Light-conducting optical element

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: light conducting optical element, which includes at least one light supplying base, which is equipped with at least two surfaces located parallel to each other; optical means that are used for entering light beams into the base by total internal reflection so that the light would strike one of the above surfaces, set of one or more partially reflecting surfaces located inside of the base, the surfaces of which are not parallel to the above base surfaces; the partially reflecting surfaces being flat surfaces selectively reflecting at an angle, which are crossed by part of beams several times before exiting the base in the required direction.

EFFECT: provision of wide field of view and increase of eye movement area with device fixed.

44 cl, 36 dwg

 

The scope of the invention

The present invention relates to an optical device having a light guide substrate, and partially with devices that have a number of reflecting surfaces supported by a simple light-absorbing substrate, also called optical fiber.

The invention can be applied to create different kinds of videopreview, for example, mounted on the head displays, cell phones, compact displays, 3-D displays, compact spreader light beam, as well as not videomemory, for example, flat panel, compact lighting devices and scanners.

Background of the invention

One of the important applications for compact optical elements is a display mounted on the head, when the optical module is both videolisa, and collector, where two-dimensional display transmits the image to infinity and reflect it in the eye of the observer. The video can either be obtained using the spatial-light-modulation (PSM) (spatial light modulation (SLM), for example, cathode ray tube, liquid crystal display, matrix (number) of the organic light-emitting diodes (organic light emitting diode (OLED), or a scanning source and similar devices, or, indirectly, through the transmitting lens or optical cable. The display is a matrix of elements (pixels, appears to infinity by using the collimating lens and transmitted to the observer's eye through full or partial reflections from reflective surfaces, which collectors for cases where it is necessary or not transparency, respectively. This is usually done by traditional outdoor (free-space) optical module. Unfortunately, as is desired to increase the field of view (field-of-view (FOV)system, traditional outdoor (free-space) optical module is increased in size, in weight and, therefore, is impractical. This is the main obstacle for applying all types of displays, in particular where the displays are attached to the head, when the system needs to be lighter and more compact.

The desire for miniaturization has led developers to multiple integrated optical solutions, each of which, on the one hand, still does not provide the necessary compactness of the device and, on the other hand, solves the main problems on the basis of technology. Moreover, eye-motion-box corners optical review, derived from their schemas (structures), usually very small - usually less than 8 mm, it Means that the optical system is very sensitive to even the slightest of her movements relative to the observer's eye and does not permit normal movements of the pupil when reading the text from the display the EB.

Disclosure of inventions

The present invention helps to design and produce a very compact light guide optical elements (light-guide optical elements (LOE)for various other devices, displays, fastened on the head. The invention allows to obtain a relatively wide field of view (FOV) when relatively large quantities of eye-motion-box (from. books: prob. scope (value) vibration (movement) of the eye). The resulting optical system gives a large, high quality images, allowing the eye to move within wide limits. Developed optical system is extremely convenient, useful and beneficial because of its more compact in comparison with modern analogues, and it still can easily be combined, consolidated, even with the optical systems of specialized configuration.

This invention also includes the design of advanced displays on the windshield head-up display (HUD)). Since the use of these displays, and it is three decades, this area has seen significant progress. Indeed, HUD displays have become very popular, and now they play a major role in modern combat flying vehicles, but also in civil aviation, where HUD technology has become a key component when planting means flying in poor visibility conditions. More t the th, recently been presented by numerous plans and projects for the implementation of the HUD-technologies in road transport, where such monitors could significantly help the driver in control and navigation. However, modern HUD displays have several significant drawbacks. All real designed HUD displays need the source image, which should be significantly offset from the collector to the source can transmit the image over the entire surface of the collector. As a result, the collector-projector HUD system is necessarily bulky, complex and requires a large space for installation, which makes this system an uncomfortable and sometimes unsafe to use. A large optical window traditional HUD displays also causes severe demands on the optical system, making HUD displays or with some compromise performance, or very expensive, when you need high performance. Light dispersion high-quality holographic HUD displays rarely used.

The importance of this invention is that it allows you to create compact HUD displays, which would alleviate the above disadvantages. In HUD displays, developed in the framework of this invention, the collector is covered by a compact source image, which can be the t to be attached to the substrate. Therefore, this system is very compact, and it can be easily installed in different configurations in different types of installations. In addition, the light dispersion in the display negligible, and so the display can work with sirokospektralnym sources, including traditional source of white light. Moreover, this design allows you to zoom in, so the working surface of the collector can be much larger than the working surface, indeed illuminated by the source.

Another important application of this invention is to create a large-format three-dimensional (3D) image. Development is ongoing in the field of information technologies has led to the increasing need for 3D displays. Indeed, the market offers a wide range of 3D hardware. Such systems, however, require the user to wear a special device that separates the image to the right and left eyes. Such systems with the naked eye" were embedded in the professional use. However, further development of this area will require the development of systems with the naked eye" with the improved comfort of view and a closer adaptation to the mechanism of binocular vision. Current solutions to this problem suffer from a number of different disadvantages, and they do not reach conventional 2D displays in Rel is to the quality and convenience of view. However, using this design, it becomes possible to obtain 3D autostereoscopically display is really high quality, not requiring any additional devices, and the manufacture of which can be easily establish on the basis of standard optical output.

Further application of the present invention is aimed at obtaining a compact display with a wide field of view (FOV) for use in mobile handheld devices, such as mobile phone. In the modern market for wireless access to the Internet bandwidth of the radio channel is sufficient for full video. The limiting factor is the quality of the display in the final device of the user. Requirements for mobility is limited by physical size of the display, and the result is a display with a narrow field of view and low image quality. This invention allows to obtain physically very compact display with a very large virtual image. This is a key feature in mobile technology, especially in the field of mobile access to the Internet, solving the problem one of the main limitations on its practical application. Thus, this design enables you to get a full digital image of the web page with Mal is nikogo, manual device, such as a mobile phone.

The main object of this study, therefore, is the smoothing of the disadvantages of modern compact optical displays and the provision of other optical components and systems with improved characteristics, relevant special requirements.

Thus, in this invention developed an optical device comprising a light-absorbing substrate having at least two major surfaces and two edges; optical means for coupling light into the specified substrate using a total reflection and at least one partially reflecting surface located in the substrate.

Brief description of drawings

The invention is described in connection with certain selected variants of embodiment with reference to the following drawings for easier study of this work.

Given the specificity of reference to the drawings, it is quite inconvenient that the details shown in the example and explanations for selected variants of embodiment only of this invention and described in order to show what is the most useful and easy to understand description of the principles and conceptual aspects of the invention. In this regard, there have been no p is torture to show structural details of this invention in more detail, than that requires a fundamental understanding of the invention. The drawings are intended for specialists, to show how certain forms of this invention may be embodied in practice.

Figure 1 is a side view of a General model of the optical device with the same refractive optical device;

figure 2 is a side view of an exemplary optical element in accordance with the present invention;

figa and 3B illustrate the desirable characteristics of reflection and transmission of selectively reflecting surfaces used in this invention for two levels of angles of incidence;

figure 4 illustrates curves of reflectance as a function of wavelength for an exemplary dichroic coatings;

figure 5 illustrates the curve of the reflection as a function of wavelength for an exemplary dichroic coatings;

6 illustrates curves of reflectance as a function of wavelength for another dichroic coatings;

7 illustrates a curve of reflection as a function of wavelength for another dichroic coatings;

Fig a schematic cross-section of the reflective surface in accordance with the present invention;

figa and 9B is a diagram illustrating a detailed view of several exemplary selectively reflecting surfaces;

figure 10 is a diagram illustrating a detailed view of several exemplary selectively reflecting surfaces, when a thin transparent the layer cemented to the base (glued to the base) with veto Pro conductive optical element;

11 is a diagram illustrating a detailed view of several exemplary selectively reflecting surfaces for three different angles;

Fig - sectional view of an exemplary device in accordance with the present invention using a half-wave plate for rotating the polarization of the incoming light;

Fig shows two charts based artificially calculated transparency from the field of view (FOV) of the entire image projection display, and the dependence of view outside from the same field of view;

Fig diagram illustrating the device transmitting optical element having a range of four partially reflecting surfaces, in accordance with the present invention;

Fig diagram illustrating the device transmitting optical element having a range of four partially reflecting surfaces, in accordance with another variant of embodiment of the present invention;

Fig diagram illustrating a method of expansion (stretching, pulling the beam along both axes using dual configuration transmitting optical element (light-guiding optical element - LOE);

Fig - view of the device from the side using a liquid crystal display (liquid crystal display - LCD) as the light source, in accordance with the present invention;

Fig illustrates opt the ical scheme and refractive collimating optical element, in accordance with the present invention;

