Procurement of metallic products by reconstructing of non-metallic junction-predecessors and by fusion

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to procurement of metallic device; in particular, parts for gas turbines of the flying constructions made from titanium alloys. To produce such metallic devices, the following range of procedures must be brought into action. Firstly, one or several non-metallic junction-predecessors should be made ready, each containing metallic composition element therein. These need to be chemically restored to procure a multitude of initial metallic particles, preferably those whose size varies between 0.0254 mm to approximately 13 mm, which do not have to be melted down. After having been fused at a later stage, they will solidify. The melted and solidified metal can be used either as a casting metal product or can be transferred into a partially finished product (billet) to be processed additionally until it is ultimately ready. The invention permits to substantially reduce the frequency of chemical faults in a metal product.

EFFECT: procurement of metal products by means of reconstruction of non-metal junction-predecessors and by fusion with a view to decrease the frequency of any chemical faults.

19 cl, 4 dwg

 

The technical field

This invention relates to the production of metal products with minimized number associated with the melting of chemical defects, and more specifically to the production of a titanium alloy, such as parts of gas turbine aircraft.

The level of technology

Metal products are produced in a variety of ways, which must be in accordance with the nature of the metal and articles. According to one of the General approaches the metal-containing ore is subjected to refining with obtaining metal. If necessary, such metal may be subjected to a further refining to remove or reduce the amounts of undesirable impurity elements. The composition of the refined metal can also be modified by adding the desired alloying elements. Stage refining and alloying can be carried out during the initial melting process or after solidification and re-melting (var). After receiving metal of the desired composition, it can be used in the state after casting to get some alloy compositions (i.e. casting alloys), or may be subjected to further processing with the formation of the metal to the desired shape in the case of other alloy compositions (i.e. deformable alloys). In any case, the can is to be carried out further processing, such as heat treatment, machining, application of surface coatings, etc.

One of the most important applications of materials in gas turbine aircraft engines are disks (sometimes called "rotors"), which are based on the turbine blades or vanes of the compressor. During operation of the gas turbine such disks rotate at a speed many thousand revolutions per minute in an environment with high temperature. To work in these conditions, they must have the necessary mechanical properties.

Certain parts of gas turbine engines, such as some of the disks are made of titanium alloys. Discs are generally produced by preparing a metal component selected titanium alloy, melting these components and casting ingot obtained from a titanium alloy. Then foundry ingot into billet. The resulting billet further processed mechanically, as a rule, forging. Then the processed billet stamp draught, and then subjected to machining to obtain the desired parts of titanium alloy.

Small mechanical or chemical defects in the finished disk can cause premature breakage during operation. Mechanical defects include, for example, cracks and voids. Chemical Def the points include, for example, hard alpha defects (sometimes referred to as a low density inclusions) and the inclusion of high density. Hard alpha defects discussed, for example, in U.S. patents 4622079 and 6019812, descriptions of which are incorporated into this description by this reference, is particularly bothersome in the high-quality titanium alloys with the structure of alpha-and beta-phases used in critical components of gas turbine engines, and is also used in other mission-critical applications such as the design aircraft. Chemical defects can cause premature cracking during operation of the engine. Damage resulting from the presence of such defects can be catastrophic for a gas turbine engine and, possibly, for all aircraft. Therefore, the manufacture of disks of gas turbine engines requires great care in order to minimize the number of such defects, and preferably eliminate them entirely, and you need to get the disk in a way that contributes to its ultrasonic testing to detect such defects, provided they are available. The method of manufacture must also ensure that the microstructure of the finished product, which has a desirable combination of mechanical and physical properties, necessary for the disk.

Up to the present time using the existing practice of melting, casting and conversion was possible to reduce the number and size of chemical defects in the installed drives to reasonably low levels. However, there will always be the desire and need to develop a method of manufacturing disk drives and other parts for even greater reduction in incidence (incidence) of such chemical defects, thereby improving the guaranteed margin of safety and reliability during operation. The present invention satisfies the aforementioned need for an improved method and provides the associated additional benefits.

The invention

In the present invention, a method for production of metallic products with reduced incident (number of occurrence) unacceptably large chemical defects. The reduction of defects, you can also receive economic benefits in the manufacture and operation of the gas turbine engine. This approach is particularly suitable for the manufacture of products from titanium alloys, such as gas turbine engine, examples of which include drives, fans and compressors, by initial preparation of the metal material, casting the ingot, preferentiality in billet, machining, machining, and ultrasonic testing of billet. The resulting metal product has a desirable microstructure and mechanical properties, as well as a low number of case of unacceptably large chemical defects, which, if present, can lead to premature failure in operation of the product.

A method of producing metal articles containing a metal constituent elements and having a composition, otherwise prone to the formation of particulate alpha-phase, such as, for example, products from alpha-beta and beta titanium alloys (i.e. titanium alloys with the structure of alpha-and beta-phase). This method includes the stage: preparation of non-metallic compounds-precursor containing a metal element; chemical recovery of non-metallic compounds-predecessor of obtaining the original metal particles without melting the starting metal particles, the metal particles have a size from about 0,0254 mm to about 13 mm; and melting and curing a variety of source metal particles with production of metal products (20), and in the way that there is no mechanical grinding of the original metal cha is TIC. Preparation of non-metallic compounds-precursor may include the preparation of two or more non-metallic compounds, the precursors of presence in the alloy of various metallic elements. During the stage of melting of the material of the original metal particles may be added optional metallic alloying element, or such additions may not be during the stage of melting.

