SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to disassembly of munitions. The proposed technique consists of at least, explosive material and chemical substance in an a sealed vessel under high pressure, at which there is no formation of soot during the explosion. In this case there is increased effectiveness of disintegration of the chemical substance. In the beginning the transported chemical bomb (explosive substance) is put and sealed into an explosion chamber (a vessel under high pressure). Then the explosion chamber is brought under low pressure conditions or a vacuum through pumping out air from it using a vacuum pump, and then oxygen is pumped in through a pressure inlet until pressure in the range of 15% to 30% atmospheric pressure is attained. The chemical bomb is then exploded using an initiating mechanism. This allows for increased safety.
EFFECT: increased safety when destroying munitions.
4 cl, 3 dwg
The technical field to which the invention relates
This invention relates to a blasting method of exploding devices and, in particular, to a method of blasting exploding device, such as a chemical weapon, containing, at least, explosive and chemical substance.
The level of technology
Explosive in the explosive devices were used for General industrial applications, for example in the form of dynamite, as well as for military applications, such as chemical weapons (e.g., projectile, bomb, land and sea mines). Taking into account the resulting smoke after the explosion in an explosive, such as dynamite, in industrial applications was added to the oxidizing agent or the like to provide a positive oxygen balance in it or to prevent its too negative values. On the other hand, explosives for use in military applications, such as chemical weapons, have a negative oxygen balance to maximize their respective destructive forces. Additionally, chemical weapons contains a chemical substance dangerous for the body, such as sulfur mustard gas or lewisite, together with explosives.
The way the complete destruction of explosives by detonation in seeing enoy the processing phase is known as the processing method, containing an explosive substance of chemical weapons (see patent document 1). Subversive method is used for processing of chemical weapons, which shows significant corrosion and causes significant damage, and also has a complex structure, preventing the disassembly, and erosion usually occurs when chemical weapons were made in the pressure vessel. Chemical weapons containing chemical blowing up this way.
The way the complete destruction of explosives by detonation after dismantling chemical weapons and removal of chemical substances in the pre-treatment stage is also known as a processing method, containing the explosive chemical weapons (see patent document 2). The explosive method is used for treatment of chemical weapons, still retains its original external form, and explosive block, shot with chemical weapons, blow up when it is placed in the pressure vessel. Although most of the chemicals are removed in the disassembly operation, the explosive unit that still have stuck to it utverjdenie due to aging chemical substance, explode using this method.
In both the above explosive ways blasting preferably in a tightly sealed with the udah high pressure under vacuum for the following reasons:
(1) it is possible to prevent leakage of outside chemicals contained in the chemical weapons, because you can keep the pressure in the pressure vessel below (negative) the atmospheric pressure before the explosion, and after the explosion; and
(2) you can dramatically reduce the harmful effects on the environment caused by explosion, including noise and vibration.
Patent document 1: publication not pass the examination, the Japan patent No. 7-208899.
Patent document 2: publication not pass the examination, the Japan patent No. 2002-39699.
Generally explosives are used in air in open or closed systems, and, thus, do not produce large quantities of soot after the explosion, because the oxygen comes from the air, even if the actual explosive has a negative oxygen balance.
However, when it explodes military explosives with negative oxygen balance, such as TNT, by undermining the pressure vessel, which can be created, essentially, a vacuum (hereinafter symbol "evacuated the pressure vessel"), generates a large amount of soot due to insufficient oxygen supply. On the other hand, the chemical substances contained in chemical weapons or chemical is a substance stuck an explosive unit, may not be fully decompose into its component parts explosion. Thus, inevitably creates soot contaminated chemical substance, when chemical weapons are exploding evacuated pressure vessel. Due to soot extremely small particles with very high probability can settle into the drainage system when the pressure vessel is cleaned decontamination agent, so that such explosive activity creates the problem of having to manually decontamination (removal of soot-contaminated chemical substance) or frequent maintenance, and hazardous work in the area of the contaminated chemical substance dangerous for the body. It also requires a long period of operation of decontamination after the explosion, causing a problem of limiting the number of blasting operations per day.
When military exploding device containing a chemical substance, such as chemical weapons, blow up by blowing into the evacuated pressure vessel, it is impossible to apply the oxygen amount necessary for combustion of explosives or just exploding device containing an explosive substance. As a result, the period of combustion of chemical substances at the time of explosion is reduced, causing a problem of deterioration of the decomposition of chemical substances, because carbon is Opochka, for example, sulfur mustard is less sensitive to oxidation.
The purpose of this invention is made considering the above problems, is the creation of an explosive way, which can prevent the formation of soot explosion and improve the efficiency of decomposition of chemical substances.
To overcome the above problems of the explosive method, according to the invention is a blasting method of exploding device containing at least an explosive substance and a chemical substance in a sealed pressure vessel, providing undermining exploding device by holding the pressure vessel under a reduced pressure or vacuum, and the pressure vessel contains the specific amount of oxygen that the oxygen balance in the pressure vessel becomes positive, and the pressure in the pressure vessel after the explosion remains below the pressure outside the pressure vessel.
