reformed gas after the primary steam reforming of hydrocarbons and oxidation by oxygen in the air.

This works as follows, the incoming stream of the mixture of water vapor and uglevodorov the aqueous raw material (7), with a temperature of at least 390°With, the falling is the outer annular space (8). Then progresterone mixture enters the nozzle corrugated plate (9) of the inner Cup and is directed through the channels (10) up, indirectly heated from more than hot air flow going through the channels down (20). Stream progresterone mixture, heading up the channels (10), is the catalyst for pre-reforming of hydrocarbons (11)located at the bottom 1/6-1/8 of the channels, which allows for the conversion of hydrocarbons to methane 13-17%, when this gas mixture is heated to a temperature 510-540°S. Up the channels (10) stream of the gas is the primary catalyst for steam reforming of hydrocarbons (12)located in the upper 1/5-1/6 of the channels, which allows for the conversion of hydrocarbons to methane 3-4,5 vol.%, and the gas mixture is heated to a temperature of at least 960°C. Further converted gas through the perforations of the upper part channels (13) and perforation of the input device, oxygen-enriched air flows in channels with a downward direction of the gas mixture (20). Inside perforated inserts the oxidation part of the reformed gas with oxygen of the air and gas mixture is heated to a temperature 1500-1750°C. the Hot flow of the gas mixture after okelani the reformed gas with oxygen from the air passes through the channels (20) down passing through the catalyst for the secondary steam reforming of hydrocarbons (14)located in the upper 1/5-1/6 of the channels, which allows for the conversion of hydrocarbons to methane 0,15-0,24%, when this gas mixture is cooled to a temperature of not less than 920°C. Further converted gas passing through the channels (20) down, is cooled to a temperature 500-530°and out of the nozzle inner Cup, giving heat to the incoming flow of the gas mixture directed through the channels up. Next, the converted gas rises through the inner annular space (15), preventing overheating of the inner wall (18) and outer (17) of the glass, as well as the Converter, and then flow out of the Converter.

The proposed method for the conversion of hydrocarbons provides high efficiency in the production process of steam reforming of hydrocarbons due to greater use of heat converted gas, as well as achieving a high degree of conversion of hydrocarbons, avoiding the formation of free carbon on the surfaces and the catalyst in the Converter.

The proposed Converter provides a high degree of conversion of hydrocarbons, high degree of heat converted gas, achieving low unit size Converter steam catalytic conversion ug is evagorou, the reduction of thermal loads on the body of the Converter.

1. This includes the housing, the input device, oxygen-enriched air supply progresterone mixture and removal of the converted gas, characterized in that it has an internal nozzle, made in the form of two placed one within another cylindrical cups, forming with the housing of the Converter two ring gap: external incoming progresterone mixture and internal facing the converted gas, the internal nozzle with a nozzle of the corrugated plates forming the channels of square cross section, the upper 1/20-1/25 some of the channels are made with perforations, 1/5-1/6 of the height of the channels below the perforation filled with a catalyst for primary and secondary conversion of hydrocarbons, and 1/6 to 1/8 of the lower part of the height of the channels is filled with a catalyst for pre-reforming of hydrocarbons, the device for introducing oxygen-enriched air is located in the upper part of the channel.

2. A method of converting hydrocarbons, characterized in that it is carried out in the Converter according to claim 1, for heating hydrocarbons and cooling them converted gas is passed through the heat exchanger, mixing the heated hydrocarbon feedstock with steam, progresterone mixture serves research Institute for agriculture which administers the flow through the outer annular space, further, it serves up the channels through the catalyst for preliminary and primary conversion, then through the perforation channels it serves down the channels for oxidation of the converted gas and secondary steam reforming and subsequent removal of the converted gas upward flow through the inner annular space.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to two methods (two variants) of reforming process using oxidizing gas at temperature 980-1000°C. The recirculation of the flow part outgoing from the autothermic reformer to the flowrate vapour-hydrocarbon is described at that the said recirculation is implemented throught the instrumentality of thermocompressor ejector using heated beforehand supplied mix as operative fluid. For the optimization of general configuration the mole ratio of recirculating synthesis gas and operative fluid was chosen in the range 0.2-1.0. In order to prevent the carbon black formation in the reforming process recirculated hydrogen and vapour are fed to the input flow and the temperature of feeding is increased. Since there is a certain pressure drop between initial mixture of vapour and natural gas and the mix fed to reformer it is necessary to increase the pressure of initial mixture but it is compensated with the lower pressure drop in the heater and other equipment laid out upstream and downstream because of decreasing of vapour capacity.