In another case, when the metal product is a metal alloy, non-metallic compound, the precursor may be prepared in the form of a mixture of at least two different non-metallic compounds, the precursors, together containing alloy components. In the interest embodiment, the application of non-metallic compound, the precursor containing titanium, so that the non-metallic compound precursor include titanium and at least one other metallic element.

Non-metallic compound, the precursor can be prepared in powdered solid form, in liquid form or in gaseous form. Chemical reduction can be carried out in any feasible manner, examples of which are solid-phase recovery, electrolysis in molten salts, plasma Zack the LM or vapor recovery.

According to the approach of special interest, non-metallic compound, the precursor in gaseous form chemically restored by contact with a liquid alkali metal and/or liquid alkaline-earth metal. With this approach in a non-metallic compound, the precursor may be mixed (mixed) non-metallic modifying element, such as oxygen or nitrogen, to obtain the desired levels in the final metal material. Such chemical recovery is carried out fairly quickly, preferably in less than about 10 seconds, minimizing the time period during which can form chemical defects such as particulate alpha-phase or inclusions with high melting temperature.

The stage of melting and solidification is used to produce foundry products or ingot having a desired metal composition. In the case of obtaining foundry ingot mentioned the ingot can then be converted into billet by thermomechanical processing. After that billet subjected to additional machining and finally machining with obtaining products, such as drive gas turbine engine. The workpiece is usually subjected to ultrasonic flaw detection in a state of billet and the processing is made on the machine product.

One of the hallmarks of this approach is to obtain the original metal particles without melting and, preferably, with a relatively small size, constituting no more than about 0.5 inch (12.7 mm), preferably no more than about 0.25 inches (6.35 mm), more preferably no more than about 0,070 inch (1,78 mm), even more preferably no more than about 0,040 inch (1,02 mm), and most preferably in the range from about 0.020 inch (0,508 mm) to about 0,040 inch (1,02 mm). It is desirable that the said amount was not less than about 0.001 inch (0,0254 mm). Due to the small maximum size, in a preferred variant embodiment, the maximum size of chemical defects in the original metal particles is also small. In the subsequent melting capable of dissolving these chemical defects, so they are eliminated and no longer present in the casting material. So get subsequently fabricated metal product has a low incident of chemical defects, and decreased incident of chemical defects unacceptably large. Reducing the number of chemical defects results in a more reliable end metal products, which are less susceptible to premature failure (failure) because this Def is mswb. This characteristic is especially important for the subject to damage products, such as disks of gas turbines.

This approach requires fewer process steps and, therefore, fewer intermediate stages of manipulation of the metal material in comparison with the known from the prior art approaches. One of the main sources of chemical pollution may lead to chemical defects, is the manipulation and contamination of the metal material between process stages, such as multiple melting metal. By reducing the number of stages the number of intermediate manipulation and, therefore, the possibility of contamination is reduced. Another potential source of contamination is the grinding material, such as crushing or cutting, when the material is in the form of large pieces, such as a foam material or too large particles, to obtain smaller particles, which are used at the stage of melting. This approach allows to avoid such grinding in preferred embodiments of its embodiment, thereby reducing the incident of contamination, leading to chemical defects.

Other characteristics and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from needlemouse is a more detailed description of a preferred variant embodiment, presented in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, which illustrate, as an example, the principles of the present invention. However, the scope of the present invention is not limited to the aforementioned preferred embodiments.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 is a perspective view of the metallic product obtained according to the present approach.

Figure 2 is a block diagram of the process one of the approaches to the practical implementation of this invention.

Figure 3 is a vertical projection not agglomerated metal particles.

Figure 4 is a vertical projection of the group's original agglomerated metal particles.

Detailed description of the invention

This approach can be used to produce various end products 20. Figure 1 illustrates one such product 20 of particular interest, i.e. the disk 20 of the gas turbine engine of an alpha-beta or beta-titanium alloy. However, this approach is not limited to obtaining only the products shown on figure 1. Some other examples of parts of gas turbine engines, which can be obtained from the application of this approach include the cascades, the so-called "blisks", i.e. one piece design, consisting of a disk and blades (from the English. integrally bladed rotor orIBR), shafts, blades, guide (to allow) the apparatus housing (casing), rings and castings, as well as structural elements for other applications other than gas turbine engines, such as casting and wrought all the parts of the aircraft (airframe). Metal alloys, such as alpha-beta titanium alloys, the so-called "near-alpha titanium alloys (i.e., alpha-beta titanium alloys with weakly stable beta phase) and beta-titanium alloys are potentially prone to the formation of hard alpha defects. This approach reduces the likelihood of such defects.

Figure 2 illustrates a preferred approach to receiving the products from the base metal and one or more alloying elements. This method includes the availability of one or more chemically recoverable (i.e. able to recover) non-metallic compounds, the precursors, the stage 30. "Non-metallic compound precursor" represent the non-metallic compounds of those metals, which eventually form the metal article 20. Can be used with any suitable non-metallic compound precursor. Reducible oxides of such metals are the preferred non-metallic compounds-the forerunner of the ol is solid recovery, however, there may be used other types of non-metallic compounds, such as sulfides, carbides, halides, and nitrides. Restorative halides of such metals are the preferred non-metallic compounds-predecessors with vapor recovery.