"Oxygen balance in the pressure vessel" is expressed by the calculation amount (g) of oxygen required to convert the entire explosives in gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor and nitrogen gas, when 100 g of exploding devices, including not only explosive, but also chemical and other, present the existing in the pressure vessel, explode. The state when the oxygen balance in the pressure vessel is a positive"means a condition in which there are oxygen atoms enclosed in a sealed pressure vessel before the explosion, sufficient, or more to convert explosives in gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor and nitrogen gas, in the explosion. In this invention the oxygen balance is kept positive and preferably equal to about 20 g or more.
Additionally, a specific amount of oxygen is not limited particularly, if the number of oxygen atoms exceeds a specific value; oxygen can contain, for example, in the form of molecules, such as gas, oxygen or ozone, or in the form of compounds, such as sodium peroxide or peroxide of magnesium. That is, not particularly limited form of presence of the oxygen atom.
The state "under vacuum" means, essentially, the vacuum is obtained by pumping vessel using a vacuum pump, and, in particular, a state with a pressure of approximately 60 mm Hg (8.0 kPa) or less. The vessel under vacuum may contain gases such as air, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, helium and carbon dioxide. In this description, the state essentially vacuum" also means and vacuum.
Additionally, the capacity of the vessel is highly what about the pressure" not particularly limited, if it exceeds the volume of the gases generated by the explosion shattered the device, measured at normal temperature and atmospheric pressure. For example, the capacity is more preferably 30% or more of the volume of generated gases, measured at normal temperature and atmospheric pressure. In accordance with this, the pressure in the pressure vessel after the explosion" is not particularly limited, if it is below the pressure outside of the pressure vessel, but is preferably from 530 mm Hg (70,7 kPa) to 759 mm Hg (101,2 kPa).
"Explosion" means the operation of undermining the shattered device by detonation of explosives in the exploding device, and this firing method is already known and is not particularly limited, and examples include a method of ignition of exploding devices using flammable devices.
According to the method, by providing a positive oxygen balance just exploding device containing an explosive substance, you can convert carbon in the explosive substance to carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide and preventing the formation of soot in the pressure vessel after the explosion, and therefore, simplification of the deactivation of the pressure vessel and increasing the efficiency of the operation of the explosion. Additionally, the period of combustion chemical is someone substances during the explosion is extended, since before the explosion in the pressure vessel, there is oxygen in a quantity sufficient for combustion of the explosive, and the oxygen is consumed gradually only in the quantity required for combustion. Thus, for example, in the case of sulfur mustard its carbon chain is oxidized more slowly, and increases the efficiency of decomposition of the chemical. Additionally, the pressure inside the pressure vessel is supported by a lower (negative pressure)than the atmospheric pressure, even after the explosion.
Some or all of the outer surface of the pressure vessel may be provided with a coating to enhance security and sound insulation at the time of the explosion and the pressure outside of the pressure vessel can be kept at a value below atmospheric pressure. The pressure outside of the pressure vessel is set to a value that is relative to the pressure inside the vessel, and is arbitrary if it is not below the pressure inside the vessel.
The blasting method according to the invention is also not particularly limited, but preferably a specific quantity of oxygen is supplied, for example, in the form of gaseous oxygen. Thus, it is possible to regulate more than just oxygen balance of the explosive present in the pressure vessel, and the pressure inside the vessel is after the explosion, as well as reduce the cost of processing.
Preferably also serve part or all of a specific amount of oxygen in the form of oxygen contained in the compound of an alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal. Oxygen-containing compound of an alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal, most preferably a peroxide is a compound of an alkali metal peroxide or a compound of alkaline-earth metal. Examples of peroxide compounds of alkali metal include sodium peroxide, lithium peroxide, peroxide rubidium, cesium peroxide, etc. are Examples of peroxide compounds, alkaline-earth metal include peroxide, magnesium peroxide, barium, etc.
Thus, the atoms of oxygen from oxygen-containing compounds of alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal are released into the pressure vessel at the time of the explosion and supply the oxygen required for combustion of exploding devices, providing effects similar to those when gaseous oxygen is enclosed in the pressure vessel. In addition, for example, when using sulfur mustard, lewisite, or the like of an atom of an alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal contained in the oxygen-containing compound of an alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal, detoxifies Henichesk the e substance while the alkali metal atom contained in the oxygen-containing compound of an alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal, binds the chlorine atom in chemical education inorganic chlorine compounds.
Gaseous oxygen and oxygen-containing compound of an alkali metal or oxygen-containing compound of alkaline-earth metal can be used in combination as the source of supply of specific quantity of oxygen.
In the blasting method according to the invention, a specific amount of oxygen preferably is the amount of gaseous oxygen, the pressure of gaseous oxygen, is equivalent to between 15% and 30% of the atmospheric pressure at normal temperature.
The expression "pressure gaseous oxygen" means that all specific number of oxygen atoms present in the form of gas of oxygen (oxygen molecules), and the expression "pressure gaseous oxygen equivalent from 15% to 30% of atmospheric pressure" means the pressure of the gas of oxygen from 114 mm Hg (15.2 kPa) up to 228 mm Hg (30,4 kPa).
Due to the inclusion of oxygen atoms in a quantity equivalent to the pressure of gaseous oxygen from 15% to 30% of the atmospheric pressure at normal temperature, it becomes possible to prevent the image is of soot after the explosion and holding the pressure in the pressure vessel after the explosion below (vacuum) atmospheric pressure.