Fig diagram illustrating the point of incidence of light connected to the substrate on the front surface of the collimating lens, in accordance with the present invention;

Fig diagram illustrating an equivalent optical circuit without refraction, in accordance with the present invention;

Fig illustrates the optical system using two pairs of parallel reflecting mirrors to obtain a wide field of view, in accordance with the present invention;

figa is a top view, and FIGU - side view of an alternative scheme for the expansion of light, in accordance with the present invention;

Fig illustrates an exemplary variant of embodiment of the present invention, based on the use of the standard scope eyepiece;

Fig diagram illustrating an exemplary method of embodiment of the invention, the mobile handheld device such as a mobile phone;

Fig illustrates an exemplary HUD system, in accordance with the present invention;

Fig illustrates an exemplary variant of embodiment of the present invention, where the light guide optical element is illuminated by a number of image sources;

Fig-29 illustrates an exemplary variant of embodiment of the system image, which which projects a three-dimensional image in the eye of the observer, in accordance with the present invention;

Fig illustrates a variant of embodiment of the invention for the traditional implementation of the device of the amplifier starlight (star's light amplifier (SLA));

Fig illustrates a variant of the structural design for improved implementation of the device gain starlight (SLA), in accordance with the present invention;

Fig - side view of a device using a reflective liquid crystal display (LCD) as the light source with the traditional lighting device, in accordance with the present invention;

Fig - side view of a device using a reflective liquid crystal display (LCD) as the light source, in which the transmitting element is used for the light source, in accordance with the present invention;

Fig diagram illustrating a method of production of a number (matrix) selectively reflecting surfaces, in accordance with the present invention;

Fig, 36 is a diagram illustrating a measuring system using two prisms for measuring the reflectivity of the plate coated at two different angles, using the next refracting lens for combining the output beam of the incident input beam.

Detailed description of selected design options

Figure 1 shows a convenient optical fiber is against refracting device, in which the substrate 2 is illuminated by the image source 4. Display collyriums using the collimating lens 6. The light source 4 is transmitted to the substrate 2 through the first reflective surface 8 so that the main beam 10 becomes parallel to the substrate plane. The second reflective surface 12 outputs the light from the substrate and passes it to the observer's eye 14. Despite the compactness of this scheme, it suffers from serious shortcomings; in particular, the field of view (FOV) here is very limited. As can be seen from the drawing, the maximum off-axis angle inside the substrate is:

where T is the thickness of the substrate;

deye- the desired diameter of the exit pupil;

l is the distance between the reflecting surfaces 8 and 12.

At angles greater than αmaxrays reflected from the surface of the substrate before they reach the reflective surface 12. Therefore, the reflective surface 12 is covered by an undesirable direction, and in this case will appear side image (stray reflections).

Consequently, the maximum field of view of this scheme will be:

where ν the refractive index of the substrate.

Typically, the value of the refractive index lies between 1.5 and 1.6.

As PR is usually the diameter of the eye pupil is equal to 2-6 mm in order to adapt to the movement or displacement (misalignment) of the display, the diameter of the exit pupil has to do more than necessary. The minimum distance between the optical axes of the eye is taken equal to 8-10 mm, head size, l, is typically between 40 and 80 mm Therefore, even for small angle FOV=8° the thickness of the substrate should be approximately 12 mm

This work presents methods for overcoming this problem. For this purpose a magnifying telescope inside of the substrate and non-concurrent collective guides. But even so, and even if that applies to only one reflective surface, the thickness of the system remains approximately the same. The FOV is limited by the diameter of the projection of the reflective surface 12 on the plane of the substrate. This limitation of the maximum field of view will be:

where αsur- the angle between the reflective surface and the normal to the plane of the substrate;

Reye- the distance between the eyes of the observer and the substrate (typically 30-40 mm).

In practice, tanαsurcannot be greater than 1; hence, for the same parameters described above for FOV=8°, the thickness of the substrate is approximately equal to 7 mm, an apparent improvement under the previous restrictions. However, when FOV the thickness of the substrate is rapidly growing. For example, FOV 15° and 30° the thickness of the substrate is 18 mm and 25 mm, respectively.

To mitigate these limitations, the present invention uses a number (matrix) selectively reflecting surfaces located inside the light guide optical element (light-guiding optical element (LOE)). Figure 2 shows a cut LOE in accordance with the present invention. The first reflective surface 16 is illuminated with collimated display 18, which in turn is illuminated by a light source (not shown)located behind the device. The reflective surface 16 reflects the incident from the light source so that light enters the flat substrate 20 using total internal reflection. After multiple reflections from the surfaces of the substrate waves reach of a number of selectively reflecting surfaces 22, which output light from the substrate and projecting it into the observer's eye 24. Assuming that the Central wave source out of the substrate 20 in the direction normal to the surface of the substrate 26 and the off-axis angle of the wave in the substrate is equal to αmthe angle between the reflecting surface and the normal to the surface of the substrate is equal to:

As can be seen from figure 2, the rays reach the reflecting surfaces in two different directions 28, 30. In this particular embodiment, the rays palauta reflective surface 28 after an even number of reflections from the surfaces of the substrate 26, where the angle of incidence between the beam and the normal to the reflective surface is equal to:

With the second direction 30 rays reach the reflective surface after an odd number of reflections on the surface of the substrate 26 where the off-axis angle is αin=180°-αinand the angle of incidence between the beam and the normal to the reflective surface will be:

To prevent unwanted reflections and the occurrence of side images (stray reflections) it is very important that the reflection was extremely small for one of those two directions. The desired difference between the two directions of incidence of light can be obtained, if one angle is considerably smaller than the other. Two solutions to this problem, both of which use the properties of reflection perpendicular polarized light (S-polarization), have been proposed previously, but both these solutions have the disadvantages. The main drawback of the first solution is a relatively large number of reflecting surfaces, it is necessary to provide sufficient FOV. The main disadvantage of the second solution is undesirable reflection rays from the inner corner αin. An alternative approach, described here, uses the properties of reflection parallel polarized light (P-polarization) and in some the cases that S-polarized light and provides a reduction of the slope angle of the reflecting surfaces, which leads to a decrease in the required number of reflecting surfaces.

Characteristics of reflection as a function of angle of incidence for S - and P-polarized light are different. Consider the example of the boundary of the glass air/surface. While both polarization reflected by 4% at zero angle of incidence, reflected by the Fresnel S-polarized light incident on the interface, monotonically increases to 100% at grazing incidence angle of incidence light and reflected by the Fresnel P-polarized light initially decreases to 0% at an angle of Brewster and then increases to 100% under grazing angle of incidence. Therefore, there is a possibility to design floor with high reflectivity for S-polarized light at a sharp angle of incidence of light and a non-zero reflectivity for normal incidence of light. In addition, there is the ability to easily design a coating for P-polarized light with a very low reflectivity at high angles of incidence of light with high reflectivity at low angles of incidence of light. These properties can be used to prevent unwanted reflections and the appearance of side images (stray reflections), as described above, with the exception of the reflection in one of two directions. For example, if β ref˜25° from equations (5) and (6) can be obtained:

Now, when the reflective surface has the ability to reflect upon βrefand not to reflect atnecessary conditions can be obtained. On figa and 3B shows the desired reflection of the selectively reflecting surfaces. While the beam 32 (figa) with off-axis angle βref˜25° partially reflected and outputted from the substrate, the beam 36 (pigv), which falls at an anglethe reflective surface (equivalent to), passes through the reflective surface 34 without any significant reflection.

Figure 4 shows curves of the reflection dichroic coatings are designed to provide the features mentioned above, for the four different angles: 20°, 25°, 30° and 75°all for P-polarized light. While the reflection of the beam with wide angle slightly within the spectrum, the rays having angles of 20°, 25° and 30°, recorded almost constant at 26%, 29% and 32% respectively within the same spectrum. Obviously, the reflectivity decreases with decreasing angle of incidence of the rays.

Figure 5 shows the curves reflect the same dichroic coating as a function of angle of incidence of rays for P-polarized light on the different waves λ =550 nm. Obviously, in this graph, there are two important areas: between 50° and 80°where reflectivity is very small, and between 15° and 40°where the reflectivity increases monotonically with decreasing angle of incidence. Therefore, for a given FOV, as long as there is an opportunity to ensure that a continuous angular rangeat very low desired reflectivity, will be within the first region, while the solid angular range βrefat a higher desired reflectivity, will be located within the second area, there is a way to ensure the reflection of only one mode (view) in the eye of the observer and to ensure that no side of the image.

