Plot board for ground surveillance object selection from orbital space vehicle
FIELD: physics, space technology.
SUBSTANCE: plot board for ground surveillance object selection from orbital space vehicle refers to space technology. The plot board for ground surveillance object selection from orbital space vehicle includes flexible tape with the ground map printed on it, and semitransparent plate above the tape. Two halves of the space vehicle's orbit pass are drawn on the plate in such a way that the ascending node in the beginning of the first half of the orbit pass and the descending node in the beginning of the second half of the orbit pass are superimposed. The plot board also comprises a device for the tape map transport along the plate with orbit pass image; the transport device comprising two shafts that are spaced-apart and interconnected in parallel. The map printed on the tape has the equator beginning and ending points superimposed, and the tape is made in the form of a ring and pulled on the shafts so as to move along the map equator line. The distance between the shaft axes and size of the plate with the orbit pass image along the equator direction are equal to (L-d)/2, where L - is the map equator length; d - is absolute distance between passes measures in linear units along the map equator; shaft radius equals to d/(2π). The stated above gives the effect of decreased plot board size.
EFFECT: decreased size of plot board for ground surveillance object selection from orbital space vehicle.
The invention relates to the field of space technology and can be used to identify and select objects on earth observations from aboard orbiting SPACECRAFT), moving in a near-circular orbit.
Known maps of the earth's surface:  communalisation map of the mission control Center (MCC) and maps of the sky , which can be used to identify and select geophysical and astronomical objects for observations performed with the AC. The lack of maps is that they do not have graphical information about the orbit of the SPACECRAFT.
The closest analogues adopted for the prototype is the tablet to identify and select objects geophysical observations aboard space stations , which contains two copies of a map of the earth surface deposited on a flexible tape mounted on the tape with a map of the translucent plate with the image of the spiral orbit from the ascending node and the device providing movement of the tape with the card along the plate with the image of the orbit of the two spaced apart and fastened together in parallel between the shafts, when this card is printed on the tape with the combined end point of the equator the first card and start point of the equator of the second card, and the tape is made of a closed ring and stretched over the shaft, with the possibility of krugalopmednia along the line of the equator cards.
Line shape round orbit specifies the track a SPACECRAFT to map the earth's surface and is determined by the inclination, orbit height and associated period of circulation of the SPACECRAFT around the Earth.
Tablet  is presented in figure 1. This tablet is used to MCC for planning geophysical observations from orbiting space stations (Salyut, Mir, international space station).
Working with the tablet as follows. With the help of the device providing movement of the tape with the card along the plate with the image of the spiral orbit connecting point of the ascending node of the orbit round, depicted on the plate, with the point of the equator of the map corresponding to the value of the longitude of the ascending node of the considered orbits orbit. In addition, the line of the route round the orbit shows on a map the route of this loop that allows you to define and select a point of the surface for observation at this stage orbit.
Tablet, taken as the prototype, has a major drawback - its dimensions are defined by the total length of the map the earth's surface, are quite large and can create difficulties during its operational use (for example, aboard manned SPACECRAFT).
The task of the proposed device is improved ergonomic characteristics of the tablet to select the ground object of observation with orbitalnega KA by reducing the size of the tablet.
This object is achieved in that the tablet to select the ground object observations from orbiting spacecraft includes a flexible tape with a map of the earth's surface, installed over her translucent plate with the image of the two halves of the spiral orbit of the spacecraft, made with a combination of ascending node of the orbit starting the first half revolution of the orbit, and the descending node of the orbit starting the second half revolution of the orbit, and the device providing movement of the tape with the card along the plate with the image of the revolution orbit of the two spaced apart and fastened together in parallel between the shafts, when this card is printed on the tape with a combination of the beginning and ending of the equator card and the tape is made of a closed ring and stretched over the shaft with a circular movement along the equator line cards, and the distance between the axes of the shafts and the size of the plate with the image of the spiral orbit along the equator is made equal to a value
where L is the length of the equator of the map; d is the absolute value of the inter-turn distance, measured in linear units along the equator of the card;
and the radius of the shaft is made equal to the value of d/(2π).