Brief description of drawings
The drawings schematically:
figure 1 - schematic representation in the context of the explosion chamber;
figure 2 - schematic representation in terms of chemical bombs;
figure 3 - schematic representation in section of an explosive block.
The preferred embodiment of the invention
First is a description of the chemical bomb chemical weapons as an example of exploding devices subject to explosion in the firing method according to this invention, with reference to figure 2. Figure 2 schematically shows a sectional configuration of a chemical bomb.
As shown in figure 2, the chemical bomb (exploding device) 100 is the tip 110, the bursting of the cylinder 111, the shell 120 bombs and controls the position of the tail Assembly 130. Explosive cylinder 111 contains a bursting charge (explosive) 112. The tip 110 has a fuse 113 to undermine bursting charge 112 contained in the discontinuous cylinder 111. The shell 120 bombs connected to the tip 110 and contains a bursting of the cylinder 111 and the liquid chemical substance 121. Controls the position of the tail Assembly 130 is located on the side opposite to the tip 110 of the shell 120 bombs, and controls the position of the chemical bomb 100 during the fall. The lifting ring 140 to connect the chemical bombs 10 when loaded into the aircraft is located on the upper shell 120 bombs.
Exploding device 100, processed in this invention, is the whole or part of the chemical bombs, containing at least the explosive 112 and chemical substance 121.
Exploding the device is not limited to the chemical bomb 100, in which the chemical substance 121 filled in the above manner, and the method is applicable also to the exploded device after dismantling chemical bombs explode when only the explosive unit in the pressure vessel. For example, as shown in figure 3, it is applicable also in the case when blow tip 100 and explosive cylinder 111 (explosive block 114) chemical bombs 110 after the separation membrane 120 bombs and removal of chemical substances. In this case, the tip 110 and the bursting of the cylinder 111 of the chemical bomb 100 often have deposits of the cured chemical substances adhering thereto, and thus is effectively used in this invention.
The examples used explosives include military explosives, such as TNT, picric acid, RDX (hexogen) and PETN (PETN). Examples of chemicals include skin neravnye substances such as sulfur mustard and lewisite, common toxic substances, such as DC (diphenylcyanoarsine) and DA (diphenylchloroarsine), phosgene, sarin, hydrogen cyanide, and the like.
The combination of explosives and chemical substances which STV is not particularly limited, but preferred are, for example, a combination of TNT and sulfur mustard gas, and TNT and lewisite as possible detoxification of chemical substances with the help of an explosion.
Below is a description of the outer explosive installation example installation for explosive exploding devices, such as the above chemical bomb 100, with reference to figure 1.
As shown in figure 1, the explosive installation 1 comprises an explosion chamber (pressure vessel) 10 and the casing 20 of the camera, containing inside the explosion chamber 10.
Explosion chamber 10 is resistant to explosions in the pressure vessel, made for example of steel and tough enough to withstand the explosive pressure during the explosion inside of him exploding device, such as a chemical bomb 100. Additionally, the explosion chamber 10 has an inside cylinder (not illustrated), which captures the shattered device, such as a chemical bomb 100, subject to blasting. Explosion chamber 10 has a removable resistant to the pressure of the cover 11 at its side. Resistant to pressure cover 11 is intended for oral administration transported exploding device, such as a chemical bomb 100, and the connection is not shown in the figure, the cylinder after its branches, and, on the other hand, to ensure explosion exploding device, such as chem is ical bomb 100, after connection and closing. The capacity of the explosion chamber 10 is sufficiently greater than the amount estimated under normal temperature and atmospheric pressure, of gases formed in the explosion of the explosive. Capacity by volume, preferably at least 130% of the maximum volume of gas, liquid or solid compounds, possibly formed during the explosion shattered.
At the top of the explosion chamber 10 is formed of multiple inputs 12 discharge. Injection inputs 12 made for injection of oxygen in the explosion chamber 10 before the explosion and discharge of air, water, purifier, and the like in the explosion chamber 10 during the operation of the disinfection after the explosion. Additionally, at the top of the explosion chamber 10 and on the side opposite, counter to the pressure of the cover 11, are provided with forced ventilation 13. Exhaust ventilation 13 is designed to bring the vessel into a state of reduced pressure or vacuum by removing air from the vessel 10 through a high pressure filter 13b using the vacuum pump 13A before the explosion and for venting exhaust air from inside the explosion chamber 10 through the filter 13C after the explosion. In addition, in the bottom of the explosion chamber 10 is formed a drain outlet 14. The drain outlet 14 is designed to release wastewater into the tank 15 processing p the following operations decontamination.
There is a flammable device (not shown)located outside the explosion chamber 10, for ignition of exploding device, such as a chemical bomb 100 enshrined in the explosion chamber 10, which provides a blasting using the remote control.
The casing 20 of the camera is a cover (building), made of steel, concrete or the like, which is made rigid enough to withstand the explosive pressure, even when exploding device, such as a chemical bomb 100, explodes with the destruction of the explosion chamber 10. The casing 20 of the camera is resistant to the pressure cap (not illustrated) and is designed for installation of exploding device, such as a chemical bomb 100, in an explosion chamber 10, when resistant to pressure the cover is open. The casing 20 of the camera also has exhaust ventilation 21 for venting exhaust air from the casing 20 of the chamber through the filter 21b, for example, containing activated charcoal, using a fan 21A.
