Important document

FIELD: textiles; paper.

SUBSTANCE: on the engraved surface of a printing form there are separate areas almost touching each other, with three different values of engraving depths. The printing form is used in metallographic printing of grey scale image, depicting a three dimensional object, by manipulating light and shade and/or plastic effects.

EFFECT: well distinguishable three dimensional image is obtained.

13 cl, 26 dwg, 10 ex

 

The present invention relates to a data carrier with printed on it distinguishable to the touch halftone image, the method of manufacturing such a data carrier and suitable for this purpose, the printed form.

Under the data carriers, also called media, in the context of the present description refers primarily protected against forgery or valuable documents, such as banknotes, identification cards, passports, cheque forms, shares, certificates, stamps, tickets and similar documents, as well as labels, printing, packaging and other items to protect against forgery of various kinds of products, goods and products. In accordance with this under used in the following description simplified terms "media data" and "protected against forgery or valuable document always refers to the documents of the specified type.

Such documents, commercial or practical value which significantly exceeds the cost of the material from which they are made must have the appropriate characteristics to identify them as genuine and to distinguish them from counterfeits and fakes. With this purpose, these documents provide special protective elements, forgery and falsification which in the ideal case the impossible possible at all or is it on the nose with great difficulty, provided a high cost.

Previously for use in such purposes the most well established primarily those protective elements that people can unambiguously be identified as genuine without the use of auxiliary tools, but are a manufacturer which simultaneously is possible only under condition of high costs. This involves, for example, performed by a method of metallographic printing print images, the characteristic feature of which is that they have embossed patterns, easily distinguishable by touch even a layman, and that is impossible to mimic other common printing methods or by means of a transfer device.

Of particular importance in the technique of printing media, primarily securities, such as banknotes and other similar documents, has a method of metallographic printing and primarily print with steel engravings.

A characteristic feature of metallographic printing is that to obtain the printout, or print, printed forms perform deepening in the form of lines. Thus, transferring the paint sections of the printing form are depressions made in the surface of the form. These grooves are suitable for this engraving tool or etching. Because engraving tools as the rights of the lo have a conically tapering shape, when using mechanical methods of surface treatment forms the width of the lines comprising performed in the surface of the printing form for metallographic printing engraving, generally increases with increasing depth of the engraving. In addition, with increasing depth of the engraving is increased and the amount of paint that can resist line engravings, and thus the opacity of the corresponding print line.

Before processing the surface of printed forms for metallographic printing the etching method is not printing areas of the printing plate covered with a chemically inert lacquer. Subsequent etching not varnished surface areas form this surface is an engraving depth of lines of engraving are determined primarily by the duration of etching. Before actual printing process on the engraved surface of the printing form is applied printing ink paste-like consistency, and the surplus ink is removed from this surface by a squeegee or wiping roller, after which the ink remains only in the recesses. Then the printed base, which is generally used paper is first pressed against the surface of the printing form, and thus to set the surface and filled with printing ink to the recesses, then removed with e the Oh form, during which there is a transfer of printing ink from these recesses on the surface of the printed base, while the paint and forms on the substrate surface to the desired imprint. When using translucent colors the hue of a specific area of the footprint is determined by the thickness deposited on a corresponding portion of the layer of paint. Thus, by sealing the white media data colourful layers of small thickness receive light hue, and by sealing the colorful layers of great thickness is darker. The thickness of the paint layer to a certain extent depends on the depth of the engraving.

Unlike other common methods of printing, such as offset printing, metallographic printing with steel engravings can inflict on a data carrier layers of paint relatively large thickness. The presence of the applied method of metallographic printing with steel engravings relatively thick layer of paint, as well as partially deformed/embossed surface areas of the paper, resulting indentation latest in engraved in printed form depressions can be easily checked by touch even a layman that allows you to use this layer in combination with these embossed areas can as easily different the constituent to the touch sign of authenticity. Perceptible to the touch may not be reproduced by means of a transfer device, and this makes the method of metallographic printing with steel engravings very valuable method of protection against forgery.

However, this method prints with a continuous sealed areas, involves additional cost, because in the normal case, not having engraved grooves plots printed forms do not provide for the transfer of printing ink on the contact areas of the paper, resulting plots are made using the above method prints are generally limited dashed drawings, composed of thin lines. Thus, the usual method of metallographic printing is not possible simultaneously to provide a continuous sealing with significant land area footprint and the appearance of the latter to the touch.

In addition metallographic printing, respectively metallographic printing with steel engravings, and other known gravure printing method, called method autotype gravure printing. Hallmark autodeploy gravure printing is that in this method the influence of different values of optical density on a grey scale or optical density of the color is transferred by means of cells of different density, size and/or depth ordering location is established on the surface of the printing form and separated from each other by wide walls. Printed forms for autodeploy gravure printing are made, for example, using mechanical, involving the use of engraving tools, electron beam or laser methods of material removal. Typical autodeploy gravure printing is the use of flowable ink and squeegee. The principle of this printing process is that the cell forms filled flowable paint, which is held these having different depths cells. Limiting these raster cell walls provide support for the squeegee, but they are not printing elements. However, in the printing process, due to the fluidity of paint used, the boundaries between adjacent printed areas are blurred and clearly distinguish where the end of one section and the other begins, it becomes impossible. The result is an imprint of producing only the impression of a solid. It is obvious, however, that is not high enough viscosity used ink and a small force with which the paper is pressed in a form that does not allow this method of relief, distinguishable by touch imprints.