Until now, analyses were performed only P-polarized light. This development is applicable to systems using polarized image source, such as a liquid crystal display (LCD), or to systems where the output brightness is not the determining factor and S-polarized light can be filtered. However, for unpolarized source image, such as a CRT or OLED, and where brightness is an important factor, S-polarized light cannot be discarded and must be taken into account when designing redlichstrasse. Fortunately, despite the fact that it looks more promising than the P-polarized light, it is possible to create a coating with similar characteristics for S-polarized light, as discussed above. I.e. coating with very low reflectivity for continuous angular spectrumand above, determines the reflectivity for the corresponding angular spectrum βref.

Figure 6 and 7 presents curves reflect such dichroic surface described above for figure 4 and 5, but here is S-polarized light. Undoubtedly, there are some differences in the characteristics of these two polarizations: the region of large angles, where the reflectivity is very low, for S-polarization is more narrow; it is much harder to achieve constant reflectivity for a given angle within a continuous spectral bandwidth for S-polarization; and, finally. monotonic characteristic of the S-polarized light on the angular spectrum βrefwhen you want higher reflectivity opposite to the P-polarized light, i.e. the reflectivity for S-polarized light increases with decreasing angle of incidence of the rays. Obviously, this contradictory behavior of the two polarizations on the angular spectrum βre can be used for designing optical systems to obtain the desired reflection of all light in accordance with the special requirements of a particular system.

It is clear that the reflectivity of the first reflective surface 16 (2) should be as high as possible, to transmit as much light as possible from the source image into the substrate. Taking into account the fact that the Central wave source is included in the substrate normal, i.e. α0=180°, the angle αsur1between the first reflective surface and the normal to the substrate plane will be equal to:

Solutions for αsur1andfor the above example will be 155° and 115° respectively.

On Fig presents the section of the reflective surface 16, which outputs the light 38 from the image source (not shown) and transmits it to the substrate 20 by means of total internal reflection. As shown, the projection of S1the reflective surface on the surface of the substrate 40 will be:

where T is the thickness of the substrate.

Solutionso, when transmitting surface area of the substrate for the above example, more than 4.5 times greater than the same value for the former is esani. These improvements occur in almost all other systems. Taking into account the fact that the transmitted wave illuminates the entire area of the reflecting surface after reflection from the surface 16, it illuminates the area 2S1=2T·tan(α) the surface of the substrate. On the other hand, the projection of the reflective surface 22 to the plane of the substrate is equal to S2=T·tan(αsur2). For exceptions or overlaps or gaps between the reflecting surfaces of the projection of each surface is being built on adjacent surfaces. Hence the number N of the reflecting surfaces 22, through which the beam per cycle (i.e. between the two reflections from the same surface of the substrate), is equal to:

In the example at αsur2=65° and αsur1=115° number reflecting surface N=2, i.e. each beam passes through two different surface during one cycle. This is a conceptual change and significant improvement of this technology compared to our previous versions, when each beam passed through six different surfaces in one cycle. The possibility of reducing the number of reflecting surfaces under these requirements, the FOV is associated with the design of the reflective surfaces on the plane of the review, since the angles in this embodiment is larger, then the requirement is : fewer reflective surfaces to cover the entire image. Reducing the number of reflecting surfaces can simplify the implementation of the LOE and provide a significant reduction in the cost of such a device.

Variant of embodiment described above (Fig) is an example of a method of introducing the input waves in the substrate. The input wave, however, may be introduced into the substrate by other optical means, including refracting prisms, fiber optic cables, diffraction gratings and other solutions.

Also in the example illustrated in figure 2, the input wave and wave image are located on one side of the substrate. Also other possible ways in which the input wave and wave image can be on opposite sides of the substrate. It is also possible, in particular the development direction of the input wave into the substrate through one of the peripheral sides of the substrate.

Figa is a detailed section of a number of selectively reflecting surfaces that output light from the substrate and transmitting it to the observer's eye. As can be seen, in each cycle, the beam passes through the reflective surface 42, falling at an angle, resulting in the angle between the ray and the normal to the reflecting surfaces is equal to ˜75° and the reflection from these surfaces is negligible. In addition, the beam during each CEC is twice passes through the reflective surface 44 at an angle α in=50°and the angle of incidence of the beam is 25°and part of the energy beam exits the substrate. Taking that one line, consisting of two selectively reflecting surfaces 22, is used for transmission of light in the eye of the observer, the maximum FOV will equal:

Therefore, with the same parameters of the above example, the minimum value of the thickness of the substrate for FOV=8° equal to 2.8 mm: FOV=15° and 30° minimum thickness of the substrate will be respectively 3.7 mm and 5.6 mm, There are better (preferred) values than the minimum thickness of the substrate modern solutions described above. However, you can use more than two selectively reflecting substrates. For example, for three selectively reflecting surfaces 22 minimum thickness of the substrate when FOV=15° and 30° approximately equal to 2.4 mm and 3.9 mm, respectively. Such an increase in the number of reflecting surfaces can lead, among other benefits, reduce the minimum thickness of the optical device.

For devices that require a relatively small FOV, can be enough to use one partially reflecting surface. For example, for a system with the following parameters: Reye=25 mm; αsur=72° and T=5 mm, the average FOV=17° can be obtained on the same using a single reflective surface 22. Some of the rays will intersect the surface 22 a few times before you leave the substrate in the desired direction. While the minimum angle of light propagation within the substrate to achieve full internal reflection conditions for the material WC or the like is equal to αin(min)=42°the angle to the direction of propagation of light at the Central angle FOV equal to αin(cen)=48°. Therefore, the image is projected is not normal to the surface, and slightly tilted to the off-axis angle of 12°. Yet in many cases this is acceptable.

As shown in figv, each reflecting surface illuminated by the optical beams of different intensity. While the right surface 46 lit by the rays reflected from the bottom surface 48 of the substrate 20, the left surface 50 illuminated by the rays passed through the partially reflecting surface 46 and, consequently, with lower intensity. To produce images with uniform brightness, it is necessary to compensate for differences in intensities in different parts of the image. Indeed, the surface with different coatings have different coefficients of reflection: at the surface 46 is lower than the surface 50, which provides a compensating supply different lighting.

Another heterogeneity on the target image may arise from the distinctions of what Noah sequence rays, which are selectively reflecting surfaces: some rays coming directly from the reflective surface, bypassing the transformation, while others are even more reflections. This effect is shown in figa. The beam crosses the first reflecting surface 22 at the point 52. The angle of incidence of the beam is 25°its energy is partially released from the surface. Then the ray intersects the reflecting surface at the point 42 at an angle of 75° no significant reflection, and then again at point 54 with the angle of incidence of 25° and another portion of the energy is partially released from the surface. And the beam shown in figv, by contrast, has only one reflection from the same surface. We noticed that most of the reflections occur at low angles of reflection. Therefore, the method of compensation of heterogeneity arising from numerous intersections is the development of this layer, the reflection coefficient which would increase monotonically with decreasing angle of incidence, as shown for the range of 10-40° figure 5. To fully compensate for such differences in the effect of multiple intersections is difficult. However, in real situations the human eye allows for significant changes in brightness that they remain unnoticed. Consider the principle of operation of display points: in the eye of concentri is : the flow of light, which comes under the same angle and is focused on one point of the retina, and as the graph of the characteristics of the sensitivity of the eye is a logarithmic dependence, in any case, small variations in brightness of the display will not be visible. Therefore, even when the average luminance level of the display to the human eye, the image is of good quality. The required level can be easily achieved by transmitting optical elements.

However, for displays, remote from the observer's eye, for example for the automotive display system on the windshield, heterogeneity at multiple crossing invalid. Therefore, in such cases, to overcome the heterogeneity is more systematic method. One of the possible methods is shown in figure 10. A thin transparent layer 55 with a thickness Taddis applied to the base of the transmitting optical element. In this case, the ray is incident at an angle of about 25°. In accordance with figa he crosses the first reflecting surface 22 at two points and is reflected at the point 52. But when using this method of double reflection does not occur. To minimize the effect of double reflection, it is necessary to calculate the thickness Taddfor the entire field of view of the optical system. For example, for an optical system which we with parameters FOV=24° that αsur=64°, αin=52°, v=1,51 and T=4 mm when applying an incremental layer of thickness Tadd=2.1 mm in the basal layer of the double effect of the passage is completely eliminated. It is obvious that the total thickness of the light guide optical element will be 6.1 mm instead of 4 mm In systems with display on the windshield of the mechanism of the total coating layer is a bit thicker, and therefore, provides the mechanical strength required for transmitting optical elements. Thus, increasing the thickness of the transparent layer is not always a disadvantage. You can also build a transparent layer in the upper part of the light guide optical element or even on both sides, the exact structure will be designed depending on the specific circumstances of a particular optical system. For the proposed configuration, the value of thickness Taddno matter: at least a few rays double-crossed by the same selectively reflective surface.