A separate non-metallic compound, the precursor can give one metallic element. Typically, leaf metallic material is an alloy of two or more metal elements, including base metal and at least one metallic alloying element. The base metal is the metal, the percentage which the mass above the content of any other element in the alloy. Connection-the predecessor of the base metal is present in such quantity that after described below chemical recovery in the metal alloy is more base metal than any other element. In the preferred case, the base metal is titanium, and the connection predecessor, which gives the titanium is titanium oxide, TiO2(for solid-phase recovery) or titanium tetrachloride (vapor recovery). The alloying element may be any element that is available in chemically recoverable form the right connections-the previous is nick. Several illustrative examples are iron, chromium, tungsten, molybdenum, aluminum, niobium, silicon, tin, zirconium, manganese and vanadium.

In the case of producing metal alloys, non-metallic compound precursor is chosen in such a way as to ensure the presence of essential metals in the final metal product, and mix them together in the proportions necessary to obtain the desired contents of these metals in the metal product. For example, if the finished product should have a specific content of titanium, aluminum and vanadium in the ratio of 90:6:4 by weight, non-metallic compounds-precursors are preferably titanium oxide, aluminum oxide and vanadium oxide for solid-phase recovery, or titanium tetrachloride, aluminium chloride and chloride vanadium vapor recovery. Can also be used non-metallic compound precursor serving as the source of more than one of these metals fabricated metal product. Such compounds precursor is prepared and mixed together in the right proportions so that the ratio of titanium:aluminum:vanadium in the mixture of compounds, the precursors corresponded to the value necessary for obtaining the target metal alloy in the finished isdel and (90:6:4 by weight in this example). In this example, fabricated metal product is an alloy based on titanium containing more titanium per weight than any other element.

The only non-metallic compound, the precursor or the mixture of non-metallic compounds, the precursors in the case of alloy chemically restore obtaining the original metal particles without melting the starting metal particles, the stage 32. In this description, the terms "without melting," "lack of fusion" and related concepts mean that the material does not melt macroscopically or in bulk for a long period of time, so that it liquefies (becomes liquid) and loses its shape. May, for example, be a small number of localized podplavlenie as fusion of elements with low melting point and their diffusion alloying with the alloying elements with higher melting temperature that does not melt, or a very short melting within less than about 10 seconds. Even in such cases, the General form of the material remains unchanged.

In the preferred approach to recovery, called vapor recovery, because the non-metallic compound precursor supply in the form of a vapor or gas phase, chemical vosstanovlenie what can be done by restoring the mixtures of the halides of the base metal and alloying elements with a liquid alkali metal or liquid alkaline-earth metal. For example, the titanium tetrachloride and the halides of the alloying elements are supplied in the form of gases. The mixture of these gases, taken in appropriate quantities enter in contact with molten sodium in such a way that the metal halide is recovered to a metallic state. The metal alloy is separated from the sodium. This recovery is carried out at temperatures below the melting temperature metal alloy. This approach is more fully described in U.S. patent 5779761 and 5958106, descriptions of which are incorporated into this description by this reference.

Vapor recovery stage 32 is preferred due to the short time of reaction between gaseous and non-metallic(and) connection predecessor (compounds (precursors) and liquid alkali metal or liquid alkaline-earth metal. This is a short response time, which is desirable way is less than about 10 seconds, does not allow large chemical defects to occur in the resulting recovered metal.

Preferred is recovering at lower temperatures than at higher temperatures. Recovery is desirable to carry out at temperatures of 600°With or lower, and preferably 500°With or below. For comparison, the traditional approach is to obtain titanium and other metal alloys temperatures often reach 900° C or higher. Low-temperature recovery is more controlled (managed) and also less susceptible to the ingress of contaminants into the metal alloy, which, in turn, can lead to chemical defects. In addition, lower temperatures reduce the incident, sintering of the particles during the recovery phase.

In this headspace approach to the recovery of gaseous non-metallic compound, the precursor prior to its reaction with the liquid alkali metal or liquid alkaline-earth metal may be blended with non-metallic modifying element or compound present(her) in gaseous form. In one example oxygen or nitrogen can be mixed with gaseous and non-metallic(and) connection predecessor (compounds (precursors) for higher level content, respectively, of oxygen or nitrogen in the original metal particle. For example, it is sometimes desirable that the oxygen content in the original metal particle and metal end product was approximately 1200-2000 mass ppm for hardening of the final metal products. Instead of adding oxygen in the form of a solid powder of titanium dioxide, as is sometimes practiced in the case of alloys based on titanium, obtained a traditional the different ways of melting, oxygen is added in the gaseous form, which contributes to the mixing and minimizes the probability of formation of solid alpha-phase in the final product. Adding oxygen in the form of a powder of titanium dioxide in the traditional ways of melting the agglomerates in the powder may not dissolve completely, leaving small particles in the finished metal product, which are chemical defects. This approach prevents the possibility.

In another approach to recovery, called solid-phase recovery, because the non-metallic compound precursor supply in the form of solid phase chemical reduction can be carried out by electrolysis in molten salt. Electrolysis in molten salt is a known method described, for example, in the publication of the patent application WO 99/64638, the description of which in its entirety is incorporated into this description by this reference. Briefly during electrolysis in a molten salt mixture of non-metallic compounds, the precursors introduced in finely particulate form, is immersed in an electrolytic cell, the electrolyte of molten salt such as a chloride salt at a temperature below the melting temperature of those metals, which form a non-metallic compound precursor. A mixture of Nemeth is symbolic of compounds, the precursors of doing the cathode of the electrolyzer, and the anode is inert. Elements, combined with metal in the non-metallic compounds-the predecessors, such as the oxygen in the preferred case of the use of oxides of non-metallic compounds, the precursors, partially or completely removed from this mixture by chemical recovery (i.e. the inverse process of chemical oxidation). The reaction is carried out at an elevated temperature to accelerate the diffusion of oxygen or other gas to the outside of the cathode. The cathode potential is controlled so as to ensure that there is a restoration of non-metallic compounds, the precursors, and not other possible chemical reactions such as decomposition of the molten salt. The electrolyte is a salt, preferably a salt, which is more stable than the equivalent salt rathinasamy metals, and, ideally, be very persistent in order to remove the oxygen or other gas to the desired low level. Preferred are the chlorides and mixtures of chlorides of barium, calcium, cesium, lithium, strontium and yttrium. Chemical reduction is preferably, but not necessarily, bring to completion, so that non-metallic compounds, the precursors are completely restored. Undelivered this process to completion is a method of content management is ikorodu received in the metal.