Thus, the explosive setting is 1, which has at least one vessel 10 high pressure.
As mentioned above, the explosive setting is not limited to the outer explosive unit 1, with the vessel 10 high pressure, and can be underground explosion, which explode exploding device is istwo in the underground, tightly sealed pressure vessel or the like.
Below is a description of the blasting method of the above chemical bomb 100 in an explosion set to 1, the description of which is given above.
The transported chemical bomb 100 is placed and sealed in an explosion chamber 10 located in the casing 20 cameras explosive installation 1. Then the explosion chamber 10 is switched to the state of reduced pressure or vacuum by removing air out through the filter 13b using the vacuum pump 13A serves oxygen through the discharge inlet 12 and is closed in the blast chamber 10. The condition of reduced pressure or vacuum is a pressure of 60 mmHg (8.0 kPa) or less, preferably 50 mm Hg (6,7 kPa) or less.
As an alternative solution can be enclosed in a chamber containing an oxygen compound of an alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal as part or all of the oxygen enclosed in an explosion chamber 10. Preferred examples of oxygen-containing compounds of alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal include Na2O2(sodium peroxide) and CaO2(calcium peroxide), and the like. When you enter into oxygen-containing compound, the atoms of oxygen contained in the oxygen-containing compound of alkaline metal and alkaline-earth metal, are released and fall into the explosion chamber 10 as the oxygen required for combustion of exploding devices. Thus, the effect similar to the case when in the blast chamber 10 enter into gaseous oxygen. When injected oxygen-containing compound of an alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal, the oxygen-containing compound of an alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal are placed together with the chemical bomb 100 in the blast chamber 10 before venting the explosion chamber 10 in a state of reduced pressure or vacuum.
The number of prisoner oxygen is the amount at which the oxygen balance of the chemical bomb 100 containing an explosive substance 112 is positive before the explosion, and the pressure in the explosion chamber 10 after the explosion lower (negative) pressure outside the explosion chamber 10 (external pressure). It is preferable to keep the pressure in the explosion chamber 10 is negative, even when the pump is air, water or the like during disinfection after the explosion. In particular, the pressure gaseous oxygen when the oxygen supply is preferably from 15% to 30% of the atmospheric pressure at normal temperature.
Then blow the device explode, and the chemical bomb 100 is ignited using vosplamenyat the feeder.
The period of combustion of chemical substances during the explosion is kept long, because the oxygen balance of the chemical bomb 100 containing an explosive substance 112, remains positive during the explosion by oxygen supplied from the gas oxygen enclosed in an explosion chamber 10, or oxygen-containing compounds of alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal, a prisoner in the blast chamber 10. Additionally, the alkali metal atom in the oxygen-containing compound of an alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal, enclosed in an explosion chamber 10, binds the chlorine atom in a chemical 121 with the formation of inorganic chlorine compounds.
After the explosion pressure in the explosion chamber 10, including the pressure of the gases formed by the explosion of the chemical bomb 100 is held less than the external pressure.
After the explosion of the chemical bomb 100 explosion chamber sterilized by injection of air, water, purifier, and other components through the discharge inputs 12, the waste water away from the explosion chamber 10 into the tank 15 processing, and the exhaust air of the vessel using a ventilation explosion chamber 10 is brought out through the exhaust ventilation 13 and through the filter 13C.
The pressure in the explosion chamber 10 can be maintained less than the external pressure, even when forced air, water and other to mponent in the operation of disinfection.
Thus, in accordance with the blasting method according to this variant of execution, it is possible to convert the carbon in the shattered device to carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide and to prevent the formation of soot due to the positive oxygen balance in the blast chamber 10 containing the chemical bomb 100. Thus, it can be easier to perform disinfection of the explosion chamber 10 and to improve the efficiency of the blasting operation.
You can also extend the period of combustion of chemical substances at the time of the explosion, because the oxygen required for combustion of the explosive is fed into the explosion chamber 10. Thus, the chemical substance 121, filled in the chemical bomb 100 is oxidized, and increases the efficiency of decomposition of the chemical substance 121.
In addition, the pressure in the explosion chamber 10 is kept less than the external pressure even after the explosion. Thus, it is possible to prevent leakage of chemical substances 121 of the explosion chamber 10.
Additionally, the alkali metal atom contained in the oxygen-containing compound of an alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal, enclosed in an explosion chamber 10, is reacted with a chlorine atom in a chemical 121 with the formation of inorganic chlorine compounds. Thus, it is possible detoxification of chemical substances 121./p>
Below is a description of the present invention with reference to examples, but it should be understood that the invention is not limited to these examples.