In the proposed tablet, unlike tablet-prototype images of the two halves of the loop orbit plotted on a semi-transparent plate separation is about and posted the proposed way (combining began half round), on the tape with the card dealt only one card of the earth surface and placed the suggested way (with a combination of start points and end the equator of the map), and the radius of the shaft and the distance between the axes of the shafts device providing movement of the tape with the card along the plate with the image of the spiral orbit and the size of the plate with the image of the spiral orbit is made equal to the proposed values calculated by the proposed formulas as functions of the length of the equator and turn-to-turn distance.
The tablet is illustrated in figure 1 and 2. Given: figure 1 - tablet-prototype; figure 2 - proposed tablet.
In figure 2, which presents the proposed design of the tablet, introduced the notation:
1 - tape with a map of the earth's surface;
2 is a semi - transparent plate with the image of the spiral orbit;
3 is a curve of the first half of the round orbit;
4 is a curve of the second half of the round orbit;
5 - two parallel bonded rotating shaft;
6 - element design, the fastening axis of the shaft (5);
7 - element design, the locking position of the plate with the image of the spiral orbit over the shaft (5);
8 - equator line card;
9 - projection of the equator card on the plate with the image of a spiral orbit.
Working with the tablet as follows.
The rotation shaft (5) and per meshaut tape from the card (1) relative to the plate (2) to match the point of the earth's equator (8), corresponding to the value of the longitude of the ascending node of the considered orbits orbit, with the point of the ascending node of the orbit round the KA - start point of the curve line (3). In this case the curve line (3) will show on the map (1) the first half of the considered orbits orbit. Next fix the longitude of the point of the earth's equator (8), corresponding to the end of the curve (3). This point is the descending node of the orbit of the SPACECRAFT on the orbit. The rotation shaft (5) move the tape from the card (1) relative to the plate (2) to match the point of the earth's equator (8)corresponding to the fixed value of longitude, with the start point of the curve (4) (starting point of the curves (3) and (4), and point them all the same). In this case the curve (4) will show on the map (1) route the second half of the considered orbits orbit. On the obtained positions of the track loop orbit to map the earth's surface-defined and selectable objects on the earth's surface to perform their observations on a given turn of the orbit.
The device providing movement of the tape with the card along the plate with the image of the spiral orbit is made in the form of two spaced apart and fastened together in parallel between a rotating shaft (5), of the structural element (6), the fastening axis of the shaft (5), and the structural element (7), the locking position of the plate (2) over the shaft (5) (i.e. above the ribbon with the Arta (1)).
The angular turn-to-turn distance associated with the Earth coordinate system is negative and is determined by the formula (see , str):
where Δ Ω - the winding precession of the orbit in the inertial coordinate system; T - period of the SPACECRAFT around the Earth; ω - the angular velocity of the rotation of the Earth in inertial space; Re- Equatorial radius of the Earth; R - focal parameter of the orbit; i - inclination orbit; I2=-1082,2·10-6- the ratio of the potential of the gravitational field of the Earth.
Measure in linear units, the length L of the Equatorial scale longitude map [0,2π] and denote by d the absolute value of the inter-turn distance Δλmeasured in linear units along the equator of the map associated with Δλ and L ratio
Then the linear dimension of the half revolution of the orbit, measured in linear units along the equator of the map equal to
This value is equal to the length of the projection of the equator (9) and is the minimum possible value for the size of the plate (2) and the distance between the axes of the shafts (5)to the straight section of the tape with the card (1) affected line (3), (4). Since the minimum length of ribbon with a card (1) is equal to L, then the minimum size of the tablet on polulineinogo shaft (5) should be part of the tape with a map of length d/2. I.e. the radius of each of the shaft R is determined by the ratio:
Describe the technical effect of the invention.
The proposed device improves ergonomics of the tablet to select the ground object observations from orbiting SPACECRAFT by reducing the size of the tablet in the direction of the line of the equator card twice on the tablet prototype.
The technical result is achieved due to the separate images of the two halves of the loop orbit to the plate with the image of the orbit, use only one copy of the map and the proposed size of the radius of the shaft and the distance between the axes of the shafts device providing movement of the tape with the card along the plate with the image of the round orbit, and the proposed size of the plate with the image of a spiral orbit.