Another approach to recovery, called restoration through "rapid plasma quenching", the connection is precursor, such as titanium chloride, dissociates in the plasma arc at a temperature of more than 4500°C. Connection predecessor rapidly heated, subjected to dissociation and cool. The result of fine metal particles. Any such melting metal particles is very short, of the order of 10 seconds or less, and is subject to the value used here, the term "without melting, and so on

Whichever method is not used at stage 32, the result is many of the original metal particles 22, one of which is schematically presented in figure 3 in the form of free-flowing particles preferably have a size of no more than about 0.5 inch (12.7 mm), more preferably not more than 0.25 inch (6.35 mm), and still more preferably no more than about 0,070 inch (1,78 mm). Size, suitable for use on the available technological equipment, may be approximately 0.25 to 0.5 inches (6.35-12.7 mm). The particles 22 are preferably generally equiaxial shape, although they are not necessarily strictly equiaxial. Preferred are slightly neravnovesnye particles, because they tend to easier to seal than is the red particles. The size is marked with the letter D on figure 3, represents the smallest particle size of 22. In other cases, as shown in figure 4, the particles 22 concourse together with the formation of agglomerates 24. For agglomerated particle size D is the smallest size of the agglomerate 24.

The dimension D is preferably not more than about 0.5 inch (12.7 mm), preferably no more than about 0.25 inches (6.35 mm), more preferably no more than about 0,070 inch (1,78 mm), even more preferably no more than about 0,040 inch (1,02 mm), and most preferably is in the range of sizes of from about 0.020 inch (0,508 mm) to about 0,040 inch (1,02 mm). In the process of recovery can be formed larger particles and agglomerates, however, all particles and agglomerates are subjected to screening to remove larger particles and agglomerates. Screening does not imply the use of grinding particles, and only the separation of those particles whose size is within the above interval, from the greater mass of particles.

A small but controlled amount is a desirable characteristic of the present invention. In the traditional processing of alloys, such as alpha-beta and beta titanium alloys can be formed large chemical defects, such as large areas of solid alpha-phase (alpha phase with embedded vnee interstitial elements and include with high density. Formed, these large chemical defects are becoming more and more difficult to dissolve and remove at the subsequent stages of melting and re-melting (var). In this approach, the possible size of such chemical defects limit by limiting the particle size, because the size of the chemical defect cannot be larger than this size (particles). In addition, the small size reduces the probability of capture of volatile components and reagents used in the recovery process, or reaction products. The use of small metal particles in a state directly after receiving also eliminates the need for crushing, cutting or other grinding large particles, sponges or other physical forms of the material. Such operations grinding can cause surface contamination particles equipment for grinding, which can lead to hard alpha defect or other types of chemical defects. The heat in the grinding process, can cause burning particles, which, in turn, can lead to the formation of hard alpha defects. When using this approach is similar undesirable consequences grinding are eliminated.

Particles 22 can be sufficiently small. However, the size D is preferably not less than p is IMEMO 0.001 inch (0,0254 mm). Smaller particles of titanium, magnesium and other alloys can undergo rapid oxidation causing a burning particles that, in turn, creates a fire hazard. This risk can be minimised if not to use particles or agglomerates, the size D of which is less than about 0.001 inch (0,0254 mm).

If the particle size is about 0,070 inch (1,78 mm) or more, and the value of D is about 0.25 to 0.5 inches (6.35-12.7 mm), this approach still provides important benefits for improving the quality of the final material. Restorative treatment is carried out at relatively low temperatures and short times, thus reducing the formation of chemical defects. In many cases you can avoid using ligatures and mixing (homogenization), which helps to prevent chemical defects that arose in the ligatures and mixed materials. However, as indicated above, the use of particles whose size is less than about 0,070 inch (1,78 mm), reduces the incident of defects even more.

Many of the original metal particles 22 is melted and utverjdayut with production of metal products, the stage 34. Melting and solidification 34 can be implemented without adding additional metallicheskaya element to the initial metallic particle in its molten state. Melting and solidification 34 can be carried out at one stage or can be carried out in two or more stages 34 melting and curing. The melting may be carried out in any suitable way, in the case of alloys based on titanium are preferred hearth melting, induction skull melting and vacuum arc melting.

Melting and solidification 34 in combination with the use as raw material for the operation of small initial melting metal particles and the lack of grinding of such particles results in reduced incidence and size of chemical defects in dry metal product. Any chemical defects in the original metal particles are small due to the small dimensions of the original metal particles. During the melting such small chemical defects can be translated by dissolution in the melt, i.e. these chemical defects are fixed so that they no longer present in the dry metal product.