From the above it can be argued that as a normal method autotype gravure printing, and a known method of metallographic printing with steel grave is R inherent common fault, namely, that these methods do not allow for one printing operation to perform the fingerprint, which is simultaneously solid and identifiable by touch.

The present invention was used to develop a data carrier with a high degree of protection against forgery and having applied thereto by the method of metallographic printing visually distinct story, tactile properties which make this media is especially difficult reproducible printing methods.

In addition, the present invention was based on the task of developing a printing plate, suitable to perform such proposed invention is a data carrier, and to develop a method of manufacturing such a medium.

This task is solved by the distinguishing features of the independent claims. Preferred embodiments of the invention are given in the dependent claims.

In accordance with the invention, the imprint made on the media data by the method of metallographic printing is a grayscale image representing the subject in a three-dimensional representation. This grayscale image in at least one of its separate parts is directly adjacent to each other are printed in separate sections, to the that have certain tonal gradation, moreover, at least three separate printed area have different tonal gradations, and at least one separate part of the halftone image perceptible to the touch.

In the context of the present invention under grayscale refers to an image that has areas that are intermediate in intensity of tone in relation to the darkest and the lightest areas of the image. In the case when a grayscale image is black and white, under the intensity of the colors, as usual, refers to the corresponding value on the gray scale represents the transition from white to black. It is obvious, however, that the present invention applies not only to black-and-white halftone images, including such achromatic color, like black, white and grey, but also to color, with both single and multicolor halftone images, including the so-called chromatic color. In the presence of color halftone images under the intensity refers to the brightness of the observed color. In the proposed invention the image for sealing the various parts of the invention are at least three distinct gradations. In the case when as a design element of the image you are using your own color printing basics, such as Bel is I color paper, this image has separate sections with four different tonal gradations, i.e, for example, white areas, black areas and plots of two different shades of grey. In the most preferred embodiments of the invention, the imprint has separate sections with a substantially large number of different tonal gradations that allows along with the play of light and shadow to create and plastic effects. The finer tonal gradation, i.e. longer tonal scale, the better the stories portrayed in three-dimensional representation, and in the ideal case, the fingerprint is approaching photographic image, while tonal gradations into each other almost continuously. As determined experimentally, using only four semitones, you can create looks very realistic grayscale image. The image is executed using six semitones, for a layman is not much different from the photographic halftone image.

Plot the contents proposed in the invention of the halftone image can be anything. However, preferably used graphic images. In the most preferred embodiment of the invention grayscale image reproduces a portrait image, because the human is the perception is due to life experience, the ability to discern the slightest differences in the features of the portrait, that significantly increases the value of the portrait as a protective element. In addition, any number of halftone images of any shape can be combined with each other.

As used in conventional metallographic printing inks are to some extent translucent or semi-transparent, through the use of colorful layers of appropriate thickness and rational choice of the background color, you can create a color tone or grayscale different lightness and color saturation. Different values of lightness, in the context of the present invention is also called tonal gradations, can be determined solely by the thickness of the paint layer, with different intensity will be surface sealed colorful layers of different thickness. So, for example, by sealing the white media data colourful layers of small thickness receive light hue, and by sealing his colorful layers of great thickness is darker. It is also possible that, depending on the printing ink and the printing base, the thickness of the paint layer can be determined not only brightness, but color saturation. However, usually the thickness of the paint layer is mainly determined by the lightness and color saturation. Characteristics hung the bridges between the thickness of the layer, and saturation, and the lightness of the color must be individually determined appropriate by each individual case, i.e. for each ink and each of the printed substrate. When a sufficient difference in the thickness of paint layers deposited on adjacent sections of the media described above can create a high-contrast image, well visible to the human eye without any auxiliary means. The prerequisite for this are normal lighting conditions and a normal viewing distance.

For making proposed in the invention of the imprint of the original, in the preferred embodiment of the invention representing a portrait, first laid out in separate areas having different tonal gradation, i.e. parts of the halftone image of the original placed in compliance with certain tonal gradation. Then separate midtones, or groups of tones correlate different values of depth in the surface of the printing plate engraved recesses, below also called the depth of the engraving, while these values are consistent with the characteristics of the applied printing ink, in other words, tonal gradations assign a certain depth of the engraving grooves. For example, the maximum the second depth value is engraving matches the black, and the minimum - white color. Then, the surface of the printing form perform engraved grooves, the depth of which corresponds present on the original values of the intensity of tone, i.e. engrave separate parts and put them in the line depth. Depth of engraving printing forms required for obtaining the print tone of a given intensity is different for different printing inks.

To facilitate matching the depth of engraving with specific printing ink can run test prints using a grey wedge and the corresponding colors. This wedge has a large number of rows of flat elements, or fields, which differ from each other by changing a specified increment the depth of their engraving. For example, in the case when a step change in the depth of engraving is 5 μm, the first field grey wedge can have the engraving depth of 5 μm, followed by a - 10 μm, then 15 microns, and so forth, until reaching the depth of engraving, component, for example, 100 μm. The dimensions of each of the fields of the wedge comprise, for example, 5×5 mm Individual fields of the wedge are separated from each other by only a narrow dividing edges.