In this example, 100 grams of TNT, which is typically used for tearing shell bomb blew up in a high-pressure vessel having a capacity of 500 liters, installed at normal temperature under atmospheric pressure, when the pressure vessel is in a state of vacuum and when the pressure vessel evacuated, and then in the pressure vessel was supplied gas with oxygen to a pressure equal to 20% of atmospheric pressure; and comparing the pressure change within the pressure vessel and the amount of soot formed. The results are summarized in table 1.
|The number of explosives and put gas oxygen||The gas pressure of oxygen||Initial pressure||Pressure after explosion||The amount of soot formed|
|TNT 100 g||0%||48 mm Hg||505 mm Hg||5 g|
|TNT 100 g|
Gas oxygen 20%
|20%||153 mm Hg||590 mm Hg||0 g|
As shown in table 1 was formed 5 g of carbon black from 100 g of TNT, when the TNT blew up in the pressure vessel, which was previously evacuated to the vacuum state at a pressure of 48 mmHg (6.4 kPa). Additionally, the initial pressure in the pressure vessel was 48 mm Hg (6.4 kPa), while after the explosion amounted to 505 mm Hg (67,3 kPa).
In contrast, soot is not formed, when the pressure vessel was evacuated and supplied with gaseous oxygen to a pressure which is 20% of atmospheric pressure. Initial pressure in the pressure vessel was 153 mm Hg (20.4 kPa), while after the explosion was 590 mm Hg (78,7 kPa).
As follows from the example 1, when an explosion was carried out in the pressure vessel, previously evacuated and supplied with gas with oxygen to a pressure equal to 20% of atmospheric pressure, prevented the formation of soot, and the pressure in the pressure vessel was maintained after the explosion is less than the external pressure.
In this example, 100 g of explosive (containing 45 g of TNT and 55 g of sulfur mustard gas) was blown up in the pressure vessel having a capacity of 500 liters, installed at normal temperature under atmospheric pressure, when the pressure vessel was in a state of vacuum and when sosudistogo pressure pumped out, and then in the pressure vessel was supplied gas with oxygen to a pressure equal to 20% of atmospheric pressure; and comparing the pressure change within the pressure vessel and the amount of soot formed. The results are summarized in table 2.
|The number of explosives and put gas oxygen||The gas pressure of oxygen||Initial pressure||Pressure after explosion||The amount of soot formed||The amount of residual sulfur mustard gas|
|TNT 45, Sulfur mustard 55,||0%||48 mm Hg||227 mm Hg||8 g||0.01 g|
|TNT 45, Sulfur mustard 55, Gas oxygen 20%||20%||153 mm Hg||266 mm Hg||0 g||0 g|
As shown in table 2, was formed 8 g of carbon black of 100 grams of explosives, when the explosive was detonated in the pressure vessel, which was previously evacuated to a state of almost vacuum at a pressure of 48 mmHg (6.4 kPa), and remained 0.01 g redetoxification sulfur mustard. Initial pressure in the pressure vessel was 48 mm Hg (6.4 kPa), then the lie is how after the explosion was 227 mm Hg (30,3 kPa).
In contrast, soot is not formed, and no sulfur mustard gas, when the pressure vessel was evacuated and supplied with gas with oxygen to a pressure equal to 20% of atmospheric pressure. Initial pressure in the pressure vessel was 153 mm Hg (20.4 kPa), while after the explosion was 266 mm Hg (35,5 kPa).
As follows from the example 2, when an explosion was carried out in the pressure vessel, previously evacuated and supplied with gas with oxygen to a pressure equal to 20% of atmospheric pressure, avoid soot formation, and the chemical substance was decomposed during the explosion, and the pressure in the pressure vessel was maintained after the explosion is negative relative to the outside pressure.
1. Blasting explosive device containing at least an explosive substance and a chemical substance in a sealed pressure vessel, in which pump out the air from the pressure vessel to achieve it reduced pressure or vacuum, serves oxygen in an amount to provide in it a positive oxygen balance, and after the explosion pressure below the pressure outside of the pressure vessel, and blow it explosive device.
2. The method according to claim 1, in which the oxygen is supplied in gaseous form.
3. The method according to claim 1, in which the om part or all of the amount of oxygen is supplied in the form of oxygen-containing compounds of alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal.
4. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, in which the oxygen is supplied in an amount to provide a pressure gaseous oxygen from 15 to 30% of the atmospheric pressure at normal temperature.
FIELD: salvaging of ammunition by extraction of the explosive from the ammunition bodies and simultaneous primary processing (granulation) of the extracted explosive.
SUBSTANCE: the explosive is extracted from the ammunition body by melting by way of heating of the external surface of the ammunition body by steam. The installation has several melting and granulation devices containing additional melting chambers located between them. All melting chambers are designed for placing of the ammunition with the explosive and heating in them. Located under the meting chambers is the explosive melt heated collector providing for filtering and distribution of the melt among the weighters. The weighters form the size of the melt drops, which from the weighter get onto the cooled surface of the crystallizer cylinder, where they solidify in the form of granules. The granules are removed by a special device and discharged into a vessel.
EFFECT: simplified construction of the installation, simplified servicing of it, as well as the absence of the power-intensive equipment make the installation safe and economically efficiency.
4 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: practice of processing of ammunition, concerns the installation for stripping of small arms cartridges and method for their salvaging.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in loading of cartridges in the installation for their stripping, where a successive accomplishment of operations of extraction of bullets and powder and transfer of them for further processing is performed, they are irrigated by water. The primer cap of empty cartridge cases is punched in an isolated space, and its aspiration is accomplished with provision of cleaning of the process gases ejected into the atmosphere from toxic components. Cleaning is successively performed by precipitation of soot and dust, precipitation of vapors of mercury in a mix with aerosols of antimony oxide and potassium chloride and subsequent adsorption of the residual vapors of mercury and sulfur dioxide. The installation for stripping of cartridges has devices for extraction of bullets and powder from the cartridge cases with irrigation of them by water and transfer of them for further processing. The device for punching of the primer cap of empty cartridge cases is made isolated from the other devices and provided with an individual isolating shelter with a system of its aspiration providing cleaning of the process gases ejected into the atmosphere from toxic components.