For most applications, the preferred is the case where carry out exactly the same melting and the associated hardening of the metal at the stage 34, as a significant source of hard alpha defects in titanium alloys is a surface for which ranenie between successive stages of melting. However, in other circumstances, when hard alpha defects do not cause problems or when contamination may be controlled in any other way, at the stage 34 can be used multiple sub-phases of melting and solidification.

During stage 34 melting and curing the melt can be added to a special metal and other additives. Such additives can be performed using ligatures, contact alloying additives or any other suitable way. In the absence of such additives, the resulting metal particles is determined by the composition of metal particles on the stage 32 recovery.

Utverjdenie metal product from the stage 34 can be used in its condition after curing, in the form of a casting metal products. However, if the selected metal material or alloy is a wrought alloy, suitable for mechanical processing, the cured metallic material may be optionally subjected to additional processing to change its microstructure, modifying its mechanical properties and/or changes its shape. One of the practical options metal utverjdayut stage 34 in the form of a cast ingot. Then this foundry ingot into ballet, stage 36 by mechanical sludge is thermomechanical processing, such as hot forging, stamping upsetting, extrusion, rolling or the like, Such phase transformations can be carried out in a multistage process with the respective intermediate heat treatments.

Billet after that not necessarily give the appearance of finished metal products, stage 38 using any suitable method. Typical suitable means 38 include by machining, molding, stamping, coating, etc. Stages 36 and 38 are used for the manufacture of disk gas turbine engine, such as a disk, illustrated in figure 1.

Metal product may be subjected to ultrasonic flaw detection at any stage after its solidification stage 34. In the manufacture of parts such as disks of gas turbine engines, which are sensitive to the presence of mechanical and/or chemical defects, the metal product is usually subjected to ultrasonic flaw detection several times during the stages 36 and 38.

Although the purpose of illustration of the above has been described in detail specific embodiments of the present invention, allowed various modifications and improvements of this invention provided that they do not go beyond its nature and scope. Accordingly, the present invention is not limited by anything except the supplied what armoloy of the invention.

1. Method of producing metal articles containing a metal constituent element and having a composition, otherwise prone to the formation of chemical defects, which includes preparation of non-metallic compounds-precursor containing a metal element, chemical recovery of non-metallic compounds-predecessor of obtaining the original metal particles without melting the starting metal particles, the metal particles have a size from about 0,0254 to about 13 mm, and melting and curing a variety of source metal particles with production of metal products, and in which there is no mechanical grinding of the original metal particles.

2. The method according to claim 1, in which stage of preparation of non-metallic compounds-predecessor includes a stage of preparation of non-metallic compounds-precursor containing titanium.

3. The method according to claim 1, in which stage of preparation of non-metallic compounds-predecessor includes a stage of preparing a mixture of at least two different non-metallic compounds-predecessors.

4. The method according to claim 3, in which the preparation stage of non-metallic compounds-predecessor includes a stage of preparation Nemeth is lychesky compounds predecessors, containing titanium and at least one other metallic element.

5. The method according to claim 1, in which stage chemical recovery includes a stage of obtaining the source metal particles having a size from about 0.51 to about 1,02 mm

6. The method according to claim 1, in which stage chemical recovery includes a stage of obtaining the source metal particles having a size from about 0,0254 to about 1,78 mm

7. The method according to claim 1, in which stage chemical recovery includes a stage chemical recovery of a mixture of compounds by solid-phase recovery.

8. The method according to claim 1, in which stage chemical recovery includes a stage chemical recovery of a mixture of compounds by electrolysis in molten salt.

9. The method according to claim 1, in which stage chemical recovery includes a stage chemical recovery of a mixture of compounds by vapor recovery.

10. The method according to claim 1, in which stage chemical recovery includes a stage chemical recovery of non-metallic compounds-precursor by contact with a liquid selected from the group consisting of a liquid alkali metal and liquid alkaline earth metal.

11. The method according to claim 1, in which stage chemical recovery assortment of the company includes the stage of non-metallic contact of the modifying element in a non-metallic compound, the precursor, when modifying non-metallic element selected from the group consisting of oxygen and nitrogen.

12. The method according to claim 1, in which stage chemical recovery includes a stage chemical recovery of non-metallic compounds-predecessor during the period of time which is less than about 10 C.

13. The method according to claim 1, in which stage of melting and solidification includes a stage melting and curing of the original metal particles with production of metal products, without any added metal alloying element to the original metal particles.

14. The method according to claim 1, in which stage of melting and solidification includes a stage of addition of the metallic alloying element to the original metal particles during melting of the source metal particles.

15. The method according to claim 1, in which stage of melting and solidification includes a stage curing metal products in the form of foundry products.

16. The method according to item 15, in which the cast product is a foundry ingot and the method includes, after the stage of melting and curing the additional step of turning the cast ingot in billet.

17. Method of producing metal articles containing as components of titanium and at least one legrow is the second metal, which includes preparation of a mixture of at least two non-metallic compounds, the precursors, together with components of the metal element, chemical recovery of the mixture of nonmetallic compounds, the precursors of obtaining the original metal particles without melting the starting metal particles, the metal particles have a size from about 0,0254 to about 13 mm, melting and curing a variety of source metal particles with getting the cast ingot and transformations mentioned foundry ingot in billet.

18. The method according to 17, in which stage chemical recovery includes a stage chemical recovery mixture by contact with a liquid selected from the group consisting of a liquid alkali metal and liquid alkaline earth metal.