Made with grey wedge and the corresponding printing ink imprint will be the appropriate fields wedge sapec is designed sites the first section will have a specific light tone, contrasting with the slightly darker tone of the next segment, while subsequent sections will have a little more intensity than the last, until, starting with one of the sealed areas, the intensity of all subsequent plots will not be the same and the largest for this ink. In other words, beginning with this sealed area, respectively fields of the wedge, variations in the intensity of the tone will stop. Then, depending on how many different tonal gradations are supposed to be used to print a halftone image, the desired tonal gradations are correlated with corresponding fields of gray wedge, thereby defining the depth of the engraving, which should be used when running in printed form recesses suitable for execution using them with the desired intensity plots halftone print.

These test prints using the gray wedge is carried out for each ink individually. In the case when one or the other printing ink does not provide a wide enough range of transparency", i.e. it is not possible to create a on the test print the required number of differing intensity sealed parcel and is aptly of paint to the application requirements may apply additional well-known specialists steps.

The imprint made with the printing plate, engraved depth in which in-depth plots, reproducing tones of varying intensity, consistent with the characteristic transparency of printing ink, is a full halftone print, made without the use of normal for this raster. The available tonal gradations are determined only by the characteristics of transparency applied printing inks. In addition to the above, the surface of the printed halftone image is embossed, with darker areas of the image form a more prominent areas of the terrain compared to the light.

In the context of the present invention under different sections of the image or imprint refers to sections forming a grayscale image. In addition, these separate parts can be not only sealed, but unsealed, at least some of the separate sealed parcels immediately adjacent to each other. In the context of the present invention under separate areas directly adjacent to each other, understood as forming a separate imprint areas located in close proximity to each other and are not separated unsealed areas. In prepact the positive embodiment of the invention proposed in the invention of the printing grayscale image has more separate sealed parcels, than unsealed. In addition, most sealed individual sections preferably are adjacent to each other, resulting proposed in the invention of the printing halftone image gives an impression mostly continuous sealed surface. Such adjacent to each other separate sections can have different tonal gradation, i.e. different thickness of the paint layer or the same tonal gradation, i.e. the same thickness of the paint layer. Unsealed areas used primarily as design elements, such as transmission of light glare or glossy areas.

To further enhance the degree of protection against forgery provided by using the proposed invention a protective element, respectively protective of print, tonal gradations of the various individual sections can often be intermittent. While some areas may be different in size and/or created contrasts and/or distinguish them by touch. To perform a separate sealed sections with exact register with respect to each other and thereby provide a protective created imprint a distinctive visual impression only method of metallographic printing, i.e. using the printing plate, the surface of which is completely and with the th register engraved required to perform such a thumbprint terrain. Most want to transfer printing ink engraved in print form individual sections preferably immediately adjacent to each other, as a result performed by using this form print is mostly solid.

Proposed in the invention of the printing form for metallographic printing is preferably performed by etching rotating with high frequency sharpened chisel is, for example, by the method described in WO 97/48555. In principle, the engraving can be performed by laser engraving, etching or any other suitable method for removal of material.

In order to prevent diffusion of the boundaries of adjacent layers of printing ink, which may occur after application of the dye to the data carrier and before it dries, with different depths engraved in printed form deep areas divided perform the so-called separation edges, known from WO 00/20216 and WO 00/20217. These separating edges are tapered profile with a wedge-shape cross-section. The tip of the wedge is preferably at the level of the surface of the printing form or slightly below it.

The entire length of the separating edge is the edge forms a virtually one-dimensional line, similar to a knife edge. Although this line and divides the distinguished chap is another engraving deep areas of the printing form, it does not lead to the formation of distinct breaks or unsealed dividing lines between the sealed sections of the print. This provided in printed form, the separating edge prevents the edges of adjacent parcels of print, sealed layers of paste inks of different thickness, to lose its shape after transferring the paint on the canvas. This method allows you to create by means of metallographic printing smallest overlapping each other structural elements of the image with different thickness of paint layers and high contour sharpness.

In the case when the printing process is engraved in printed form grooves or at least some of these recesses do not fill out the printed ink, these do not carry the paint separate sections of the printing form only perform the function of creaser, in the process of metallographic printing form the basis of the so-called blind embossing. Although due to the lack of printing inks such blind embossed elements and do not form a visually distinct imprint in its proportions and tactile properties, they are similar to the above-described sealed areas of the image.

Then using manufactured as described above printing plate seal carrier data.

Highly the clamping force causes the formation of the base material in the process of metallographic printing additional embossed embossed elements, visible including on the reverse surface of the base.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention to create a proposed invention imprint on the basis of the halftone image of the original use of the method lies in the fact that

1. Determine the number of tone gradations, which from a technological point of view you want to use for printing reproduction of a halftone image of an original (e.g., pictures) with the required quality.