For example, figure 10 first rays fall on the first reflecting surface 22 at an angle of 25° and pass through it at the point 52 where the lost part of the light energy, and then also once at an angle of 75° without significant reflection. Naturally, only the first interpretation allows to obtain an image, because of the about formed through the transmitting optical elements.

Reviewed on 11 different parts of the final image reflected from different regions of the partially reflective surfaces at different angles of view, illustrate this effect: here shown in the cross section of the compact system transmitting optical elements, based on the proposed design. Here a single plane wave 56 under special angle 58, covers only part of the whole set of partially reflecting surfaces 22. Thus, for each point on the partially reflective surface defined nominal angle, depending on which value is selected reflectance. Design layers for different surfaces like light guide optical elements is as follows: for each beam separately plotted on a graph (according to the law Snella get an estimated value of reflection), the value of the parameters is taken from the center of the human eye 60 to the partially reflective surface. Determined in this way the direction is considered to be the nominal direction of the beam, and the coating is applied in accordance with this direction. This takes into account also the previous reflection coefficient associated with a specific angle. Therefore, for each angle the average value of the reflection coefficient corresponding surface is very close to the optimal one. In addition, if necessary, for transmitting optical element is coated with a layer of thickness Tadd.

Transmitting optical elements with a variety of selectively reflecting surfaces have two features. When using transparent systems, such as the display on the transmitting optical elements which are fixed on the head of the pilot, the observer should not lose sight of the external field of view, so the reflection coefficient of the selectively reflecting surfaces should be sufficiently high. The difference of the reflection coefficients of all surfaces may entail the risk of inhomogeneities in the external image of the field of view observed through the optical system. These variations, fortunately, are quite small, and in most cases they can be neglected. In cases where the heterogeneity reaches a critical value, to compensate and achieve uniform brightness throughout the field of view on the external surface is covered with an extra layer.

Opaque systems such as virtual displays, have an opaque substrate, the transparency of the system here does not matter. However, in such cases, the reflection coefficient can be much higher than in the situations described above. And here it is necessary to ensure the receipt of h is cut first reflecting surface of light of such intensity, which will be able to provide uniform brightness throughout the field of view. It is also necessary to determine in advance the polarization of the light. As mentioned above, to cover the selectively reflecting surfaces preferred P-polarized light. Fortunately, some compact light sources of the display (i.e. nematic liquid crystal displays) are linearly polarized. If the display is set so that the incoming light is S-polarized with respect to the reflecting faces, or will change the coating is acceptable for S-polarized light, or alternatively, it is proposed to change the polarization of the source using a half-wave plate. As shown in Fig, the light source of the display 4 s-linearly polarized. After passing the rays through the half-wave plate 62, the polarization is changed, and the reflecting surface 22 falls P-polarized light.

To demonstrate a typical transparent system using computer simulation. On the computer are the estimates of the brightness of the display and the external environment. The system has the following parameters: T=4.3 mm, Tadd=0, αin=50°FOV=24°, Reye=25 mm, v=1,51; source display has S-polarization; he has two selectively reflective surface, the nominal reflection coefficient of 22%. On pig made the Lena simulation results, normalized for the required nominal values. In both graphs there are small fluctuations, but these changes are not material for opaque systems.

So far, we have considered the field of view display only along the axis ξ. You must consider this area also orthogonal axes axis η. The fact that the parameters of the viewing area of the display in the axis direction of η do not depend on the size and the number of available selectively reflecting surfaces, however, they are sufficiently affected by the horizontal size of incoming along the axis η waves, concentrating on the substrate. The maximum value of the size field of view along the axis η can be calculated by the formula:

where Dη- the horizontal size of incoming along the axis η waves, concentrating on the substrate.

Thus, if the desired field of view display is 30°then, using the above parameters, you will get the maximum linear size 42 mm As shown previously, the longitudinal size of the waves, incoming along the axis ξ and concentrating on the substrate, can be determined by the formula: S1=Ttan(αin). When the thickness of the substrate T=4 mm, we get S1=8,6 mm Thus, the length of the light guide optical elements across five times exceed the t longitudinal dimensions. Even when the image compression in the ratio 4:3 (which is used in standard video displays) and the field of view 22° axis η linear transverse size is about 34 mm, which is four times greater than the longitudinal size. This asymmetry is the problem - you need to use a collimating lens with a high aperture or a large-size display. In any case, given the size of the display to create a compact system impossible.

An alternative method to solve the problem discussed at Fig. Instead of collectively reflecting surfaces 22 along the axis ξreflecting surfaces 22A, 22b, 22s and 22d have along the axis η. These surfaces are normal to the plane of the substrate 20 along the bisectors of the angle formed by axes ξ and η. To achieve uniformity of output waves are determined by the reflectivity of selectively reflecting surfaces. For example, the coefficients of the four reflecting surfaces 22A, 22b, 22s and 22d must have a value of 75%, 33%, 50% and 100%, respectively. This combination allows to obtain a sequence of wave fronts with the input intensity of each of them 25%. Usually, collectively reflecting surfaces of this type are easy to design for S-polarized light. The fact that the same rays of light, S-polarized for h is partially reflecting surfaces 22A-22d, on the surface 22 fall P-polarized. Therefore, if the image is exposed to S-polarized light along the vertical axis ηthere is no need to use a half-wave plate for changing the polarization of the beams in the horizontal plane along the axis ξ. Proposed options for the location of selectively reflecting surfaces is given as an example. Other possible variants of these surfaces, allowing to obtain optical waves with large linear dimensions on both axes, in accordance with the selected optical system and the desired parameters, will be discussed below.

On Fig is considered an alternative method of propagation of the beam of light rays along the axis η. In the present configuration of the reflective surface 22A, 22b and 22s have a reflectivity of 50% for S-polarized light, and 22d - 100%mirror surface. Of course, the width of the beam propagating in the vertical direction, is greater than in the previous embodiment, but in the proposed case, it is necessary to put only one selectively reflective coating, and the whole structure is relatively simple to manufacture. In General, for each optical system separately accurate way of propagation of the beam of light in the direction along the axis η chosen hung the basis of the requirements of a particular system. The transverse size passed through a collimating lens 6 of the light propagating along the axis η after reflection from surfaces 22A-22d, is determined by the formula Sη=NTtan(αin), where N is the number of reflecting surfaces. The maximum size of the field of view along the axis η is determined by the formula:

If you place the system 22A-22d closer to the eye of the observer, the distance l between the reflecting surfaces can be significantly shorter than in the previous examples. Taking l=40 mm and defining the values of the following parameters: T=4 mm, N=4, αin=65°, Reye=25 mm and v=1.5, we obtain the result:

This last result improves the values obtained previously. On Fig shows another method of propagation of rays along both axes using the design with dual light guide optical element. Part of the wave enters the first optical element 20A through the first reflecting surface 16A, and then extends along the axis ξand leaving 20A goes to the partially reflective surface 22A. After this wave enters the second optical element 20b through the reflecting surface 16b. Further light propagates along the axis ηand out through the reflecting surface 22b. As shown in the drawing,the source light beam propagates in the directions of both axes, and the full distribution is determined by the ratio of the transverse dimensions of the elements 16A and 22b, respectively. The design proposed for Fig, is just an example system with double optical element. Other configurations are possible with two or more optical elements, United in a single complex optical system. For example, an optical system with three different substrates, coating each of which is intended for one of the three basic colors. This system can be used to create a configuration with the tri-color display. In this case, each substrate should be transparent for the other two colors. Such a system may be required for structures, the final image which is formed by the combination of the light rays, emitted three monochromatic sources display. There are many other examples where multiple substrates are formed and more complex systems.

We will further discuss about the brightness of the optical system. This topic is very important for transparent systems in which the brightness level of the display should be close to the natural level of the external environment, to ensure an acceptable level of contrast and ease of observation. While it is impossible to guarantee a low level bring losses. For example, as described above for system sclerema surfaces on Fig, due to the propagation of the beam of light along an axis η the brightness of the optical waves is reduced 4 times. In the General case for N reflecting surfaces, the brightness level is inversely proportional to the number N. In the display with a high brightness level, this disadvantage is compensated, but this approach has always partial restriction. It's not just that the light sources of the display are very expensive, they still consume a lot of energy, and current consumption is very high. In addition, most of the displays there is a limit on the maximum brightness value. As an example, the indicators on liquid crystals, one of the most popular today among the sources for compact displays. The power light in them is limited to avoid unwanted effects such as refraction of light, which leads to a decrease of the resolution and the contrast level of the display. Therefore, in order to optimize the use of light from a source, you need to use other methods of improving the brightness of the light.