19. Method of producing metal products in the form of a disk of a gas turbine engine, comprising as components of titanium and at least one alloying metal, which includes preparation of a mixture of at least two non-metallic compounds, the precursors, together with components of the metal element, chemical recovery of the mixture of nonmetallic compounds, the precursors of obtaining the original metal frequent the C, having a size of not more than 1,78 mm, without melting the starting metal particles, melting and curing a variety of source metal particles with obtaining foundry ingot without any additional metal alloying element to the original metal particles, the transformation of the cast ingot in billet and disc manufacturing gas turbine engine of billet.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: processing of iron-titanium raw material, mainly titanomagnetite, possibly for using in effective production process low-grade iron-titanium concentrates for producing commercial steel and titanium products.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preparing uniform-content charge including titanomagnetite, carbon-containing reducing agent and binder; palletizing said charge and subjecting it to thermal reduction; terminating reduction at temperature providing transition of slag fraction to yielding state, mainly at 1330-1400°C for producing partially reduced product containing metallic fraction and slag fraction; disintegrating partially reduced product till size of slag fraction particles less than 0.2 - 0.25 mm and separating metallic fraction from it; subjecting slag fraction to electric melting for after reducing of it during melting process; dividing formed melt by density for producing slag component and metallic component including residual part of iron; then combining metallic fraction with produced metallic component for preparing metallic mixture to be cleaned from impurities in order to produce steel; disintegrating slag component and concentrating it for producing titanium product. Method allows decrease electric energy consumption for electric melting procedure till value 1020 - 1080 kWt x h/ ton of slag while providing iron extraction degree 91 -92% and producing titanium product with content of titanium dioxide 96 - 98%.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of method, lowered consumption of electric energy for electric melting operation.

3 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: sulfate method of production of titanium dioxide from titanium-containing material.

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24 cl, 2 dwg, 9 tbl, 13 ex

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EFFECT: enhanced commercial process efficiency.

29 cl, 2 dwg, 9 tbl, 13 ex

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20 cl, 2 dwg, 9 tbl, 13 ex

FIELD: nonferrous metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises retort-reactor provided with the bottom branch pipe and false bottom, lid that covers the reactor and is provided with the central branch pipe, fusible plug that is set in the branch pipe and is pressed to the branch pipe with a ring, nozzle made of a truncated cone, retort-condenser provided with the bottom branch pipe and false bottom, water jacket, and heat shield. The water jacket has opening in its top part and guiding ring for supplying water to the retort-condenser arranged under it. The height of the central branch pipe in the lid is 0.3-0.7 of the lid height, and the height of the pressing ring is 0.5-1.5 of the height of the central branch pipe. The nozzle is secured to the top part of the pressing ring. The larger base of the nozzle faces downward.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: magnesium-reduced production of spongy titanium, in particular, process for stopping uncontrolled draining of melt from reactor designed for magnesium reduction of titanium tetrachloride, may be used in non-ferrous metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method involves stopping the process of feeding titanium tetrachloride and argon into reactor when drainage apparatus is depressurized; in case of depressurizing of drainage apparatus, creating and maintaining vacuum in reactor according to amount of melted magnesium, with vacuum extent being calculated from equation: V=(0.8-0.9)x(1-C)xHrxdmg, where V is vacuum in reactor, kgf/cm2; (0.8-0.9) is maximum level of magnesium in reactor, part; (1-C) is coefficient taking into account unused magnesium in the course of reduction process, part; Hr is height of reactor, cm; C is coefficient of utilization of magnesium, part; dmg is density of magnesium at temperature of 800 C, kgf/cm2.

EFFECT: reduced losses of magnesium and spongy titanium upon depressurizing of drainage apparatus of reactor due to burning and pouring out of magnesium.

FIELD: non-ferrous metallurgy, in particular, production of spongy titanium by metal reduction of titanium tetrachloride.

SUBSTANCE: method involves heating reduction unit; melting condensate and draining condensate of magnesium chloride; feeding argon into unit and creating excessive pressure therein; discharging argon from said unit into vacuum-type crucible; pouring magnesium into unit from vacuum crucible under hermetically sealed mode while maintaining equal excessive pressure in unit and vacuum crucible; feeding titanium tetrachloride and providing reduction process while periodically pouring out magnesium chloride; after pouring out condensate of magnesium chloride, positioning magnesium level measuring device into branch pipe for feeding of titanium tetrachloride; pouring magnesium into device until magnesium comes into electric contact with electrode of level sensor; stopping feeding of magnesium when signal is generated by level indicator; removing level sensor from branch pipe and feeding titanium tetrachloride. Apparatus has reduction unit comprising retort with drain device, hermetical cover, titanium tetrachloride and argon feeding branch pipes positioned on cover, magnesium pouring branch pipe wherein drain pipe of vacuum crucible is located, compensating device, detachable magnesium level measuring device formed as signaling device and level sensor made in the form of electrode located within protective enclosure, said level sensor being positioned within titanium tetrachloride feeding branch pipe. Lower end of electrode is deepened into retort up to the level of magnesium so as to come into electric contact with it, and upper end of level sensor is connected to signaling device. Electrode is formed as rod made from stainless steel, its lower end is deepened by distance determined on the basis of ratio of distance from cover to magnesium level to diameter of apparatus of 1:(3.5-4.5). Protective enclosure for electrode is made from electrically isolating material such as asbestos on liquid glass. Retort is earthed relative to ground. Also, signaling device is provided with serviceability control button connected to power source. Signaling device has two signal lamps.

EFFECT: increased speed and hour capacity of apparatus, provision for producing of spongy titanium blocks having standard weight to simplify further processing thereof.