In this regard, it should again be noted that the more tonal gradations used for printing reproduction of the original, the higher the degree of approximation of the obtained printing imprint to this original. However, empirically it was found that even when using five or six different intensity tones can be provided with sufficient fidelity semitones.

2. Based on the grayscale of the original form of the sample of tone gradations.

3. Define printing ink, suitable from a technological point of view for printing reproduction of halftone plot.

4. Determine the range of transparency of printing ink (if the latter is unknown), and put tonal gradation in accordance with the thickness of paint layers, respectively, the depth of engraving

5. Define the parameters to be executed in print form different engraving depth of individual sections, the separation edges, holding the paint structures and other elements.

6. Produce printed form by removal of material from the respective surface areas, preferably described in WO 97/48555 method of engraving.

7. To assess the accuracy of printing reproduction of the original carry out the proofs, if necessary, amend.

To increase rigidity of a data carrier in some cases it may be appropriate to cover proposed in the invention of the halftone image of any coating, such as lacquer layer. This lacquer may contain substances such as phosphors and other similar substances, or other creating a certain effect pigments, for example, liquid crystal pigments, the presence of which the characteristic features allows the use of these substances as signs of authenticity. In addition, the varnish can be matte or glossy. A protective layer of lacquer also increases the effect of gloss and protects the print.

As bases, respectively materials for the manufacture of the data carrier can be suitable for metallographic printing materials such as paper, including coated with polim rname films or having a different coating, polymer films and multilayer composite materials. Proposed in the invention method is most suitable for sealing media data, to the degree of protection from forgery are put forward high requirements - for example, protected against forgery and valuable documents, such as banknotes, stocks, bonds, certificates, cheques and other similar documents.

Directly adjacent to other stations and the area was sealed in colorful layers of different thickness and arranged in any sequence, can form very complex prints. Proposed in the invention is a technical solution allows to significantly broaden the visual possibilities of prints made by the method of metallographic printing.

In addition, the proposed invention is a method of manufacturing a properly sealed media data has a significant economic benefits, since the surface of the medium to be sealed colorful layers of different thickness, are sealed in a single working operation of the same printing ink.

Sealed in accordance with the invention, the media data have a high degree of protection against forgery, as inflicted on them by the method of metallographic printing prints may not be in the produced common printing methods. To reproduce the accuracy of the register, peculiar proposed in the invention fingerprint, respectively, to simulate forming separate parts by overlap, for example, two different prints that are performed during consecutive and independent from each other printing processes, respectively stamping, impossible.

In addition, distinguishable by touch elements proposed in the invention, the images provide more effective protection of data media from playing them by color Photocopying or scanning.

In accordance with the invention, a method of metallographic printing, and above all a method of gravure printing with steel engravings, allows you to create a distinctive, easily recognized even by non-specialist imprint, respectively embossed image that cannot be reproduced in other common methods of printing. Based on the foregoing proposed in the invention is a method of gravure printing with steel engravings preferably sealed storage media, first and foremost protected from forgery and valuable documents, such as banknotes, stocks, bonds, certificates, cheques and other similar instruments to the extent of the protection from forgery are put forward higher requirements.

Below are the advantages of the invention is Asnani with reference to examples and drawings. Specified in the description of the characteristics and embodiments of the invention can be used both separately and in any combination. The examples represent preferred embodiments of the invention, but the invention is in no way limited to the described examples. The proportions shown in the drawings, the objects may not match the actual ratios of dimensions and selected reasons of clarity. Attached to the description of the drawings in particular shows:

figure 1 presents a General view of the banknote in the plan,

figure 2 is a halftone original,

figure 3 is divided into monochromatic halftone fragments halftone original,

figure 4 - proposed in the invention grayscale image with separate components of his land,

figure 5 grayscale the original image with overlaid dot raster

on figa - fragment shown in figure 5 of the original

on figb - view in plan proposed in the invention of print,

figure 6 is divided into monochromatic halftone fragments halftone original with overlaid dot raster

on figa - fragment shown in Fig.6 of the original

on figb - view in plan proposed in the invention of print,

7 grayscale the original image overlaid with separate sections of the hypoxia tonal gradations,

on Fig - divided into monochromatic halftone fragments halftone original linear raster

on figa - fragment shown in Fig the original

on figb - view in plan proposed in the invention of print,

figure 9 grayscale the original image overlaid with a linear raster

on figa - fragment shown in Fig.9 of the original

on figb - view in plan proposed in the invention of print,

figure 10 is another embodiment of the proposed invention in print,

on figa and 10B - fragments shown in figure 10 image fine structures

figure 11 is a view in plan of the proposed invention in print with more distinguishable to the touch structural elements,

on figa - image in the context proposed in the invention of the printing form,

on figb proposed in the invention, the data carrier in the cross-section plane a-a through 11,

on Fig and 13 - proposed in the invention of the printing form in section, and

on Fig proposed in the invention, the media data in the section.

Figure 1 as an example of the data storage device 1 schematically shows a banknote. Printed on banknote printed image is usually a combination of several superimposed on each of the printed images (prints), each of which is made different from other printing the data of the image printing technique. As shown in the drawing, bill applied, for example, a printed image 2, reproducing the digit "5". This printed image 2 obtained from a conventional method of metallographic printing, i.e. in that the printed image is different brightness are transmitted using linear screen with variable distance between the lines or variable-width lines. On the bill caused further executed by the offset printing method, a background pattern 3 of fine lines and performed by the method of letterpress printing serial number 4. In addition, the bill may also have other separate parts, sealed by the method of screen printing or other methods.