One of these possible methods of increasing the brightness of light reaching the observer's eyes from the display, to control the reflectance of the surfaces 22 of the light guide optical element in accordance with the eye-motion-box of the observer. As p is shown at 11, each reflecting surface system selectively reflecting surfaces 22 covers only part of the field of view. Consequently, it is possible to set the reflectance of each surface to optimize the brightness of the entire field of view. For example, the reflection coefficient of the right surface 22A on 11 specially installed in order to provide high reflectivity of the entire right part of the field review and lowest on the left. Similar method of fixing coefficients used in the two-dimensional distribution systems. If you take on Fig axis η vertical reflectance surfaces 22A may be installed such that the bottom surface will have a higher reflectance for the lower region of the field of view and the lowest rate for the upper region, while the upper reflective surface will have a high reflection coefficient for the upper areas of the field of view. Therefore, the rate at which the brightness decreases, must be less than R, where R is the ratio of the areas filled 16A and producing 22b rays reflecting surfaces.

You can apply another method of increasing the brightness of the whole system is to control the brightness of the sources of the display without changes of the input power. As shown figure 11, most of the energy reflected by the mirror 16 and is incident on odlokw 20, is recognised directly in the eye of the observer 60. To increase the maximum brightness value, however, it is desirable that a large part of the light from the light source of the display fell on a substrate.

On Fig shows an example of a display substrate, where the source display uses a liquid crystal display. The light from source 64 and aligned collimating lens 66, illuminates the liquid crystal display 68. From there the image is aligned and passing through optical components 70, is supplied to the substrate 20. On Fig shows a diagram of the optical collimating lens 70, and Fig - track from the beam of light falling on the substrate 20, the front face 72 of the lens 70. Typically, for most sources displays the working principle of light propagation Lambert. Thus, the energy is distributed evenly on the angular spectrum in the 2π steradian. However, as shown in Fig and 19, only a small portion of light from the light source of the display reaches the substrate 20. From each point source on the surface of the display only a small beam - 20-30° - actually illuminate the trail on the front surface 72 and gets on the substrate 20. Therefore, it is possible to achieve a significant increase in brightness when the light from the display is concentrated within this bundle.

One method of achieving this kind of light is from source is to use a special election diffuser for a liquid crystal display. As a rule, a standard diffuser evenly diffuses light in all directions. But, in addition, selective diffuser can diffuse the light in such a direction that the rays from each point source beam diverge at a certain angle. Then the amount of light energy emitted from the surface of the liquid crystal display does not change. For a beam width of 20-30°, the angle of dispersion of light from each point source is reduced if the value of the coefficient obtained by comparing the source of Lambert with the number π, greater than 50. At the same condition, the brightness of the light increases. Consequently, a significant improvement of the brightness setting can be achieved without making a serious effort to design and manufacture, and without high energy costs of the system.

An alternative solution that is suitable not only for liquid crystal displays, but also for other sources, is to use a set of microlenses aligned pixels of the source display. For each pixel microlens multiple narrow beam, and of the pixel, it has been published in the beam to the desired angle. In fact, this method is effective only at low fill factor of the pixels. In an improved version of this method proposes to create an array of pixels such function distribution is ing radiation, to each of the pixels dissipated strictly light at a certain angle. For example, in displays based on organic light-emitting diodes efforts should be made to increase the angle of dispersion of individual LEDs, to provide the widest possible viewing angle. For this here device with a display for transmitting optical elements, however, to optimize the brightness of the system is beneficial to keep a small divergence angle, in the range of 20-30°.

As mentioned previously in the Annex to Fig and 15, it is possible to achieve a fairly wide field of view and along the vertical axis direction η without significantly increasing the volume of the system. But there are situations where this method does not give results. In particular this applies to systems with a very wide field of view and a limited distance l between the reflecting surfaces 16 and 22. On Fig presents detailed optical system with the following parameters: l=70 mm, T=4 mm, αin=65°, Reye=24 mm, v=1,51, eye-motion-box - 10 mm and the desired value of the vertical field of view is 42 deg. If you trace the path of rays from the eye-motion-box 74, it turns out that the light passes through the projection MMM on optics 22, 76, 78 and 80 of the projection of the upper, Central and lower corners of the field of view, respectively. Thus, to obtain the field of view of the desired size, the size and artery 82 should be 65 mm Such a large value of this parameter allows you to increase the size of the field of view of the whole system, even when the thickness of the substrate. If only aperture 84 will be reduced to 40 mm, field of view will be reduced to 23°that is half less than the required values.

On Fig shows how you can solve the problem. The usual rectangular plate 20 is replaced by a more complicated design: on both edges of the plate are added two pairs of parallel reflective surfaces - a, 88b and 90A, 90b, respectively. The Central part of the field of view is projected, as before, directly through the aperture 84, the rays from the lower part of the reflected surfaces a and 88b, and the upper part is reflected from surfaces 90A and 90b. Typically, the angles between the rays get inside the substrate, and the reflective surface 88 and 90 are large enough to provide total reflection, so there is no need to put on them a special reflective layers. When all the rays are either provided directly from the input aperture, or undergoes a double reflection from a pair of parallel surfaces, the initial direction of each beam, as the state of the original image, it doesn't matter.

Of course, it is very important to ensure that each beam reflected from the surface a, reflected from the surface 88B, before he gets into the iaphragm 84. To confirm this, it is enough to check two ways: side beam opposite surface 92, falling on the surface a at the point 94, should fall on the surface 88B to the right of its intersection with the surface 90A, additional lateral beam 96, falling on the surface a near the intersection of 98 with the surface b must penetrate the surface 88B to its intersection with the aperture 84. Due to the fact that both lateral beam meet the conditions, it is important that all rays from sight, falling on the surface a, fell to the surface 88B. This example is significantly narrowed the input aperture 84:40 mm field of view 42°. Naturally, this applies in cases when l is extremely large, you can apply a cascade of two or more pairs of reflecting surfaces to achieve the desired field of view with valid source aperture.

The example presented on Fig, demonstrates a simple implementation of this method. The use of pairs of parallel rays to narrow the aperture of the system for a given field of view or, in the alternative, the expansion of the field of view for a given aperture is not limited for use within the optics using the substrate, and can be used in other optical systems that do not have restrictions, such as projection displays, bishops or periscopes.

caviano, as mentioned previously, in accordance with Fig transverse dimensions of the input aperture of the substrate is 40 mm axis η and 8.5 mm along the axis ξ. Figa and 22B illustrate an alternative version of what is presented on Fig-15. This approach involves adjusting (setting) between symmetric collimating lens 6 and asymmetric input aperture. The transverse dimensions of the input aperture are taken as D and 4D along two axes, respectively. The lens 6 with the aperture in 2D colliery the image on the bottom (the base). The front part of the collimated light is bound to the substrate by means of a mirror 16A. Two pairs of parallel reflecting surfaces 22A, 22b and 22s, 22d split beam of light to the outside and then reflect it in the original direction. The rear portion of the collimated light passes through the base 20 and then reflected by a prism 99 is returned back to the base. A second mirror 16b collects the reflected light on the basis of 20. It is obvious that the transverse dimensions of the input aperture are D and 4D along two axes, respectively, as required.

There are some advantages that brings described above to depicted on Fig. The system is symmetric with respect to axis ηand more importantly, no loss of light intensity. This approach is only an example, and other similar methods is preobrazovaniya incoming symmetric beam in asymmetric associated beam. A suitable configuration to stretch the image along the axis η requires careful analysis of all the nuances of the system.

In General, various types of optical fiber elements, discussed above, offers several important advantages over alternative types of compact optics designed for use in display technology, such as:

1) the source of the incoming beam can be located very close to the substrate, which in General provides the system with compact dimensions and low weight that offers unparalleled design characteristics.

2) unlike other compact display configurations, the present invention offers the flexibility of location of the source of the input beam relative to the eyepiece. This flexibility combined with the ability to locate the source in the immediate vicinity of the sliding substrate softens the necessity of applying uniaxial optical configurations, traditional for other display systems. Plus, due to the fact that the input aperture of the optical fiber of the optical element LOE much smaller than the active area of the output aperture, the numerical aperture of the collimating lens 6 is much less than the conventional counterparts among systems signal (image). Therefore, the petition may do value the positive more convenient optical system, and many of the difficulties associated with the application of uniaxial optics and lenses with high discharge apertures, such as a field or chromatic aberration, can be easily and effectively overcome.

3) the reflection Coefficients selective reflective surfaces in this invention is extremely the same throughout a considerable range. Consequently, both mono - and polychromatic radiation sources can be used as a source for a display device. Optical fiber optical element LOE has a small dependence on wavelength, providing a high quality color display with high resolution.

4) Since each point of the incoming display is transformed into a plane wave that is reflected by the eye of the observer through the larger part of the grating reflectors, strict requirements to the location of the eye can be significantly mitigated. As such, the observer can see the entire field of view, and eye movement can be much more than display a different configuration.