1. Votyakov A.A. Theoretical geography-3. Map of a flat earth. - M: Sofia, 2002.
2. Map of the starry sky with the zodiac constellations. - M: DI EM BI, 2004.
3. Map tablet 17K-7988. RSC "Energia".
4. Engineering Handbook of space technology. Publishing house of the USSR, M., 1969.
The tablet to select the ground object observations from orbiting spacecraft, including a flexible tape with a map of the earth on top of the spine, set over her translucent plate with the image of the two halves of the spiral orbit of the spacecraft, made with a combination of ascending node of the orbit starting the first half revolution of the orbit, and the descending node of the orbit starting the second half revolution of the orbit, and the device providing movement of the tape with the card along the plate with the image of the revolution orbit of the two spaced apart and fastened together in parallel between the shafts, when this card is printed on the tape with a combination of start points and end the equator of the map, and the tape is made of a closed ring and stretched over the shaft with a circular movement along the equator line cards, and the distance between the axes of the shafts and the size of the plate with the image of the spiral orbit along the equator is made equal to a value
where L is the length of the equator of the map; d is the absolute value of the inter-turn distance, measured in linear units along the equator card
and the radius of the shaft is made equal to the value of d/(2π).
FIELD: invention refers to the field of astronomical and astrophysical explorations.
SUBSTANCE: coherent transponder of phase synchronization has a radio receiving set, a radio transmitting set, an airborne standard of frequency (H-maser) and also a logic and commutation block. The radio transmitting so as the radio receiving set consists of two half-sets. The radio receiving set has a radio receiver module of the amplifier of a very high frequency, a preliminary amplifier of intermediate frequencies, a block of phase automatic adjustment of the frequency, the amplifier of the reference signal 2▾ and the secondary source of feeding.▾- nominal frequency. The coherent transponder of the phase synchronization provides transformation of the input signal in diapason 961▾ into an answer signal in the diapason 1120▾ used for synchronization of the airborne thermostating controlled generator. For reducing the drift of the phase of the answer signal the system of transformations of frequencies is built on the principle of complete matching of tracts of multiplying of the radio transmitting set and the heterodynes of the radio receiving set.
EFFECT: phase synchronization of the airborne scientific cosmic apparatus on a weak signal on the whole extension of the high-apogeal orbit of the flight.
FIELD: onboard system for controlling spacecrafts for autonomous estimation of orbit and orientation of spacecraft body.
SUBSTANCE: method for autonomous navigation and orientation of spacecrafts includes computer calculation of position in three-dimensional space of ort of radius-vector of support (calculated, a priori assumed) orbit, rigid attachment of optical-electronic device on the body of spacecraft and measurement of coordinates and brightness of stars, which are in the field of view during navigational sessions, in it.
EFFECT: increased number of performed tasks, expanded capabilities of method application environment for any orbits, reduced number of measuring devices and mass and size characteristics of onboard system for controlling a spacecraft.
FIELD: measuring equipment, applicable for determination of the Sun angular coordinates in the spacecraft coordinate system.
SUBSTANCE: the Sun attitude pickup has an optical system made in the form of a wide-angle lens including an inlet and outlet plano-convex lenses with a diaphragm placed between them, an optical element is positioned in its holes, matrix photodetector, and a unit for processing of information and computation of coordinates. The refractive indices of the optical components are selected proceeding from the relation: n1≥n2<n3, where n1 - the refractive index of the inlet plano-convex lens; n2 - the refractive index of the optical element; n3 - the refractive index of the outlet plano-convex lens.
EFFECT: obtained information in a wide angular field with a high precision.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used in moving objects' spatial orientation systems. Before beginning of movement of object, the coordinate system is chosen being comfortable for observer. Three stars are selected, along directions of which stars the speeds have to be measured and their angular coordinates are measured. After movement starts, current values of linear velocity are measured on the base of directions of navigating stars. Changes in linear velocity are calculated from directions of navigating stars, which are changes are caused by rotation of object, and basic components of angular speed vector are determined from directions of navigating stars.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.