Proposed in the invention of the stamp 5, reproducing the portrait image, shown on the drawing example is provided in a separate part of the banknote and depicted only schematically. More details of such print (printed image), sealed them with the data carrier, and used to receive the imprint of the printing form are discussed below in the following examples with reference to the relevant drawings.

Figure 2 shows a grayscale image, which is original to offer in the invention of the printing halftone images. In this case we are talking about black-and-white pictures playing which consists of individual difference is imich the naked eye raster elements. Visible in figure 2 raster is selected only as an auxiliary for printing reproduction "pictures". Shown in figure 2, the original is a fragment of a portrait image, and it should be considered as classic grayscale image, in which between the lightest tone, in this case white and most dark tone, in this case black, there are many intermediate shades.

In accordance with the invention, a halftone image of the original is divided into halftone fragments. Figure 3 shows an example of a halftone image of the original, consisting of separate solid fragments of five different tonal gradations, namely fragments of plain white, light gray, medium gray, dark gray and black colors, and are derived is shown in figure 2, the halftone image of the original. These are shown in figure 2, respectively figure 3, the originals can impose a raster, with the resulting screening to separate parts of the surface of the image (the image elements or pixels) are associated with certain tonal gradation.

To split the image of the original on separate its component parts can be used any rasters. This purpose can be used and a simple R is regular geometric patterns, and statistically distributed, irregular and complex structures. Similarly, the contours of individual sections of the image can be shaped in any form.

For example, among other things, you can use rasters systems parallel, almost parallel, spiral, star, intersecting or interlocking zigzag lines, wavy, curved, circular or rectilinear shape, rasters with Gelosie and rasters with different geometric shapes, such as circles, ellipses, triangles, and other polygons.

Obviously, to split the original into separate constituent parts described above rasters of different types can be used in various combinations with each other. In accordance with this, the original image can be divided into separate its component parts in any way with respect to only one of the limiting conditions under which is printed in at least one individual of a printed halftone image separate its component parts must adjoin to each other.

After splitting the image of the original on a separate constituent parts, each of which corresponds to a certain tone gradation, these individual parts of the image, in turn, are placed in sootvetstvuuschey the depth of engraving, necessary to convert the original engraving printed on the form for metallographic printing. The depth of the engraving printed in the form of grooves depends on the characteristics of printing inks and is determined mainly by the extent to which can vary its transparency.

In further examples are illustrated various embodiments of the invention.

Example 1

The need for reproduction, which has the maximum similarity with the original, the original image should be rasterized by its surface splitting its constituent parts items. This option is shown in figure 4. In this case, a separate parcels 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 of the image is obtained on the basis of the original. In other words, each of these separate areas of the image correspond to a particular graphical plot of the original. The partitioning of the original in such separate its component parts is done automatically when creating a monochromatic halftone fragments, in which certain parts of the original tonal gradations which lie in a certain interval, are associated with certain areas of an image reproduced in the subsequent tone a uniform degree of lightness. The result of such a surface is the surface split into separate sections of the original specific tonal gradation distributed over separate intervals of the extent of their lightness, and all colors that lie within the same interval of the extent of their lightness, are played by a tone of the same values. If, for example, five intervals of changes in the values of the tones, the entire range of tonal gradations from 0 to 100% is divided into five, for example, equal parts, i.e. from 1 to 20%21 to 40%41 to 60%, etc. In all subsequent tones, lying in one of the intervals of the extent of their lightness, are reproduced in the same tone, for example, the maximum in this interval tonal gradations of values, i.e. tone, the degree of lightness which lies in the interval from 1 to 20%, are reproduced the same tone with the degree of lightness equal to, for example, 20%, tone, degree of lightness which lies in the interval from 21 to 40%, are reproduced tone with the degree of lightness equal to 40%, etc. thus in the above example uses five tones with the degree of lightness equal to 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. However, the entire range of tonal gradations can be subdivided and on several equal intervals and play all lie in each of these tones with the degree of lightness equal to, for example, 0%, 30%, 60%, 80%, 90% and 100%. In this case, for example, the lighter parts of the image are regarded as less important compared to the dark parts. You must also take into account that the solid portions of the image are often not clicks the form of a continuous surface, and are separate locally limited areas, which may be distributed over the entire area of the image, and therefore each such individual locally restricted areas must be proposed in the invention a separate part of the image with the corresponding degree of lightness of tone. All individual parts of the image that form halftone segments in the same tone corresponds to one and the same engraving depth of the recesses in the printed form, respectively, one and the same film thickness throughout the sheet. In this case the lines are conventionally imposed on the original raster accurately follow the contours of those portions of the original, each of which corresponds to tone certain degree of lightness. In other words, shown in figure 4 images in this case, there is, for example, three black sub-district 6, the dimensions of which correspond exactly to the dimensions of the darkest parts of the original. In addition, in this image there are separate areas corresponding to dark gray (7), medium-gray (8) and light gray (9), and white (10) parts of the original. Therefore, the amount of such isolated areas, and thus the depth of the engraving in the following in printed form recesses are defined directly by the size of the corresponding the adequate parts of the image of the original. Thus, the obtained data about the size of an image section, and delivered to this specific area of the image according to the degree of lightness of tone and related to the depth of the engraving in printed form hollows are the data that you need to know to convert the image of the original in the engraving.