8 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is used in processing the ilmenite concentrate into ferro-titanium, highly titanous slag suitable for production or titanium sponge or pigment and into carbon-free iron suitable for fusion with metallic chromium into alloy used for production of tube or sheet stainless steel billets. Proposed method includes forming liquid metal substrate in melting unit, setting the substrate in rotation by means of electromagnetic field for forming of parabolic dimple to which titanium-containing burden is fed; this burden is molten for slag by energy of electromagnetic field and metals are reduced from slag oxides with the aid of reductant; reduced metals are fused together with substrate and slag is added with reductant oxide and metal and slag phases drained from melting unit. Portion of titanium-containing burden is delivered in two parts: first part is delivered to dimple for metal substrate formed from ferro-aluminum; during delivery of this part of portion, portion of fluor spar is molten in dimple for reduction of metals from oxides of first part of burden portion by substrate aluminum and fusing them with metal substrate which is lean in aluminum; aluminum oxide thus formed is dissolved in fluor spar to tolerable dissolving limit at temperature of molten fluor spar of 1600-1700°C. Fluor spar and dissolved aluminum oxide from melting unit are drained into ladle and are cooled to 1450°C for conversion of aluminum oxide into solid phase which is separated from molten fluor spar together with part of aluminum oxide remaining in it. After drainage of fluor spar and dissolved aluminum oxide on metal substrate whose chemical composition is changed, second part of burden portion is delivered and is molten; metal oxides in second part of burden portion are reduced by titanium of substrate; oxide forming free energy of these oxides is lesser than that of titanium oxide; thus, highly titanous slag is formed; 70-80% of metal phase lean in titanium is drained from melting unit. Titanium is reduced from oxide of slag remaining in melting unit and is fused together with remaining metal phase; aluminum oxide formed at reducing of titanium is fused together with fluor spar which is delivered to melting unit together with reductant. Then, fluor spar is fully drained from melting unit together with dissolved aluminum oxide, after which metal phase added with titanium is fully drained and substrate is immediately formed from ferro-aluminum in melting unit and procedure is repeated.

EFFECT: reduction of power requirements; waste-free technology.

7 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: non-ferrous metallurgy; devices for cleaning titanium sponge.

SUBSTANCE: proposed titanium sponge separator includes retort-reactor with false bottom and drain unit, cover with vacuum line, heat shield, retort-condenser with bottom branch pipe and with closed jacket provided with water distributor under its cover. Bottom branch pipe of retort-condenser is provided with drain unit which is sealed-up with cap. Besides that, drain unit welded to bottom branch pipe of retort-condenser is sealed-up with cap provided with sealant. Water is delivered to bottom of retort-condenser from distributor mounted on side surface of jacket.

EFFECT: increased productivity of separator due to reduction of labor input in mounting and dismantling.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: non-ferrous metallurgy, namely apparatuses for producing titanium sponge at reducing its tetrachloride by means of magnesium.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes reduction unit having retort with bottom branch pipe to which flange of draining device is welded, false bottom, lid with branch pipe for pouring magnesium, unions for evacuating apparatus, measuring pressure and reducing argon pressure. On lid there is one central branch pipe for pouring magnesium and supplying titanium tetrachloride into which cone is welded. Titanium tetrachloride is fed along union passing through limiting member and welded into bushing fluid-tightly joined with said branch pipe. Rings of stand of false bottom are welded to elliptical bottom of retort by means of intermittent welded seam. Grid and stop of false bottom are fastened by means of plates rigidly secured to wall of retort. Thickness of lining of furnace hearth exceeds by 10 - 30% thickness of lining of cylindrical portion of furnace. Opening of furnace hearth is protected by means of shield. Shield is also mounted inside furnace over opening of furnace hearth; relation of shield outer diameter to opening diameter is in range 1.1 - 1.5. Shield having two dampers may be mounted outside furnace in casing of furnace hearth.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of apparatus.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: nonferrous metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacturing zirconium powder for making pyrotechnic articles, in particular explosive and inflammable mixtures. By-layers prepared powered mixture of potassium fluorocirconate and alkali metal chloride, preferably sodium chloride, at ratio 1:(0.15-0.6) and sodium metal in amount exceeding its stoichiometrically required amount by 10-20%. Preparation involves grinding of potassium fluorocirconate and alkali metal chloride to fineness below 50 μm as well as preliminary recrystallization of potassium fluorocirconate. Charge is heated to temperature 450-600°C, at which reduction reaction starts and during this reaction reaction mixture heats to 700-800°C and reduction of potassium fluorocirconate takes place. Reaction products are cooled to 400-650°C and freed of sodium through vacuum distillation at residual pressure 1.3-13.3 Pa for 0.5-2.0 h, after which they are discharged from reaction vessel and ground. Zirconium powder is washed with water to remove fluoride and chloride salts and then dried. Zirconium powder contains 95-98% of fine fractions, including fraction below 10 μm in amount 45-55%.

EFFECT: enhanced fineness of prepared zirconium powder end assured fire safety of the process.

8 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: treatment of powdered, especially metal containing initial material introduced together with treating gas such as reducing gas for creating fluidized bed in fluidized bed chamber, for example in fluidized-bed reactor.