5) as most of the intensity of a light source of the display is assembled on the substrate and most of the energy is re-used and the output is collected in the eye of the observer, display relatively high brightness can be used in the composition of the sources of irradiation is Oia, with low energy consumption.

Fig represents an image of the present invention, in which the LOE 20 built into the eyepiece 100. The radiation source 4, Kalimera lens 6 and hinged (swing) lens 70 mounted on the bracket 102 within the frame of the eyepiece in close proximity to the edge of the optical fiber of the optical element LOE 20. In that case, if the radiation source display is an electronic element, such as, for example, in a small cathode ray tubes CRT, liquid crystal displays LCD or emitting diode matrix OLED, the electronic control system 104 may be placed inside the back of the bracket 102. The power source interface according to the data 106 can be connected to the bracket 102 by means of a wire or any other method of connection, including optical or radio connection. Alternatively, the battery and miniature electronics, serving the data transmission channel, can be integrated into the frame of the eyepiece.

The design described above, capable of serving both transparent and opaque system. In the latter case, the opaque layer (layer) is placed opposite the optical fiber of the optical element LOE. Is not important to cover optical fiber optical element LOE entirely, typically only the active zone, where the visible display needs in the lock. It is to such design can support the peripheral vision of the user, imitating the experience of computer and television monitor in which such peripheral vision serves the interests of important cognitive functions. Alternatively, before the system can be set a variety of filters that allow the user to control the level of brightness coming from the external side of the display. The above proposed filters can constructively be filled both with mechanical control, such as otgibami or two rotating polarizers, electronic control, or even automatic control, whereby the transmittance of the filter will be determined (set) brightness of the external background.

There are several alternative uses for LOE in this design. The simplest is to use a separate element for each eye. Another option is to use a separate element and a radiation source for each eye, but for a single image. There is an alternative to project in each eye two halves of the same image with a small overlap between them, which will make it possible to expand the field of view. There is even the possibility to project two different scenes for each eye to create a stereoscopic picture. These alternatives make it possible for attractive designs, t is the cue as a three-dimensional cinema, advanced virtual reality training systems and much more.

Design presented on Fig shows a simple embodiment of the present invention. Since the light guide optical element, representing the heart of the system is very compact and lightweight, it can be integrated in a very wide range of devices and accessories. Therefore, it becomes possible to create numerous devices such as visors, folding displays, monocles, and much more. This design was developed for those cases where the monitor should be located in close proximity to the eye: mounted on the head or designed to work on the head, etc. There are, however, applications where the display may be different.

An example of this application can serve as a structure adapted to be worn on the head, such as cell phones. The emergence of such structures is expected in the near future, they will serve innovative operations requiring high resolution for large substrates, such as Videophone, Internet access, email access or high-quality transmission of satellite TV programs. The application of existing technology allows you to build a miniature display in the phone, but at the present moment such displays are able to transfer or videos of poor quality, or more lines of the Internet, or e-mail information directly in the eye.

Fig demonstrates an alternative method based on the application of the present invention is able to eliminate the current compromise between small size mobile (compact) devices and the desire to view full size digital content displays by projecting high-quality images directly into the eyes of the user. Optical module, comprising a radiation source of the display 6, the folding and collimating optics 70 and the substrate 20 is integrated into the housing of the mobile phone 110, where the substrate replaces the standard protective window phone. In particular, the volume of this equipment, including the source 6 and the lens 70, is small enough to fit within the allocated volume inside modern mobile devices. To see the full-size image transmitted by the device, the user places the window in front of the eye 24 to easily observe the image of a wide field of view, a high degree of freedom of the eye and comfortable eye relief. It is also possible to cover the entire field of view entirely by tilting the device, to show the various parts of the image. In addition, because the optical module can work with transparent configurations may double and the use of the device; in other words, as an option there is a possibility of the operation of conventional display untouched. Thus, the standard display with low resolution can be viewed even when the radiation source 6. The second mode is intended for viewing e-mail. While working with the Internet or with traditional video display 112 is turned off, while the radiation source 6 projects required the full-sized image in the eyes of the user by LOE. The design shown in Fig is just an example that illustrates the real possibility of creating such devices. Among other similar devices can detect handheld computers, miniature displays, built in wrist watches, pocket display, its size and weight resembling a credit card, and much more.

The device described above, the present monocular optical system, in other words, they work by projecting the image in one eye. There are, however, in such applications as, for example, monitors are not tilting the head (HUD), where it is desirable to get a picture in both eyes. Until recently, such systems have been used in military and civil aviation. There were also numerous suggestions and development, offering to install HUD the car in front of the driver, designed to facilitate road navigation or projecting into the eyes of the testimony of the imager to facilitate navigation in conditions of poor visibility. Existing aviation HUD systems are very expensive, the cost of an individual unit is of the order of several hundred thousand dollars. Plus, existing systems are bulky, heavy and too awkward for placement in close conditions of the aircraft, not to mention cars. HUD system, created on the basis of LOE, potentially provide the ability to create a very compact, self-contained HUD devices that readily can be installed in confined spaces. This will also simplify the design and the technology of optical systems with respect to HUD, therefore, potentially it is possible to improve both types of HUD systems for the aerospace and automotive industry compact, low-cost consumer version.

Fig shows how to implement HUD system based on the present invention. The light from the radiation source 4 collyriums lens 6 to infinity and going to the first reflecting surface 16 on the substrate 20. After reflection of the second reflecting antenna matrix (not shown in the drawing) of the optical wave fall on the third reflecting surface 22, which collect light vglaza observer 24. The whole system can be very compact and lightweight, about the size of a large postcard and a thickness of several millimeters. The radiation source display volume of a few cubic centimeters can be placed in one of the corners of the substrate, where the electrical cable will be able to supply the system with energy and information. It is expected that the installation of the presented system is no harder than installing a regular radio segment. Moreover, since there is no necessity to use an external radiation source for display to obtain projection images, also eliminates the importance of installing components in unsafe places.

Due to the fact that the exit pupil of a typical HUD system much more similar to systems that are placed on the head, it is expected that rahmatika configuration as described above, referring to Fig-16, will be required to achieve the desired field of view. There may exist special cases including systems with low vertical field of view or with a vertical diode bars as the radiation source or by using pairs of parallel reflecting mirrors (as shown in Fig)where there will be enough dogmatical configuration.

Design presented on Fig may find application in other industries, for example in HUD systems for land transport. Another possible about the art of application - as a flat substrate normal computer or TV. The main unique feature of these displays is that the picture is not on the panel substrate, and is focused at infinity or similar at a comfortable distance. One of the main shortcomings of the existing monitors is that the user cannot focus your vision at close range from 40 to 60 cm, while the focal length of a healthy eye - infinity. Many people suffer from headaches after prolonged computer use. Many other working slowly, developing myopia. Plus, many people who suffer from both myopia and hyperopia, need special glasses to use the computer. The flat display based on the present invention, may be a good solution for people suffering from ailments described above, and presents his work on monitors that are mounted to their head. Moreover, this invention will significantly reduce the dimensions of the display. As the picture formed LOE, exceeds in size the projector itself, you can allow the production of large displays in much smaller part. This property is also very important for laptops and handheld computers.

One of the potential is however possible problems, associated with a large display, LOE relates to the problems of brightness. Ideally, it is advantageous to use a miniature radiation source, but it is obligatory reduces the brightness of the display, which in turn significantly increases the area of active illumination LOE compared with similar characteristics of the source. Therefore, even after applying the above measures, you can expect to reduce the brightness even among non-transparent versions. The reduction in brightness can be compensated by increasing the brightness inside the source or use a larger number of sources. In other words, LOE can be covered through a network of sources combined with collimating lenses. Fig shows an embodiment of such schemes. One image is created using four light sources 4A-4d, each of which collyriums network lenses 6A-6d, with the aim to create one simple collimated image, which is later going LOE 20 by means of the reflective surface 16. At first glance it seems that this solution is very expensive. There are many examples of advanced systems, the value of which is enhanced by the use of complex elements, caused by the need to coordinate between a source image, which in turn lose low cost microdisplays as such, the s and their ability to reduce the numerical aperture of the collimating lens. When such arrangement eliminates the need for transverse expansion, it is possible to include only one-dimensional extender image LOE and accordingly to increase the brightness level. It is important to note that there is no need to apply only completely identical to each other display sources, which opens up the possibility of creating a more complex system, in which, according to the above diagram, can be applied to different display sources.

Another feature LOE displays, based on the present invention, is a plane of their forms, even in comparison with the existing flat panel monitors. Another difference is much more strictly limited angle of vision: the image obtained using LOE display, can be considered only within a limited range of angles, compared with the flat counterparts. This limitation of the movement area of the head is convenient for comfortable use an ordinary user, and also provides additional benefits in privacy in many situations.