Shown in figure 4 black dividing lines 11 are not normally visible on the print. These lines are shown in the drawing only in order to more clearly define the limits of the individual sections of the image. In the imprint of the individual image areas directly adjoin one another along the black lines and not separate them from each other. In the print obtained using the printing plate with the above-described separation edge, reaching almost to the level of the surface of the printing form, in the area shown in figure 4 black lines under certain conditions you can see extremely thin light, but still covered with paint, i.e. printed line. A separate plot 10 images, which looks at the imprint of the white when it is applied on the white basis is an unsealed position in the impression that the rest formed a solid colored layer.

Example 2

Along with described in example 1 by the method, according to which origin is l divided into separate its component parts depending on its narrative content, rasterize the original for its splitting, which on subsequent printed image areas can and by imposing on the original single raster. In accordance with this variant on the original impose raster, i.e. the original image is divided into separate constituent parts completely independently of its narrative content. These selected portions of an image of the original, which correspond to the individual parts, components in the subsequent proposed in the invention of print, set in accordance tonal gradation. The smaller raster, i.e. the smaller the sizes obtained by rasterizing the individual parts of the proposed invention in a grayscale image, the more detail the image of the original can be transmitted in a printed halftone image. These tonal gradations then the above by count in the depth of the engraving printed in the form of recesses.

In the simplest case, there is a point raster. In the shown figure 5 example of such a raster overlay is shown in figure 2 the original. As a result of this screening, the original is divided into square separate sections 12 of the same size. In accordance with this single section 12 of the image is represented as a square/dot. On figa display is indicated on figure 5 by the letter "X" fragment depicted in figure 5 of the original. Shown in figure 5 and 5A black lines, which was mentioned in example 1 are used only for visual differentiation in the drawing the various parts of the image. However, in the printed image these black lines are not visible.

At the next stage, each square corresponding to each raster point is mapped to a certain degree of lightness of tone or, equivalently, tone gradation. If one square tones several gradations for them, for example by integrating determine the average value, which is determined in the following tone gradation of the whole dot. Since in this example as the original used is shown in figure 2 classic grayscale image, when it is rasterized by this method are many different tonal gradations, which are then converted to corresponding values of the depth of the engraving printed in the form of recesses.

In contrast to the known printed forms for autodeploy gravure proposed in the invention are engraved in printed form deep areas corresponding to the individual image areas are so close to each other that they are separated from one another just above the separating edges. Although such separation edges in the printed Faure is e and is separated physically from each other separate dots (raster cell), however, from the viewpoint of printing techniques they despite the paste-like ink does not prevent the immediate passage in the printed image from one dot to another. Thus, in the imprint of the individual raster points are not separated from each other unsealed lines, and in the best case - lighter printed lines. Such lines are usually extremely small or thin, so they are essentially impossible to see in print. Thus obtained image is shown in figb, and in this case the individual squares have already been delivered in compliance with the relevant tonal gradation. Shown in figb bright lines indicate the location of the dividing edges is made on the printing form engraving and boundaries adjacent to each other in the lamination of the components of its separate parts. In fact, these lines are not in the impression completely unsealed lines.

For clarity of the drawings shows a relatively large raster. With such a large frequency printed image formed by such large separate areas with specific assigned tonal gradations will therefore look like a relatively abstract. Obviously, the need for reproduction, more accurately corresponding to the original, is learn to use a raster with a much smaller frequency, to ensure that the resulting dot was in the form of squares is significantly smaller, less visible separately to the human eye.

Example 3

Shown at 6, 6A and 6b, the example is similar to example 2, based on the use of dots. However, in contrast to the above example in this case, the raster impose not on the classic grayscale image shown in figure 2, as shown in figure 3 grayscale image consisting of halftone fragments.

Analogously to example 2 each raster point is mapped to a certain tone gradation. Because converting the original document into a bitmap, the number of tone gradations is limited to five, broken into separate dot image also has, as shown in figa, only five different tonal gradations. In other words, in this example the image is created using a number of different tonal gradations, which corresponds to the same amount of depth of the engraving printed in the form of recesses.

Figure 6 shows a grayscale image with overlaid dot pattern consisting of a single solid fragments of five different tonal gradations. On figa shown marked on IG position "X" slice of this image after the statement in line individual raster points of different tonal gradations. On figb shows the corresponding shown in figa image impression which one raster point corresponds to a single section 12.

All other explanations discussed in example 2, apply to this example.