EFFECT: enhanced safety of the process of cartridge salvaging.
6 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: the invention refers to the field of utilization of used balloons holding remains of highly explosive and toxic filler agents.
SUBSTANCE: they completely fill the balloons liable to utilization with water, put a resin stopper into the orifice and turn it till achieving limit axial loads on thread joins, freeze water and cool the balloon with ice till destruction of the walls of the balloon, after that they open the place of destruction of the walls and remove ice with the remains of highly explosive and toxic substances.
EFFECT: the effectiveness of this technical decision is in reduction of expenditures on utilization of balloons with the remains of highly explosive and toxic substances, removal of possibility of spreading of such substances.
FIELD: salvaging of ballistic powder charges.
SUBSTANCE: the plant has a frame, loading center, cutting center made of two blocks: a fixed block with thin plate knives located in parallel with one another with a definite pitch, and a movable block in the form of a cross-shaped bush with blocks of knives fastened on its levers, notching and cutting ones alternating on different levers, unloading center with a replaceable clamping disk for feeding the articles in the horizontal plane to the cutting center. The frame is made in the form of a bath with the loading center installed inside it, it is made in the form of a portable rest having fixed screw supports, and a container-cradle for charges of various diameters and configuration for their centering relative to the cutting center located on it. The fixed part of the cutting center at the outlet is provided with a replaceable stop for fixing the charge ends at cutting by the movable knives. Its knives are fastened in a set of rectangular frames with a shift in each frame by half a pitch, installed in the guide grooves positioned on the lateral walls inside the bath. The cross-shaped bush of the movable block of the acting center is installed on a shaft placed above the bath in the horizontal plane and coupled to the electric drive.
EFFECT: produced a plant with an enhanced capacity and improved conditions for its service.
FIELD: salvaging of charges of jet ammunition, applicable for processing of solid-propellant grains to a component of industrial explosives.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in the fact that the solid-propellant grain is completely or partially dipped into water and cut by a set of saws combined in a multisaw block into several plates, after that the obtained solid-propellant plates are crumbled by a grinding machine in a gap between two rotating rollers provided with a set of sharpened pins. The crumb of solid propellant is used for production of industrial explosives. The process complex has a machine for cutting the solid-propellant grains into plates and a machine for crumbing the plates. The machine for cutting the grains has a bath filled with water, a set of circular saws and dies for fixing the solid-propellant grains at cutting, they represent metal plates with a hole having the shape of the end projection of the solid-propellant grain. The machine for crumbling the plates has rollers with rows of sharpened pins radially positioned on their external surface, the rollers them selves rotate in the direction inside the gap between them, and the internal distance between them is so selected that the pins of each roller enter the gaps between the pins of the other roller, the radial rows of pins on both rollers are shifted relative to one another by a half of the pitch so that the pins enter the plate being ground of the solid-propellant grain in a staggered order from above and from below.
EFFECT: provided crumbling of the solid-propellant grain for further production of cheap but highly effective industrial explosives.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: salvaging of projectiles, in which infusible and insoluble explosives containing hexogen are used.
SUBSTANCE: the inner cavity of the body of the fabrication to be stripped is filled with working fluid, and the defragmentation of the explosive is accomplished by an ultrasonic vibrating tool. Freons, silicone fluids, liquid paraffins are used as working fluid. The ultrasonic vibrating tool is moved in the axial and radial directions, thus defragmenting the explosive in layers. The device for stripping has a fabrication rotating mechanism and a radial rocking mechanism of the ultrasonic vibrating tool. The device is provided with a mechanism for separation of the explosive and working fluid and charging of the bodies of elongated charges with the obtained mixture.
EFFECT: provided production of pure empty bodies of fabrications and elongated charges filled with a hexagen-containing retarded mixture that are safe in use.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: hydrocavitational stripping and salvaging of artillery shells.
SUBSTANCE: the installation has a closed circuit of working water circulation with wash-out tools for destruction of the explosive charges in shells by cavitation jets, connected to the line of explosive regeneration to the end product, and a conveyer line for delivery of magazines with stripped shells to the box with the horizontal wash-out assembly of fine magazine fit for provision of colinearity of the shell axes with the wash-out tools. The magazine has means for shell rotation. The mass removal vessel are fastened an the wash-out assembly, have detachable means of communication with the shell cavities and means for producing and maintenance of reduced pressure as compared with the atmospheric one in all cavities. The wash-unit assembly has drives of reciprocating motion of the wash-out tools to the shell cavity and receiving hoppers of mass removal from the shells being shipped.
EFFECT: provided destruction of the explosive charges directly in the shell body and extraction of the explosive charges in the form of and aqueous suspension with a subsequent processing to the end product.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: shipping of ammunition filled with hexogen-containing explosives.