Moreover, the image created using LOE display, located in a plane spaced rear substrate, but not on its physical surface. The uniqueness of the obtained image is akin to watching him through the window. This configuration is extremely UD is bsearch for creating three-dimensional displays.

The continuing development of information technology drives the demand for 3D displays. And actually, the market offers a wide range of such devices. However, existing systems suffer from one drawback: the user is forced to use special devices to share information to his left or right eye. Such systems mechanized view the" well established in some special applications. But the current expansion in other areas requires the emergence of systems of "free vision" with utmost comfort for viewing and closer adaptation to systems of binocular vision. Modern solutions to this problem suffer from numerous disadvantages and shortcomings and behind the widely known 2D displays in image quality and ease of use.

On figa and 27b shows the right and top view, respectively, of similar composition, based on the present invention, which can be used to create a 3D display. Instead of a single display source applied network 114 consisting of n different sources 1141-114nplaced at the bottom of the substrate 20, where each of the projected images, representing the various perspectives of the same scene. Picture with each display source is going to p is dloce way similar to that described above and illustrated in Fig. When the user is looking at the display, his right 24A and left 24b eyes see the image projected by the springs 114iand 114jrespectively. Therefore, the observer, each eye sees the same scene is shown from different points. Created the impression of a very similar feeling when you see a real 3D picture through the window. As can be seen from tiga-28b, when the observer moves his or her gaze in the horizontal plane, he sees the image generated by different sources 114k114l; the resulting effect is reminiscent of the movement of the head while watching any scene outside the window. When the observer moves look a vertical plane, as shown in figa-28V, his eyes see the point on a substrate located at a level below the previous one. Since these points are located closer to the display sources 114, the observer sees the images coming from sources 114g-114h located closer to the center of the network sources 114 than the previous one. In the sensations received by the observer, similar to those that occur when viewing the scene, closer to the window. In other words, viewing the scene through the substrate is a three-dimensional view of the panorama, where the lower part is closer to the observation is the motor.

The design discussed above and presented in Fig-29 is just an example. By applying the present invention, it is possible to obtain other device that can produce a realistic three-dimensional image, with different aperture, a large number of viewpoints, etc.

Another possible application of the present invention may be the teleprompter used to obtain projections of the text before the television announcer or radio; in view of the fact that such a teleprompter fully transparent, the audience the impression of eye contact with them, while in fact he only reads appearing before him the text. Using LOE the teleprompter can be performed using a compact source, connected to other optical devices, smoothing the need to place a large substrate in the immediate vicinity of the device.

Another possible application of the device may be a substrate for personal digital assistant (PDA). The dimensions of conventional displays for these devices existing at the present time are of the order of 10 centimeters. As the minimum distance at which you can read the information from this display, is about 40 cm, and a valid field of view is about 15°therefore, the amount available through this displayinformation, especially if the text is interesting, is rather limited. A significant improvement in the projected field of view can be achieved using the scheme shown in Fig. The image is created in space, and the substrate can be located much closer to the eyes of the observer. Plus, because each eye sees a different fragments of the total field of view (TFOV) and their overlap in the center, can be achieved more improvement in overall field of view. Thus, you can create a display with a viewing angle of 40° and more.

All designs are based on the present invention described above, the image that occur using electronic display source, such as CRT or LCD, transmitted through the substrate. However, there are cases where the image may be part of a real scene, as, for example, if you want to record a real scene.

On Fig presents amplifier starlight (SLA) 116 where such construction. The image of the real scene is focused by the collimator 118 in the amplifier starlight, where the electronic signal containing the image is enhanced with the aim of creating an artificial image through eyepiece 120 is projected into the observer's eye. Such a scheme is quite popular in the military, the paramilitary and civil is the Rog. This widely used configuration strongly projecting forward in front of the user, which makes it inconvenient long-term operation of such a configuration. The device has quite a lot of weight and in addition to the fact that it physically prevents objects in the immediate proximity to the user, it also causes a considerable strain on his head and neck.

More comfortable design shown in Fig. Here the device is not in front of the user, but the side of his head, and the center of gravity of the amplifier is aligned along the major axis of the head. The layout of the device is made on a reversed pattern, that is, the collimator 118 is located in the rear and the eyepiece 120 ahead. Now the image of the external scene is transmitted to the collimator 118 using LOE 20A, where the image from the eyepiece 120 is transmitted in the eye of the observer by means of the second LOE 20b. Despite the presence of additional optical elements 20A and 20b, introduced in the original scheme, the weight of which is very small compared to the weight of the SLA, and in General the whole system is much more convenient to use. Moreover, due to the fact that removed the hard limit on the accuracy of installation of these devices, it is possible to implement them in a modular form that will allow the operator to move or even move them. Similarly SLA eyepiece can be perekonfigurirovanie is for ease of use attached to the head LOE or for installation on a standard stand or to other target applications, where the module LOE is not involved. It is also possible to shift LOE elements for the purpose of fitting for ease of handling the device using any eye.

In all the above embodiments the modules LOE used to transmit light waves to form images. However, the present invention can be applied not only for, but also in non-visual applications, such as illumination, where the optical quality of the output wave is not the key factor, and Vice versa, are the luminous intensity and constant brightness. The invention can be applied, for example, for rear illumination of flat panel monitors, mainly LCD systems, where to build the image you want to flash the plane light features a bright and constant. Other possible applications of the invention include an unlimited number of flat and low-cost devices for indoor illumination, spotlights, lights, fingerprint scanners, and devices for reading the three-dimensional hologram display.

One of the applications that can be seriously promoted through the use of LOE is a reflective LCD. Fig shows an example of display in which the display is a reflective LCD. The light emitted by the illuminator 122, passes through polars is jam 124, colomerus lens 126 is reflected polarized beam splitter (light) 128 and illuminates the LCD 130. The polarization of the light reflected from the LCD, rotated 90° platform size 1/4 wavelength or, alternatively, by the LCD material. Now the image of the LCD passes through the beam splitter to be collimated and reflected on the substrate 20 through the lens 132. As a result of such arrangement of the illumination system containing a splitter, it appears bulky and certainly not compact enough for use in the systems associated with fixing them to the head. Moreover, since the beam splitter 128 and collimating lens 132 are located at a more remote distance from the display source to reduce distortion, it is recommended precatory the lens be placed as close as possible to the surface of the display.

An improved version of the lighting system shown in Fig. The light source 122 is collected another LOE 134 covering the surface of the LCD 130, partially reflective surface which is sensitive to polarization. Obviously, all this system is much more compact than that shown on Fig, and the lens 132 is located much closer to the surface of the LCD. Plus, since the input aperture LOE 134 is much smaller than the beam splitter 128, can be applied collimating lens 126 is arsego size and therefore, with a large aperture number. The lighting device shown in Fig, is just an example. You can create and other devices for lighting reflecting or transmitting LCD systems or for another in accordance with the desired parameters and other optical systems.

An important problem that should be paid attention is the production technology LOE, a key component of which is a network (grid, matrix) of selectively reflecting surfaces 22. On Fig presents a possible method to obtain a matrix of partially reflecting surfaces. Surfaces consisting of flat plates 138, are covered by the required coating 140, after which the plates are fastened in such a way as to obtain the shape of the stack 142. Then the segment 144 is released from it by cutting, faceting and polishing with the aim of obtaining the desired matrix reflecting surfaces 146, which is connected with other elements, resulting in a finished product production - LOE. From each segment 144 may be received more than one matrix in the case, if you require other sizes of plates coated 138 or the LOE. As shown in Fig.4-7, in order to ensure correct operation LOE, mandatory coverage reflecting surfaces must match the definition of the tion of the angular and spectral requirements. Therefore, before final Assembly LOE very important to carefully control the coating process on the plate. As explained above, the control should be two inside corner high incident angle (usually between 60 and 85°), where the reflectivity is low and the angle of incidence is small (usually between 15 and 40°), where the reflectivity is used for removing portions of the rays of the LOE. Naturally, the coating should be measured on these two segments. The main problem procedure check is that it is very difficult to make measurements on a test equipment at very high angles of incidence of light, usually more than 60° coating located, as in our case, between two transparent plates.