Example 4

Shown in Fig.7. example based on is shown in figure 4 halftone fragments again define certain areas of an image formed on the basis of the narrative content of the original. The boundaries of such isolated areas indicated by black lines 11. These separate sections then impose the classic grayscale image shown in figure 2. Thereafter, selected portions of an image can be matched with certain tonal gradations, the number of which, however, unlike example 1 does not need to be limited to five and may be subject to many tonal gradations present in the original. In other words, unlike example 1 black separate parts 6, 6' and 6" are not represented solely as black individual sections 6 and can be differentiated further by various tonal gradations, ranging from dark gray to black. This also applies to dark-gray, some sections 7 and 7', as well as medium gray parts 8 and 8'. In addition there is not only the possibility of the stop according to one specific area of the image only one, strict tonal gradation, but also the ability to play within a specific area of the image different tonal gradation with smooth transitions between them, respectively, with a smooth change. From the viewpoint of printing techniques such smooth change of tone gradations within one specific area of the image can be ensured by performing in printed form recesses with inclined surface of the bottom, equipped, if necessary, dividing partitions or holding paint the partitions, as described in example 8 and shown in Fig.

Example 5

Instead of dots as shown in Fig, use, and linear raster, the imposition of which is shown in figure 3 gray item can be broken into multiple adjacent to each other parallel strips 13. In this embodiment, on the original image are superimposed horizontal parallel lines 11. However, in this case, each strip is mapped is not a single, well-defined tone gradation, and instead, the tone gradation in the range of a strip in accordance with the obtained in the second stage monochromatic halftone fragments if their tonal gradations vary according to the length of the strips. Thus, in this example, there is a separate part from the expression on the right and left, as well as above and below is limited to the dividing lines 11, respectively, in printed form is limited to separating edges. The contours of an image section on the left and right are determined by thematic content of the image of the original and pass along the boundaries of the individual parts of the image having a certain tone gradation, whereas the position of the dividing lines, limiting such a separate part of the image at the top and bottom, is determined by the position of the lines superimposed on the original image linear raster. Certain areas of an image, the width of which is less than the distance between the raster lines, or average width of the strip between its bounding lines, then in accordance with the average value assign a specific tonal gradation, or, as shown in the drawing, they are allocated within the strips dividing lines.

On figa in the example shown marked on Fig position "X" fragment with three stripes 13. On figb shown corresponding to this fragment of "X" imprint.

Shown in figb bright line bordering portions of your image, and in this case serve only for better visualizing their exact dimensions and indicate that the printing plate separating edges.

Strips, and u is contained within them areas, which is set in accordance with various tonal gradation, in this case separated from each other by a dividing edges. If the lines are linear screen is oriented transversely to the direction of movement of the wiping roller/squeegee, such units of the printing form on the printing elements are sufficient. If the lines are linear raster oriented along the direction of movement of the erase roller/squeegee, over long sections that are located within one of the strips and which is set in accordance with the same tone gradation, if necessary, in order to avoid "splash" of these inks in the printing process to be divided into smaller with additional separation of the edges. At the location of such separation of the edges obtained in the subsequent imprint can, under certain conditions, to remain sealed thin layer of colorful bright line. If necessary to completely eliminate the presence of such lines in the impression in the area of the surface of the printing form can also be provided within a separate strips so-called "holding paint items that described in example 8 and shown in Fig. These holding paint items do not reach the level of the surface of the printing form, and the remaining from them come the IOM in subsequent imprint printed lines are less noticeable in comparison with the printed lines, leave the imprint of the separating edges.

Example 6

Shown in figure 9 differs from the one described in example 5 and shown in Fig-8b variant the fact that the quality of the original is not based on a halftone image fragments, shown in figure 3, as shown in figure 2 classic grayscale image, which impose a linear raster. Individual areas of this image is similar to example 5, the top and bottom are separated from each other by separate lines 11 and have the form of separate strips, within each of which may be present, as it is well seen on figa, any number of different tonal gradations. From the point of view of media transitions between different tonal gradations within one strips are created by a corresponding execution of the printing form, for which it within the same strip, which in turn is separated from adjacent strips separating edges, engrave deepening of the inclined surface of the bottom. When printed with this printing form on a data carrier for availability in printed form recesses with inclined surface of the bottom are colorful layers gradually increasing, respectively decreasing, thickness, perceived by the human eye as the plots, the tone of which gradually changes in the direction of the cigar-lighter or darker. In this embodiment, similarly to the example 5, it is expedient to provide additional separation of the edges and within the individual strips. Along with this, to avoid overflow of printing ink from one halftone area to another and from one strip to another, and also to avoid splashing, printing inks and in this case, you can engrave holding paint patterns. Shown in figb bright lines are separated from each other by a dividing edges of some areas in the print.

Example 7

Figure 10 shows a variant in which the size and shape of certain parts of the image are determined by the free printing design image of the original. In this embodiment of the proposed invention in the image is determined not by computing the split photographic original halftone fragments, each of which is mapped to one tone gradation, and by splitting the image of the original on separate sites from the point of view of the design approach. Using a tonal gradations and individual sections are reproduced various design tools, such as various shades, colors and others. Figure 10 in a stylized manner shown presented in figure 2 detail of the portrait, to play to the showing, there are four different tonal gradation, namely white (10), light grey (9), dark grey (7) black (6) colors.