EFFECT: reforming process is carried out without carbon black formation.

27 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry; processing of hydrocarbon material to synthesis gas.

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EFFECT: inventions permit to carry out the process at lower temperatures.

5 cl, 37 dwg

FIELD: hydrogen production processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalysts for hydrolysis of hydride compounds to produce pure hydrogen for being supplied to power installations, including fuel cells. Invention provides catalyst for production of hydrogen from aqueous or water-alkali solutions of hydride compounds containing platinum group metal deposited on complex lithium-cobalt oxide and, additionally, modifying agent selected from series: titanium dioxide, carbon material, oxide of metal belonging to aluminum, magnesium, titanium, silicon, and vanadium subgroups. According to second variant, catalyst contains no platinum group metal. Described are also catalyst preparation method (variants) and hydrogen generation process, which is conducted at temperature no higher than 60°C both in continuous and in periodic mode. As hydrogen source, sodium borohydride, potassium borohydride, and ammine-borane can be used.

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14 cl, 1 tbl, 20 ex

FIELD: method and torch for producing synthesis gas at decomposition of liquid hydrocarbons such as oil and natural gas at elevated temperatures without usage of catalyst by CO and hydrogen.

SUBSTANCE: method is realized by partial oxidation of liquid and solid combustible materials at presence of oxygen and oxygen containing gases. Fuel, oxygen-containing gas and atomizing fluid are fed to torch separately. Atomizing fluid is expanded just in front of inlet opening for fuel by means of one or several nozzles providing speed of atomizing fluid in range 20 - 300 m/s. Relation of diameter of outlet opening of nozzle for liquid fuel to diameter of opening of nozzle for atomizing fluid is in range 1/1.1 - 1/5.

EFFECT: possibility for simplifying process.

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FIELD: alternative fuels.

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8 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: production of synthesis-gas.

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EFFECT: enhanced economical efficiency of process.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: steam catalytic conversion of natural gas into synthesis-gas with the use of thermal and kinetic energy of synthesis-gas.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes external heating of reaction tubes of tubular furnace filled with nickel catalyst on aluminum oxide substrate by passing mixture of natural gas and superheated steam through them. External heating of reaction tubes filled with catalyst is performed by burning the natural gas in air at exhaust of flue gases from heating zone. After tubular furnace, the synthesis-gas is directed to gas turbine for utilization of thermal and kinetic energy; gas turbine rotates electric generator; then, synthesis-gas is directed to synthesis-gas burner of electric power and heat supply system; flue gases from external heating zone are directed to heat exchangers for preheating the natural gas and steam before supplying them to reaction tubes of tubular furnace. Device proposed for realization of this method includes sulfur cleaning unit, tubular furnace with reaction tubes filled with nickel catalyst on aluminum oxide substrate with inlet for gas mixture of natural gas and superheated steam; device also includes external heating zone for reaction tubes with flue gas outlet and gas burner for external heating of reaction tubes of tubular furnace with inlet for natural gas and air. For utilization of thermal and kinetic energy of synthesis-gas, device is provided with gas turbine and electric generator at tubular furnace outlet and synthesis-gas burner of electric power and heat supply system; device is also provided with heat exchangers for preheating the natural gas and steam before supplying them to tubular furnace.

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3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: processing of hydrocarbon raw materials; oxidizing conversion of hydrocarbon gases into synthesis-gas.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is carried out in flow-through two-chamber reactor in turbulent mode at combustion of mixture of hydrocarbon raw material and oxidizer. Superheated water steam is additionally introduced into said mixture in the amount of 5-20 mass-% relative to mass of carbon fed in form of hydrocarbon raw material. Three-component mixture is ignited in combustion chamber by jet of hot gas fed from external source where pressure exceeds pressure in first chamber during ignition. Combustion products from first chamber of reactor are directed to second chamber via nozzle at critical difference in pressure and combustion process is continued till content of oxygen in combustion products does not exceed 0.3 vol-%. Process is carried out in combustion reactor which is made in form of two coaxial cylindrical chambers with cooled nozzle located in between them; section of this nozzle ensures required pressure differential between chambers. Injector unit mounted at inlet of first chamber is used for delivery of working mixture components. Turbulator is mounted in first chamber. Lateral surface of first chamber has one or several holes for introducing the jet of hot gas from external source whose pressure exceeds pressure of first chamber and volume of second chamber exceeds that of first chamber. Proposed method makes it possible to produce synthesis-gas at H2/CO ratio approximately equal to 2.0; residual content of oxygen does not exceed 0.3 vol-% and content of carbon black does not exceed trace amount.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