SUBSTANCE: the method is based on crushing of the charge positioned in the ammunition body by action on it by central and/or peripheral jets of liquid fed under pressure, the stripping process is conducted in stages, at first a cavity is produced in the charge by the central jet of liquid that is fed under pressure during 30 to 90 s from the nozzle head off the nozzle unit that is installed at a distance of 10 to 15 mm from the charge surface, then the process is conducted by the central of peripheral jets at a preset speed of translational motion of the nozzle unit at whose contact, minimum one, with the charge surface the top force of its action of the charge by a value of not more than 0.7 kg is allowed, as soon as this force is attained, the nozzle unit is quickly moved aside by 10 to 15 mm, and after 5 to 10 s its translational motion to the bottom part of the ammunition body is resumed, where during 20 to 30 s from the moment of stopped of the nozzle unit the charge is being washed out, and the inner surface of the ammunition body is finally purified by the liquid jets at motion of the nozzle unit to its initial position at a speed exceeding the speed of its translational motion by 3 to 4 times. The mentioned method is realized with the aid of a set containing an ammunition attachment assembly, drive of its rotation, hollow rod that is movable in the axial direction, a nozzle unit with nozzle heads and injectors is positioned at the end of the hollow rod, chamber for reception of the mixture of explosive and liquid, mixture separator, purifying system, monitoring and control system.
EFFECT: enhanced safety at ammunition shipping.
10 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of cocoon, glass-organoplastic rocket engine cases and destruction and salvaging of solid-propellant rocket engines.
SUBSTANCE: at manufacture of a cocoon, glass-organoplastic case of a solid-propellant rocket engine enclosure belts are installed in the points of its future cutting, destruction, they are installed on its inner surface. Each enclosure belt is grooved, a through duct is made in the groove bottom, placed and fixed in which for dismantling is the center body, the side members of the enclosure belt are fastened to the case and made of material, whose resistance to mechanical penetration of the cutting tool is higher than that of the case material. At a destruction of the solid-propellant charge fastened to the case, within the width of the enclosure belt, a strip of the solid-propellant rocket engine case above each enclosure belt is cut out and removed, the enclosure bets are opened up by dismantling of the center body, the slotted duct are opened for an access of a hydrojet tool to the surface of the solid-propellant charge, after that a hydrojet cutting of the solid-propellant charge is performed. After that the sections of the solid-propellant charge fastened to the case are separated.
EFFECT: provided protection of the solid-propellant charge against the cutting tool at a destruction cutting of the case in the points of installation of the enclosure belts, provided easy opening of the enclosure belts by dismantling of the, center body; at a hydrojet cutting of the solid-propellant charge through the slotted ducts of the enclosure belts the offered method makes it possible to obtain, sections of the solid-propellant charge fastened to the case with a maximum open area of its surface.
20 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: salvaging of ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in successive execution of operations in loading of cartridges, extraction of the bullet from the cartridge case, pouring out of powder and removing of the cartridge case. The novelty is in the fact that all operations are performed in the vertical plane of the disk rotating in the horizontal axis in a cyclic manner. The cartridges are loaded in the disk horizontally in the slot by the bullet from the disk center, further at rotation of the disk in the vertical plane in the next horizontal position of the disk slot the bullet is taken out from in the disk with the neck down, the powder is poured out, which then is washed off so as to enhance the explosion-fire safety.
EFFECT: simplified procedure, enhanced reliability and safety of operations.
FIELD: uncharging of ammunition filled with hexogen-containing explosives.
SUBSTANCE: the method is based on crushing of the explosive charge being in the ammunition body by action on the central part of the charge simultaneously by a face circular milling cutter and by jets of high-pressure liquid, the peripheral part of the charge is influenced by jets of high-pressure liquid by feeding them through the nozzle heads of the nozzle block being at the end of a hollow rod accomplishing a translational motion, the ammunition body accomplished a rotary motion, and extraction and transportation of the explosive mix and liquid are performed by feeding of low-pressure liquid jets through the nozzles of the nozzle block. The claimed method is realized with the aid of an installation, made in which on the face surface of the nozzle block installed at the end of the hollow rod, is a circular milling cutter with grooves located in the zone of action high-pressure liquid jets, and two nozzle heads are installed, their water-supplying ducts are symmetrical relative to the axis of the nozzle block. An additional nozzle head with water-supplying ducts is located on the side surface of the nozzle block.
EFFECT: enhanced safety of uncharging of ammunition and obtaining of explosive suitable for further use.
6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: salvaging ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in successive loading of cartridges, extraction of the bullet from the cartridge case, pouring out of powder from the cartridge case, pinning out of the primer cap, removal of the cartridge case. The novelty is in the fact that all operations in cropping of rounds are performed at their motion in the trajectory of the cone generating line so that loading is carried out in the section close to the horizontal position of the round, powder is poured out from the cartridge case in the section close to the vertical position of the cartridge case, and the primer cap is pinned out in an inclined position of the cartridge case after pouring out of powder. To enhance the explosion-fire safety at salvaging of rounds, power is sprinkled with water.
EFFECT: simplified procedure and enhanced safety.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: salvaging of sandwich constructions with explosives.