SUBSTANCE: treating gas at least after partial conversion in fluidized bed is removed out of fluidized bed and then outside fluidized bed it is partially recovered, preferably oxidized due to performing chemical, namely exothermal reaction with gaseous and(or) liquid oxidizer. Heat energy of such reaction at least partially is fed to fluidized-bed chamber, especially to fluidized bed or it is taken out of it. Cyclone is arranged over fluidized bed in fluidized-bed chamber. Powdered initial material is heated or cooled in zone of cyclone, namely near inlet opening of cyclone due to using treating gas at least partially recovered over fluidized bed in fluidized-bed chamber, possibly heated or cooled, and(or) due to using system for recovering treating gas.

EFFECT: possibility for decreasing caking on distributing collector of fluidized-bed reactor, lowered slagging in zone of fluidized bed.

10 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: powder metallurgy, possibly production of finely dispersed powder of molybdenum, its composites with tungsten, namely for producing hard alloy materials on base of molybdenum and tungsten.

SUBSTANCE: method provides production of molybdenum and its composites with tungsten at temperature no more than 900°C and also production of materials in the form of finely dispersed powders. Method comprises steps of reducing compounds of molybdenum and tungsten (MoO3 and WO3) by metallic magnesium in medium of melt chlorides such NaCl, KCl or carbonates such as Na2CO3, K2CO3 or their binary mixtures such as NaCl - KCl, Na2CO3 - K2CO3, NaCl - Na2CO3, KCl - K2CO3 at temperature 770 -890°C. According to results of fineness analysis produced powder of molybdenum represents homogenous material having 80% of particles with fraction size 2.2 - 3 micrometers. Composition material depending upon Mo content includes particles with fraction size 5 - 15 micrometers.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of method.

1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: non-ferrous metallurgy, possibly production of highly purified powders of tantalum and niobium with large specific surface by metal thermal reduction.

SUBSTANCE: method is realized at using as corrosion protection means layer of halide of alkali metal formed on inner surface of vessel before creating in reaction vessel atmosphere of inert gas. Charge contains valve metal compound and halide of alkali metal. It is loaded into reaction vessel and restricted by protection layer of halide of alkali metal having melting temperature higher than that of charge by 50 - 400°C. Before loading charge, valve metal compound and alkali metal halide may be mixed one with other. Mass of protection layer of alkali metal halide Ml and charge mass Mc are selected in such a way that that to satisfy relation Ml = k Mc where k - empiric coefficient equal to 0.05 - 0.5. Gas atmosphere of reaction vessel contains argon, helium or their mixture. Fluorotantalate and(or) oxyfluorotantalate or fluoroniobate and(or) oxyfluoroniobate of potassium is used as valve metal compound. Sodium, potassium or their mixture is used as alkali metal. Chloride and(or) fluoride is used as alkali metal halide. Valve metal compound and alkali metal halide may contain alloying additives of phosphorus, sulfur, nitrogen at content of each additive in range 0.005 - 0.1% and 0.005 - 0.2% of mass valve metal compound respectively. Invention lowers by 1.3 - 2 times contamination of powder with metallic impurities penetrating from vessel material. Value of specific surface of powder is increased by 1.2 - 1.8 times, its charge is increased by 10 - 30 %, leakage current are reduced by 1.2 - 1.5 times.

EFFECT: improved quality of valve metal powder, enhanced efficiency of process due to using heat separated at process of reducing valve metal for melting protection layer.

9 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex

The invention relates to the metallurgy of tungsten, in particular the production of metallic tungsten from wolframalpha compounds, in particular SelidovUgol concentrate
The invention relates to powder metallurgy and can be used to obtain powder for capacitor production

The invention relates to ferrous metallurgy and can be used to obtain alloy powders of tantalum or niobium
The invention relates to metallurgy, in particular, to obtain granules and powders of rare and radioactive metals and their alloys

The invention relates to ferrous metallurgy and can be used to obtain high-purity powders of tantalum and niobium with a large specific surface for the production of capacitors

The invention relates to powder metallurgy and can be used to obtain high-purity powders of tantalum and niobium with a large specific surface for the production of capacitors

FIELD: non-ferrous metallurgy, possibly production of highly purified powders of tantalum and niobium with large specific surface by metal thermal reduction.

SUBSTANCE: method is realized at using as corrosion protection means layer of halide of alkali metal formed on inner surface of vessel before creating in reaction vessel atmosphere of inert gas. Charge contains valve metal compound and halide of alkali metal. It is loaded into reaction vessel and restricted by protection layer of halide of alkali metal having melting temperature higher than that of charge by 50 - 400°C. Before loading charge, valve metal compound and alkali metal halide may be mixed one with other. Mass of protection layer of alkali metal halide Ml and charge mass Mc are selected in such a way that that to satisfy relation Ml = k Mc where k - empiric coefficient equal to 0.05 - 0.5. Gas atmosphere of reaction vessel contains argon, helium or their mixture. Fluorotantalate and(or) oxyfluorotantalate or fluoroniobate and(or) oxyfluoroniobate of potassium is used as valve metal compound. Sodium, potassium or their mixture is used as alkali metal. Chloride and(or) fluoride is used as alkali metal halide. Valve metal compound and alkali metal halide may contain alloying additives of phosphorus, sulfur, nitrogen at content of each additive in range 0.005 - 0.1% and 0.005 - 0.2% of mass valve metal compound respectively. Invention lowers by 1.3 - 2 times contamination of powder with metallic impurities penetrating from vessel material. Value of specific surface of powder is increased by 1.2 - 1.8 times, its charge is increased by 10 - 30 %, leakage current are reduced by 1.2 - 1.5 times.

EFFECT: improved quality of valve metal powder, enhanced efficiency of process due to using heat separated at process of reducing valve metal for melting protection layer.

9 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex

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