9 cl, 2 dwg, 11 ex

FIELD: carbon monoxide conversion catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of preparing catalysts for middle-temperature conversion of carbon monoxide, which can be used in industry when producing nitrogen-hydrogen mix for ammonia synthesis. Preparation of catalyst for middle-temperature conversion of carbon monoxide with water steam, comprising precipitation of iron hydroxide from iron nitrate solution with ammonia-containing solvent, washing of iron hydroxide with water to remove nitrate ions, mixing with calcium and copper ions, mechanical activation of components, molding, drying, and calcination of granules, is characterized by that, in the component mixing step, lanthanum oxide is supplementary added, in which case molar ratio of components is as follows: Fe2O3/CaO/CuO/La2O3 = 1:(0.8-0.9):(0.045-0.08):(0.005-0.01).

EFFECT: increased catalytic activity and more than thrice reduced content of by-products in condensate.

1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: processing of hydrocarbon raw materials; oxidizing conversion of hydrocarbon gases into synthesis-gas.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is carried out in flow-through two-chamber reactor in turbulent mode at combustion of mixture of hydrocarbon raw material and oxidizer. Superheated water steam is additionally introduced into said mixture in the amount of 5-20 mass-% relative to mass of carbon fed in form of hydrocarbon raw material. Three-component mixture is ignited in combustion chamber by jet of hot gas fed from external source where pressure exceeds pressure in first chamber during ignition. Combustion products from first chamber of reactor are directed to second chamber via nozzle at critical difference in pressure and combustion process is continued till content of oxygen in combustion products does not exceed 0.3 vol-%. Process is carried out in combustion reactor which is made in form of two coaxial cylindrical chambers with cooled nozzle located in between them; section of this nozzle ensures required pressure differential between chambers. Injector unit mounted at inlet of first chamber is used for delivery of working mixture components. Turbulator is mounted in first chamber. Lateral surface of first chamber has one or several holes for introducing the jet of hot gas from external source whose pressure exceeds pressure of first chamber and volume of second chamber exceeds that of first chamber. Proposed method makes it possible to produce synthesis-gas at H2/CO ratio approximately equal to 2.0; residual content of oxygen does not exceed 0.3 vol-% and content of carbon black does not exceed trace amount.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

9 cl, 2 dwg, 11 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; production of generators of the oxygen-hydrogen mixture.

SUBSTANCE: invention is pertaining to devices for water dissociation. Generator of oxygen-hydrogen mixture contains the body and the cover pressurizing its inlet, the shaft of the compressor located in the body and linked to the drive gear, the spray jet with the cavitator of feeding and sputtering of water, the fitting pipe for withdrawal of the gas mixture. The cover is made with the capability of the controlled air intake in the body through cavitator. The spray jet with the cavitator is made with the capability of feeding and sputtering of water in the stream of the air taken into the body. The fitting pipe for withdrawal of gas mixture has at least two in serial installed in it cavitators and with the capability of feeding of the gaseous mixture through these cavitators and the shutter to the consumer. At that the controlled intake of the air in the body can be exercised either through the annular channel with the annular cavitator, or through the fitting pipes with cavitators. The invention allows to increase effectiveness of parameters of the generator.

EFFECT: invention ensures the increased effectiveness of the generator operation.

2 cl, 4 dwg

Generator of oxygen // 2318589

FIELD: chemical industry; aircraft industry; space industry; production of the chemical generators of oxygen ensuring the life activity of the person in the emergency situations.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the chemical generators of oxygen ensuring the life activity of the person in the emergency situations in aviation and on the space stations. The oxygen generator includes the body, the briquette of the solid source of the oxygen, the initiating device, the filter and the fitting pipe for the oxygen outlet. The briquette is made on the basis of lithium perchlorate and is placed in direct contact with the wall of the body. The oxygen outlet fitting pipe is located on the butt from the side of the briquette initiation part. The invention allows to simplify the oxygen generator design, and also to increase the specific outlet of the oxygen per one unit of the mass and the volume of the oxygen generator.

EFFECT: the invention ensures simplification the oxygen generator design, the increased specific outlet of the oxygen per one unit of the oxygen generator mass and volume.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: catalytic composition material comprises a mixture composed of acetylene hydrocarbon with aromatic substituent or potential oligomer that represent a hydrogen source and carrier and metal of VIII group that represents a heterogeneous catalyzer. The mass ratio of the hydrogen source and catalyzer ranges from 5:1 to 1000:1. The method comprises filling the system with hydrogen in the course of the contacting of acetylene hydrocarbon with the heterogeneous catalyzer in heated tank at a temperature of 50-200°C and hydrogen pressure of 5-1 atm and extracting hydrogen from the system when completely hydrated hydrocarbon in the first stage is in a contact with the same catalyzer at a temperature 200-350°C and pressure 0.5-5 atm.