SUBSTANCE: opening of the ammunition is performed by cutting it by a liquid jet jointly with the outfit into parts with a subsequent extraction of the outfit from each part separately. At cutting of the ammunition into parts and extraction of the outfit solid particles are introduced in the liquid jet from the outside or by cooling of the liquid jet to its partial crystallization, the speed of the solid particles is selected from a definite relation.
EFFECT: simplified process of salvaging of outfitted ammunition.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: methods for burning of solid fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene, whose term of safe storage has expired consists in the fact that trinitrotoluene is fed to the combustion chamber in a melted state (at a temperature of 80 to 90 C) and burnt off in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel-methane not containing oxygen in its composition, as a result of burning due to own oxygen of trinitrotoluene, a great amount of own carbon (soot) is extracted, which then finds industrial application. For burning of trinitrotoluene use is made of an installation including a combustion chamber, pressure regulators for delivery of molten trinitrotoluene and gaseous fuel (methane), electric igniter and a filter for catching soot.
EFFECT: provided safe method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene in the combustion chamber in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel (methane).
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: stripping ammunition; extraction of explosives from ammunition cases.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of stripping ammunition includes delivery of granules of dry ice to charge surface; central and peripheral flows of dry ice are delivered at simultaneous action of cutting tools; peripheral flow of granules is delivered through annular nozzle. Ammunition stripping unit has device for proportioning and delivery of dry ice granules and nozzle assembly with housing and insert secured in housing by means of suspensions pressed to housing by means of retainer; annular nozzle is formed by housing, insert and retainer.
EFFECT: increased productivity of stripping process; extended nomenclature of ammunition; possibility of reuse of explosive.
7 cl, 5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: stripping of ammunition charged with meltable explosives designed for salvaging or repair.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in placement of ammunition in a bath with a hot liquid heat-transfer agent with a temperature exceeding the smelting point of the explosive, smelting of the explosive and pouring of it from the bath, a turbulent flow of the heat-transfer agent around the bodies of the ammunition is produced, or part of the heat-transfer agent, simultaneously with flowing around, is fed to the ammunition body. Aqueous solutions of metal salts are used as the heat-transfer agent. Pouring out of the explosive is carried out under the layer of the aqueous solution of metal salts.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and safety of the smelting process.
5 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: stripping of ammunition warheads designed for salvaging or repair.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in disassembly of ammunition and provision of open access to the explosive, supply of a high-pressure liquid jet to the explosive surface, destruction and washing out of the explosive from the warhead body of the ammunition, the warhead is preliminarily hated to a temperature of 40 to 80C, the working liquid is preliminarily heated to a temperature of not less than the smelting point of the explosives, then the washing out of the explosives is carried out. Water or aqueous solutions of inorganic salts heated to a temperature of 50 to 130C is used as liquid. The aqueous solution contains inorganic salts-sodium nitrate or calcium nitrate, or aluminum sulfate, or magnesium sulfate, or zinc sulfate, or their mixture in amounts of 5 to 25 percent by mass.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency, safety and ecological purity of explosive extraction processes.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: procedure of salvaging of conventional types of ammunition, applicable for opening of ammunition bodies and stripping of ammunition into fragments of explosives contained in them.
SUBSTANCE: the lines of separation are produced on the ammunition body by anode dissolution of metal in an electrolytic bath, then the ammunition body is separated into parts outside the electrolytic bath, the line of separation in the ammunition body is made through over the entire thickness of the body directly to the explosive. After a line of separation is made in the ammunition body, a liquid component is introduced in the space between the metal edges of the slot in the ammunition body reducing the hardness of the explosive contacting with it, and a blade-type indenter is introduced up to the contact with the explosive. Then the indenter together with the liquid component is introduced in the explosive by force action not causing an excess of the parameters of safe operating condition, a separation line is produced in the explosive, and separation of the ammunition into parts is performed.
EFFECT: combined process of cutting both of the product body and of the explosive, provided safe operation, expanded range of uncharged ammunition according to their overall dimensions and composition of explosives.
6 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: ammunition, concerns rendering harmless, in particular, method for automated demilitarization of projectiles.
SUBSTANCE: the method is characterized by the fact that the ammunition is installed in a preset position on a satellite, and the satellites - in the cells of the processing racks, where they are accumulated to the preset quantity, after that a batch delivery of satellites is effected in succession automatically to a conveyer, which transfers the satellites to an installation of mechanical preparation of ammunition, and then to an installation for introduction of a solidifying substance to the working cavity of the ammunition, or at once to the installation for introduction of a solidifying substance, and then back to the cells of the processing racks, where the ammunition is seasoned to solidification of the substance introduced in them; in the process of each operation performed automatically the monitoring of the precision of installation of the ammunition in the preset position is effected.
EFFECT: prevented actuation of the ammunition in the process of its rendering harmless in the automatic mode.
17 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: stripping of ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: the method is based on extraction of the charge from the body by mechanical action on it. The body at least 80C and not higher than 90C, then they are subjected to a multiple impact mechanical action with application of a uniaxial inertia loading to the charge in the direction of the ammunition aperture within an acceleration range from 5 to 10g.
EFFECT: enhanced capacity; at an extraction of the charge there is no need in use of water, therefore the requirement of its cleaning associated with high material costs is prevented, there is no need in drying of the extracted product associated with the danger of self-heating of aluminium powder.