On Fig presents a method for measuring the reflectivity of the surfaces coated with 150 at very large angles of incidence. Initially, two prisms 152 angle α attached to the plate. The incoming beam 154 is incident on the plate at an angle α. Part of the beam 156 continues to move in the initial direction, and the brightness (intensity) Tαcan be measured. Therefore, taking into account the reflection on the Fresnel from the outer surface, the reflectivity of the investigated coating at an angle α can be computed as Rα=l-Tα. In addition to t the th, the second part of the beam reflected from the coated surface, reflected again by using total internal reflection from the outer surface of the lower prism, falling on the surface of the coating at an angle of 3αagain reflected from the outer surface of the upper prism, and then reflected from the coated surface at an angle α, emerges from the prism. Here, the brightness (intensity) of the output beam 158 can be measured. Taking into account the reflection on the Fresnel, the brightness (intensity) of the output beam is equal to (Rα)2·T. Therefore, knowing the reflectivity Rα from the previous example, the reflectivity at an angle of 3α can be calculated accordingly. There is test equipment (Fig), where the output beam must be on the same axis as the incoming beam. The remainder of the initial beam 154 can be blocked using an appropriate screen or blocking sheet (layer) 162.

Obviously, each pair of prisms can measure reflectivity at two angles - α and 3α. For example, if the head angle is 25°, the reflection on 25° and 75° can be measured simultaneously. Therefore, a small number of pairs of prisms (2 or 3) is usually required for accurate measurements plates coated. Naturally, the scheme presented here can be used in esavana for reflectivity measurements at these two angles at different wavelengths for the two polarizations, if it is necessary.

For professionals it will be obvious that this invention is not limited to those options that were mentioned above, and that the present invention can be applied to create other similar structures and systems. Variants of the structural design, presented at the moment, are discussed here in detail, as shown on the drawings and without limitation, the scope of the invention represented by the accompanying patent formula, and all changes that may occur regarding these claims should be taken into account.

1. Light guide optical element, which includes at least one sitopaladi base, which is equipped with at least two surfaces arranged parallel to each other;

optical means, which are used for input into the base of the rays of light by means of total internal reflection so that the light fell on one of the above surfaces;

a set of one or more partially reflecting surfaces located inside the base, the surface which is not parallel to the aforementioned surfaces of the base,

while partially reflecting surfaces are flat selectively reflecting angled surfaces, which are part of the rays cross is a number of times, before you leave the base in the right direction.

2. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, in which the light at least twice intersects the specified partially reflecting surface at two different angles of incidence.

3. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, in which the specified partially reflecting surface has a low reflectivity for one part of the angular spectrum and a large reflectivity for the second part of the angular spectrum.

4. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, in which the specified partially reflecting surface has a low reflectivity for large angles of incidence and greater reflectivity for small angles of incidence of light.

5. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, in which the specified partially reflecting surface has a low reflectivity for some angles of incidence of light and a significantly higher reflectivity for the second angles of incidence of light.

6. Transmitting optical element according to claim 5, in which the first angle of incidence with low reflectivity that is greater than the second specified angle.

7. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, which has a set of two or more partially reflective surfaces, and these partially reflecting surfaces are parallel to each other.

8. Svetoprovodyaschey element according to claim 1, in which at least one partially reflecting surface displays light from sotoportego Foundation.

9. Transmitting optical element according to claim 8, in which the incoming and outgoing light waves located on one side sotoportego Foundation.

10. Transmitting optical element according to claim 8, in which incoming light waves are on the same side sotoportego Foundation, and the output light waves on the other side sotoportego Foundation.

11. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, in which the reflectivity of each of the partially reflective surfaces of different reflecting surfaces.

12. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, in which the set contains more than one partially reflecting surface, and the distance between the partially reflective surfaces creates a field of view with a pre-calculated brightness profile.

13. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, in which the specified partially reflecting surface has a coating for P-polarized light.

14. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, in which the specified partially reflecting surface has a coating for S-polarized light.

15. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, in which the specified partially reflecting surface has a coating for unpolarized the Board.

16. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, which further comprises a second set of partially reflecting surfaces, while partially reflecting surfaces are parallel to each other.

17. Transmitting optical element according to item 16, which reflects the ability of the specified second set of partially reflective surfaces creates a field of vision with a pre-calculated brightness profile.

18. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, which contains at least two sitopaladi Foundation.

19. Transmitting optical element according to p, in which the location and orientation of at least two bases creates a pre-calculated input aperture.

20. Transmitting optical element according to p, in which the reflectivity of the partially reflecting surfaces arranged in at least two of these sitopaladi grounds, create a field of vision with pre-calculated profile of brightness.

21. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, which further comprises at least one pair of reflecting surfaces mounted on svetamodel the base and parallel to each other.

22. Transmitting optical element according to item 21, in which at least one pair of partially reflecting surfaces specified set changes the direction of propagation introduced with POM is using total reflection of light and then reflect it back in the original direction.

23. Transmitting optical element according to item 21, in which the orientation of the at least one pair of reflecting surfaces creates a pre-designed visual field for a given input aperture.

24. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, which additionally comprises at least one light source image.

25. Transmitting optical element according to paragraph 24, which includes a number of light sources in the image.

26. Transmitting optical element according A.25, in which images of these light sources differ from each other.

27. Transmitting optical element according to paragraph 24, wherein said source is a display.

28. Transmitting optical element according to item 27, wherein said source is a liquid crystal display (LCD).

29. Transmitting optical element according to p, which contains a diffuser for a liquid crystal display.

30. Transmitting optical element according to clause 29, wherein said diffuser is a selective angular cone.

31. Transmitting optical element according to item 27, wherein said source is an OLED display.

32. Transmitting optical element according to item 27, which further comprises a set of microlenses aligned pixels of the display.

33. Transmitting optical ale is NT on p, in which the focal length of the microlenses designed in such a way as to create a pre-calculated profile of brightness.

34. Transmitting optical element according to item 27, which additionally contains filters that allow the user to control the level of brightness coming from the external side of the display.

35. Transmitting optical element according to clause 34, which further comprises an automatic control whereby the transmittance of the filter is determined by the brightness of the external background.

36. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, wherein the specified length of the base is made partially transparent.

37. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, which further comprises an opaque surface that is located on or in svetamodel the base, which prevents the access of light from an external source, crossing the specified sitopaladi base.

38. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, in which at least one specified partially reflective surface reflects light in a certain direction for reaching the observer's eye.

39. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, in which at least one specified partially reflective surface reflects light in a particular direction to achieve them in both eyes of an observer.

40. Siteprovides the optical element according to claim 1, where the specified device is installed in the frame of the spectacles.

41. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, where said device is installed on the mobile communications device.

42. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, in which at least one specified partially reflective surface reflects light in a certain direction to illuminate the object.

43. Transmitting optical element according to § 42, wherein said object is a liquid crystal display.

44. Transmitting optical element according to claim 1, wherein said element collects light from the external environment to the specified sitopaladi base.



 

Same patents:

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FIELD: image generation devices - displays.

SUBSTANCE: claimed device contains a light source, liquid-crystalline panel, and also redirecting film and stack of optical wave conductors positioned between the first two parts, where optical wave conductors are made in form of films, first ends of which are oriented towards the light source, and second ends are extended relatively to one another with creation of toothed surface, which is connected to first toothed surface of redirecting film, second surface of which is connected to liquid-crystalline panel, where the teeth of both connected surfaces have to faces.

EFFECT: increased brightness of image.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: optics.

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11 cl, 15 dwg

The invention relates to the field of optical and opto-electronic instrumentation, namely, devices for remote sensing, intended in particular to obtain monochromatic images of the upper atmosphere when performing studies of magnetospheric-ionospheric processes that appear in Aurora

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: device has circular metallic plate, in which a periodic matrix of rectangular slits is cut. Plate is positioned in such a way, that a falling beam of millimeter-long waves falls at an angle of 45° relatively to plate surface. Polarization of falling beam is parallel to plate surface. When direction of plate is such, that electric field is perpendicular to slits (i.e. electric field is directed transversely to lesser dimension of slits), plate transfers almost 100% of falling power. If the plate rotates around its axis for 90° (while keeping angle between falling beam and plate equal to 45°) in such a way, that falling electric field is parallel to slits, then plate transfers 0% and reflects almost 100% of falling power at an angle of 90° relatively to falling beam. By changing rotation angle between 0° and 90° both reflected and passed power can be continuously varied between values 0% and 100% from falling power. Light divider has cooling device for taking heat, absorbed from magnetic waves, away from edge of metallic plate.

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11 cl, 15 dwg

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FIELD: image generation devices - displays.

SUBSTANCE: claimed device contains a light source, liquid-crystalline panel, and also redirecting film and stack of optical wave conductors positioned between the first two parts, where optical wave conductors are made in form of films, first ends of which are oriented towards the light source, and second ends are extended relatively to one another with creation of toothed surface, which is connected to first toothed surface of redirecting film, second surface of which is connected to liquid-crystalline panel, where the teeth of both connected surfaces have to faces.

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3 dwg

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3 dwg, 4 tbl

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1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

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FIELD: physics.

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5 cl, 11 dwg

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