EFFECT: increased rate of extracting.

10 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; aircraft industry; shipbuilding industry; space industry; fire-protection; care of public health; devices for production of oxygen.

SUBSTANCE: the invention may be used for production of the cooled oxygen for breathing of the people in the emergency situations in the airplanes, the submarines, the space stations, at fires. The chemical oxygen generator contains the charge case and located in it the porous gas-permeable mechanically strong charge. The charge is made out of the mixture emitting the oxygen at the exothermal self-supporting decomposition after its initiation and contains of no more than 3 mass % of the binding agent. The charge ensures the possibility for the oxygen to pass through without damaging the non-treated material and without its volumetric volume burning. The produced oxygen passes through the charge under action of the difference of the pressures from the front of the decomposition moving in the direction to the outlet opening. The oxygen generator also contains the device for ignition and one or more the outlet openings for the produced oxygen coming out, the filters for its cooling, for prevention of the particles of corpuscles and contaminants carry-over, and also the filter with the catalyst for conversion of the produced at decomposition of CO2 into CO.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the possibility for the oxygen to pass through the charge without damaging the non-treated material and without its volumetric volume burning.

27 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; chemical reactor and the method for production of hydrogen.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the power equipment may be used for production of hydrogen both in the stationary plants and on the vehicles. The hydrogen is produced by the hydrolysis (decomposing of water) at its interaction with the granules of the solid reactant (aluminum, silicon, etc.) definitely located inside the chemical reactor. The chemical reactor for production of the hydrogen consists of the cylindrical body with the liquid reactant medium, in which there is the temperature sensor connected with the control unit, and in the upper part of the body there is the union for withdrawal of the gaseous product of the reaction. At that inside of the body the tubular heat exchanger is installed. The tubes of the heat exchanger are arranged at least along two concentric circumferences, spaced from each other and communicate through the collector equipped with the valves for feeding of the heating carrier. Between the tubes of the heat exchanger in the liquid reactant medium there is the annular fire grate, on which the solid reactant granules are placed. The chemical reactor has the vertical spacers inserted between the tubes located on the concentric circumferences shutting the gap between the adjacent tubes. Besides there are the vertical inserts placed between the opposite tubes of the adjacent concentric circumferences shutting the gap between the tubes. At that the indicated spacers and inserts form the zones free from the solid reactant granules, and the valves of the heat carrier feeding are connected through the control unit to the temperature sensors. The method of operation of the chemical reactor for production of hydrogen provides for the liquid reactant feeding in the chemical reactor, withdrawal of the heat and the reaction products from the reaction zone with the help of the heat carrier. Before the liquid reactant feeding into the chemical reactor this reactant is heated up to the temperature ensuring the preset duration of the operational cycle of the reaction, and the heat withdrawal from the chemical reactor with the help of the heat carrier begin at reaching the temperature equal to the temperature of the liquid reactant boiling point with the increase of the heating carrier consumption till the boiling temperature of the liquid reactant will drop to 0.9÷0.8 of the liquid reactant boiling temperature, after that the consumption of the cooling heat-carrier maintain constant till completion of the chemical reaction in the chemical reactor. The inventions allow to increase efficiency of the chemical reactor, to reduce its dimensions and the mass, to improve the fire-explosion safety, to simplify the chemical reactor operation, to reduce its operational costs.

EFFECT: the inventions ensure the increased efficiency of the chemical reactor, the reduced its dimensions and the mass, the improved the fire-explosion safety, the simplified operation of the chemical reactor, the decreased its operational costs.

2 cl, 1 dwg

Gas analyzer // 2292234

FIELD: chemical or physical processes.

SUBSTANCE: gas analyzer comprises housing (2) that receives solid-fuel charge (3), igniter (5), and filter-cooler (7) made of gas-permeable coarse-grained powder (8) whose grain size ranges from 0.13 to 0.5 mm. Filter-cooler (7) is provided with gas-permeable disks (14) arranged perpendicular to its axis. The disks are made of a material whose thermal conductivity exceeds that of dispersion powder (8) by a factor of 15. The temperature of melting, decomposition, or sublimation of dispersion powder (8) exceeds the temperature of the products of combustion of solid-fuel charge (3) by 20%. The length of filter-cooler (7) ranges from 100 to 2500 of the mean size of the particles of powder (8) of the filter-cooler.