FIELD: instrument industry.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises two spheres mounted with a spaced relation one to the other. The outer sphere is made of a superconducting material, and the inner sphere is made of a magnetic material. The outer sphere is secured to the spacecraft, and the inner sphere is shifted with respect to the center of gravity and has the radiation source. The output of the radiation receiving unit is connected with the information input of the recording unit whose control input is connected with the output of the board control unit.
EFFECT: simplified structure.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises determining the vector of velocity of the object in a Cartesian coordinate system, determining integral characteristics of the variation of the velocity vector as a function of the direction of motion of the object in the space, and stabilizing the trajectory of motion of the movable object on the basis of the estimations depending on the direction chosen from the stars sky.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
FIELD: instrument industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises autonomous determination of the position of the instrument with respect to the horizontal plane coordinate system from the signals from the accelerometers and vector conforming of the coordinate systems for determining the position of the instrument coordinate system in azimuth.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
FIELD: rocketry, spacecraft engineering, possible use for detecting direction of bearing rocket in flight.
SUBSTANCE: satellite navigation equipment and three gyro-integrators simultaneously determine values of projections of speed vector in starting and connected coordinates system respectively and transfer determined values to onboard digital computing machine, which, using received information, determines values of angles of orientation of moving object in space in accordance to algorithm for determining orientation of moving object.
EFFECT: decreased dimensions of device for realization of proposed method down to 40x40x40 millimeters (without consideration for size of onboard digital computing machine) while maintaining precision for determining angles of direction of moving object to 4 angular minutes.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: programmed positioning and orientation of mobile objects; angular orientation or positioning of spacecraft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of angles of position of optical axes of astro-visual units tracking the stars relative to body-axis coordinate system. For determination of orientation of mobile object, use is made of coordinates of its center of mass in geocentric coordinate system which are determined by means of high-precision global navigation satellite system.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of orientation of mobile objects.
FIELD: instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has optical spectrum filter, slit mask, multi-element photo-sensitive detector, threshold elements, photo-detector register, counter, output register, clock pulse generator. Multi-element photo-sensitive detector consists of elementary photo-detectors placed behind one another along quadratic curve. Normal lines to sensitive areas of each elementary photo-detector and quadratic curve lie in same plane.
EFFECT: higher effectiveness and efficiency.
FIELD: space engineering; large-sized high-precision transformable structures.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in monitoring acceleration and respective deviations of geometric parameters from theoretical magnitudes at check points. Monitoring is carried out continuously in real time. Check points are made for all shape-forming members of antenna structure. Device proposed for realization of this method has geometry and acceleration monitoring system which is made in form of combined spatial position and acceleration sensors. Sensors are made in form of miniature three-axis units of gyroscopes-accelerometers which are electrically connected with onboard information-and-measurement control system via analog-to-digital converters. Onboard information-and-measurement control system is electrically connected via respective power amplifiers with actuating members of extended structural members of spacecraft.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of parameters under test; improved characteristics of antenna.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: space engineering; manufacture of artificial satellites and other spacecraft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed instrumentation module has body made from honeycomb panels. Thermostatted plate of payload is mounted on body with the aid of brackets. Equipment of instrumentation module is installed on honeycomb panels, mainly inside module. Honeycomb panels are provided with labyrinth-type vent holes and technological holes for introduction and removal of structural members: rods, pipe lines, cable bundles, etc. Clearances between honeycomb panels of body of instrumentation module, between instrumentation module and thermostatted plate, between edges of technological holes and said structural members are shielded by means of optically opaque member which is made from material having electrically conducting layer ensuring electrical tightness of instrumentation module. Shielding member is also provided with labyrinth-type vent holes.
EFFECT: enhanced protection of equipment against electromagnetic radiation, spurious currents and action of charged particles of natural or technogenous nature (for example, magneto-sphere plasma and jets of electric rocket engines).