EFFECT: reduced temperature and contamination of combustion products.

3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; the portable devices for the fire extinguishing.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the fire-fighting equipment, in particular, to the portable fire extinguishers (manual, pistol, pack) and may be used for fire extinction by feeding of the fire-extinguishing agent (fluid, powder) to the center of inflammation. The stated technical solution allows to improve the operational capabilities and its usage convenience due to expansion of the range of the used fire-extinguishing matters, minimization of time used for replacement of the pressure forming means, provision of the possibility to correct the volume of the gas-generating composition according to the existing need at the simultaneous increase of effectiveness of operation due to the maximum utilization of the internal volume of the container and elimination of the unproductive feeding of the gas. The represented portable fire extinguisher has the container for the fire-extinguishing matter and the gas-generating tool for creation of the operational pressure. The portable fire-extinguisher singularity consists, that it is supplied with the a control unit, the pressure sensor located in the container, at that the gas-generating tool is made in the form of at least two gas generators arranged in the airproof cassette mounted outside the container and linked with it by means of the high-speed coupling, and the control unit interacts with each gas generator with provision of their consecutive actuation.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased effectiveness of operation, the improved operational capabilities, convenience of usage, expansion of the used fire-extinguishing matters, minimization of the time for replacement of the pressure forming means, the possibility to correct the volume of the gas-generating composition.

3 cl, 1 dwg

Gas generator // 2286844

FIELD: mixing.

SUBSTANCE: gas generator comprises housing provided with means for gas discharging made of openings on the side of the housing and gas generating and igniting charges mounted inside the housing and made of pyrotechnical compositions. The initiating member is mounted on one of the faces, and filter is mounted on the side and faces of the gas-generating charge. The surface of the gas-generating charge is armored from the side of the gas outlet. The auxiliary charge is mounted axially symmetrical in the gas-generating charge and is provided with layers that pass from the axially symmetrical layer to the periphery and connected with them.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability and expanded functional capability.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: petrochemical industry; devices for the high-temperature reprocessing of the raw oil, oil shales, peat, paper, board, domestic and agricultural wastes.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices intended for the high-temperature reprocessing of the raw oil, and also the shales, peat, paper, board, agricultural wastes and the domestic waste. The reaction chamber of the high-temperature reactor has the water-cooled body opened from both butts. In the internal volume of the body there is the chamber of the pyrolysis (4), the hardening chamber (5) and the sparger, which has been made with the capability of the water sputtering in the hardening chamber (5). The reaction chamber is supplied with the injectors (8) and the enveloping the body first toroidal collector (12) for the gas feeding and the second toroidal collector (15) for feeding of the reprocessing stock into the injectors (8). The body consists of two parts, the first of which is made in the form of the cone. The smaller diameter conical part (1) is adjoined with the cylindrical part (2), which diameter exceeds the greater diameter of the conic part (1). The sparger is made in the form of the parallel small pipes (3) orientated in the plane, which is perpendicular to the axis of the body, and dividing its volume into the pyrolysis chamber (4) and the hardening chamber (5). The small pipes (3) in their middle have the section salient towards the conical part (1). The small pipes have the holes (7) orientated towards the hardening chamber (50. The injectors (8) are evenly distributed along the circumference. Their outlet nozzles (9) are located in the pyrolysis chamber (4), and the inlet nozzles (10) are connected to the first toroidal collector (12). In the lateral wall of each injector (8) there is the channel (14) connected to the second collector (15). The outlet nozzles (9) of the injectors (8) can be located both in the conical part (1) of the body, and in its cylindrical part (2). The invention expands the technological capabilities of the process.

EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the technological capabilities of the process.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemical technology; development of chemical lasers.

SUBSTANCE: proposed singlet oxygen generator has case, chlorine injector, throttling valve, and solution injector. Inserted in each hole of injector are at least two forming threads disposed at hole ends with gap formed in-between. Solution jet escaping the hole is then formed in its downward motion over surfaces of threads and between them. When chlorine flows between solution jets, chlorination reaction of alkali solution of hydrogen peroxide takes place; in the process singlet oxygen is produced and chlorine is recovered. Threads may pass from one hole at certain angle to one another, or they may cross one another, or come in contact with threads of other hole in solution injector. At least two threads provided in solution injector hole make it possible not only to guide the thread but also to control its flow and to form desired geometry of jet characteristic by varying relative position of threads in jet. Such design enables development of various types of singlet oxygen generators characterized in enlarged reaction surface and operating effectiveness with added advantage of enhanced operating reliability due to steady flow of jet between threads.

EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities.

5 cl, 6 dwg

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