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: rocketry and space engineering; mounting the device on spacecraft external surface and subsequent separation of ultra-red target in form of inflatable thin-film envelopes with dark coat.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device has cassette with inflatable envelopes and doors, nitrogen generators with pyro retarders, starting device with spring mechanism for ejection of cassette from starting device and electric connector. Door axles are provided with torsion springs. Nitrogen generators provided with check valves are located on one side from thin-film envelopes. Height of ejection mechanism in compressed state is comparable with diameter of each nitrogen generator. Electric cable of electric connector has free loop whose length is equal to path of motion of cassette till moment of steady ignition of pyro retarders. Circuit supplying the electric pulse to igniter of each pyro retarder is provided with terminal closing this circuit at the beginning of motion of cassette.
EFFECT: reduced overall dimensions of device; enhanced reliability; simplified construction.
FIELD: rocketry and space engineering; separable rocket nose cones.
SUBSTANCE: proposed rocket nose cone has body made in form of envelope which is closed at one end and is provided with frame on other end which is not closed; rocket nose cone is provided with tubular force exciters. Body has weakened section in plane of separation. Body forms inner closed chambers in plane of separation where tubular force exciters of directive action are located. Chambers are formed by body envelope and by its longitudinal fins. Walls of these fins are directed to plane of separation and are parallel relative to it; they are strengthened by transversal structural members fastened to body envelope. Detachable covers are secured on longitudinal fins of chambers by means of fasteners; they have weakened sections in plane of separation of nose cone which are similar to those made in body; their areas are equivalent.
EFFECT: facilitated procedure of manufacture; avoidance of dynamic action on rocket in the course of separation; avoidance of collision in the course of and after separation.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: space engineering; other industries; production of the stable-sized platforms.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the load-carrying structures made out of the laminated polymeric composite materials and may be used in the high-precision space and ground equipment, for example, as the support for the optical instruments, the antenna systems and the measuring systems. The presented platform is made in the form of the plane annular or circular centrally-symmetric board and contains the encasings made out of the layers of the fibrous material impregnated with the polymeric binding, the cell-type filler placed between the casings and the attachment points disposed with the equal angle pitch. Each layer of the casings consists of the sectors docked among themselves with the equal central angle. Quantity of the sectors in each layer is equal or multiple to the number of the attachment points. In each sector of one layer the filaments are oriented at the equal angle concerning the central axis of the sector. T sectors of each subsequent layer are shifted concerning the sectors of the previous layer at the angle equal to the half of the central angle of the sector. In each sector of the same layer the filaments may be oriented at the angle of 90° to the central axis of the sector. There may be present the layers, where the filaments are oriented at the angle of 0° to this axis. The technical result of the invention is to ensure the control over the thermal deformation of the platform with the purpose to reach the given accuracy of positioning of the attachment points on it at fulfillment of the strength and rigidity requirements to its design.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the control over the thermal deformation of the platform with the purpose to reach the given accuracy of positioning of the attachment points on it at fulfillment of the strength and rigidity requirements to its design.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: centrifugal frameless structures formed in space and used for deployment of solar batteries, reflectors and other large-sized systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes placing the flexible sectors on carrier, rotating the carrier in plane corresponding to working position of frameless centrifugal structure and deploying the sectors from carrier under action of centrifugal forces. Sectors are interconnected by side edges forming single working surface in the course of their deployment and preliminarily when necessary. Additional deploying force is applied to sectors along joint areas from periphery of centrifugal frameless structure to its center. Device proposed for realization of this method has carrier for placing the sectors, its rotation drive, as well as drive and mechanism for extension of sectors. Articulated on bearing part of extension mechanism are brackets provided with pairs of hold-down and drive rollers. One sector joint area is passed through each pair of roller. Drive roller is provided with drive which is kinematically aligned with sector extension drive, thus forming additional deploying force. Side edges of sectors may be connected at points of application of this force (or near them) with the aid of connecting elements, such as zipper, as well as by welding, bonding, sewing, etc. Carrier may be made in form of common drum or in form of reels separate for each sector. Device forming the centrifugal frameless structure has surface smoothly stretched in two axes.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability; facilitated procedure.
12 cl,, 11 dwg
FIELD: space power engineering; film-type solar batteries on base of amorphous silicon.
SUBSTANCE: proposed solar battery has central power member. Solar battery consists of two sections. Each section is formed from standard film-type trihedral prisms on base of inflatable tubular skeleton. Outer surface of this skeleton is coated with compound which gets hardened under action of ultraviolet and visible solar radiations. Solar battery deployment system includes two electric motors of central power member and additional electric motor. Inputs of these electric motors are connected with outputs of pitch, yaw and roll channels of solar battery control unit. Solar battery is additionally provided with additional position electric motors which are used for discrete turn of each trihedral film-type prism through angle of 0o to 360o at pitch of 120o. Specification gives description of solar battery modification which includes reserve film-type panels increasing active life of solar battery. Total power of proposed solar battery is about 120 kW.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of film-type panel tension.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: specialized spacecraft for refilling self-contained spacecraft with cryogenic agents (liquid nitrogen, liquid helium) and propellant components (liquid oxygen, liquefied methane, hydrazine).
SUBSTANCE: proposed filling module has load-bearing skeleton in form of hexahedral prism and peripheral coupling units, movable truss structure equipped with additional power electric drives and quick-detachable locking devices. Truss has open inner space where changeable cryogenic and propellant reservoirs are located for storage and transportation of cryogenic agents and propellant components. Availability of locking devices and movable truss structure makes it possible to perform repeated operations of replacing empty reservoirs of self-contained spacecraft with filled ones.
EFFECT: extended functional capabilities of orbital filling module; considerable reduction of losses of components (up to 5-7% of total mass).
FIELD: non-expendable transport space systems of new generation (type KORONA).
SUBSTANCE: proposed struts belong to takeoff-and-landing shock absorbers of non-expendable launch vehicle. Struts are subjected to repeated gas dynamic and thermal action on side of launch vehicle engines in the course of operation. Struts are made from heat-resistant material; they are telescopic in form. Struts are retractable into and are extended from launch vehicle body in the course of launching and landing. No less than three struts shall be provided in takeoff-and-landing shock absorbers of launch vehicle. Each strut withstands load no less than launch weight of launch vehicle. Service life of these struts is about 100 flights at service life margin of 25%.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; increased service life of struts.
FIELD: radio engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has bed unit mounted on lateral surface and pivotally connected to device casing. Bed unit rotation axis is arranged in parallel to casing end face part. Mechanisms for rotating and fixing the bed unit relative to the casing (optionally of screw-nut type) are mounted on both sides with respect to the axis. The mechanisms provide supporting bed unit surface arrangement at an angle less than 90°. Solar battery board is rigidly mounted on the supporting bed unit surface. Camera for taking Earth surface pictures is mounted in nanosputnik casing end face on the opposite side with respect to nanosputnik units for connecting it to separation system. The camera is arranged in plane passing through longitudinal nanosputnik axis arranged in perpendicular to the solar battery board.
EFFECT: reduced device weight; increased effective solar battery board area.
FIELD: space orbital stations.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system contacts autonomous subsystems located on cargo spacecraft and on space orbital station and including containers for liquid products with pipelines and valves. Container for liquid products of autonomous subsystem arranged on cargo spacecraft is made in form of bag of soft elastic cloth placed in rigid envelope and connected by flexible pipeline through hydraulic connector with change-over valve or through hydraulic connector with change-over valve and pump to similar container of other autonomous subsystem located on space orbital station. Space formed between bag and rigid envelope of autonomous subsystem located on cargo spacecraft communicates through valve with atmosphere of cargo spacecraft. Similar of container of autonomous subsystem located on space orbital station communicates through valve with atmosphere of space orbital station. Space orbital station is furnished with liquid wastes collecting system containing reservoir to be filled with liquid wastes in which space of bag is connected to semiconnector by means of flexible pipeline. Space formed between bag and rigid envelope communicates with atmosphere of space orbital station though valve or through valve and compressor. Invention makes it possible to create liquid products replenishment system providing utilization of liquid wastes from reservoir of autonomous subsystem at space orbital station by increasing efficiency of use of water container of autonomous subsystem of cargo spacecraft.
EFFECT: provision f utilization of liquid wastes.
3 cl, 2 dwg