Example 8

Unlike shown in figure 10 eyebrow, "I", which in the simplest version of the print is reproduced in it in the form of unstructured black surface figa and 10B shows the various options for the design of eyebrows, "I"whose image depending on the scene content of the original supplied with small structures. With this in mind, in the appropriate printed form have not only one corresponding to the contour of the eyebrows engraved recess, and engrave additional rough figure, which in the impression formed the necessary small patterns.

Such a rough figure, which, on the one hand, serves to hold the ink, and on the other hand, affects the gloss printed, respectively embossed parts of the printed image and created their visual impact can be engraved in the bottom of the recesses corresponding to incarnate in the etching selected portions of an image, through the use of engraving tools appropriate form and moving in the appropriate path. This rough drawing is performed, for example, as described in WO 97/48555 method in the process of engraving printing forms on the bottom of the recesses formed in places the remote with her material. When the length and/or width of individual sections more than about 100 microns in printed form appropriate to provide, for example, holding a paint patterns. When using an engraving tool with a large radius of the top of a round form, and when they move on located close to each other trajectories (for example, approximately 10 μm from each other) in print form remain engraved in her deepening with a smooth bottom, allowing you to get on the basis of smooth and approaching its reflecting properties rather brilliant sealed, respectively, embossed or textured surface. When using an engraving tool with a small radius of rounding of the tops of the pointed shape and when it is moving apart from each other at a greater distance paths (such as paths, separated from each other by more than 50 microns) in print form remain engraved in her deepening with rough, profiled, allowing you to get on the basis of opaque and diffuse light-scattering sealed, respectively embossed or raised surface.

Rough drawing can be uniform throughout the impression, however, in principle there is also the possibility to change in the process of etching recesses in the printed form, according to the government in the form of stamping, the direction of movement of the engraving tool on its separate parts. Grooves, with the engraving engraving which the tool moves on a straight line, but rotated relative to each other, for example, 90° trajectories that allow you to get on the basis of visually distinguished between a sealed, respectively, embossed or textured surface with different reflective properties. The same applies to prints, engraving the engraving which the tool moves on a straight line or meanjournal trajectories, in comparison with the recesses, when the engraving engraving which the tool is moved along a spiral or concentric trajectories. These effects not only can be used to give the blind emboss or imprint more attractive or noticeable appearance, but simultaneously allow for a greater degree of protection against forgery. Purposeful use of such equipment engraving allows you to purposefully get printed, respectively, embossed, plot superimposed fine structure, which, for example, graphically complement contained in the image information, but which are clearly visible only at certain angles of view, respectively, of the reflection or under a magnifying glass.

the using the above-mentioned small structures such as those shown figa and 10B, allows only due to the special techniques of etching recesses in the printed form to add, for example, the image eyebrows individual hairs as fine structure. In the shown figa example, the engraving tool is moved along concentric paths along the contours of the engraving printed in the form of a recess, the shape of which correspond to the reproducing eyebrow specific area of the image, then as shown in figb example, the engraving tool is moved along the parallel between the lines. Similarly, you can use small patterns and different type, for example in the form of inclined hatches raster with intersecting lines, etc.

Example 9

Proposed in the invention grayscale image already has, as mentioned in the beginning of the description, certain perceptible to the touch due to the varying thickness of paint layers on a paper basis and making it in the process of printing a relief structure in the area of individual sections of the image different tonal gradations. Optionally, to increase the appearance of the proposed in the invention of the stamp to the touch is obtained, for example, in accordance with examples 1-8 printed image can be provided more distinguishable to the touch structures Corresponding to similar structures in relief immediately runs in printed form for metallographic printing in the process of engraving, thanks in this case to obtain the proposed invention imprint with a high degree of distinctiveness to the touch the printing process is carried out in one pass. The amount of such additional structural elements, they transmit tonal gradations and their location should be determined individually for each case and agree with tactile and visual effects that you want to retrieve.

Figure 11 schematically illustrates the proposed invention the seal 20, which represents a grey wedge and provided with an additional distinguishable to the touch structural elements. This grey wedge has four square fields 21, 22, 23, 24, the tone of each of which corresponds to one of four different gradations. Each square box has a side length of, for example, 5 mm and corresponds to one specific area of the image.

Such "grayscale image" due to the relief structure forming his imprint is already discernible to the touch. Because gray tones in this print continuously changes from "dark" to "bright", the beginning of a grey wedge, i.e. the black edges easily discernible to the touch. However, other fields of gray wedge in less distinguishable to the touch, since the grayscale tone at the transition from one field grey wedge to another step change is observed for decreasing only with small step. In the main scene image contents "embedded" as more distinguishable to the touch structural elements small black circles 25, 26, 27, 28, one in each square box. These additional structural elements deepening in printed form engraved in it in much greater depth than is necessary for reproduction in print of the black tone. Therefore, the relief of such structural elements has a greater differential in height than the black section 21 of the gray wedge. Thus structural elements 25-28 type "bumps" are square on separate areas of the impression. In printed form, these "bumps" and the corresponding selected portions of an image of recesses separated from each other by a dividing edges, and therefore the impression these "bumps" and the individual sections of the image are located with precise registration relative to each other. Such structural elements in the form of "bumps" well distinguishable by touch with any directions at all, even on black, some parts of the image regardless of their contrast or changes in gray tones. Structural element 25 optical has the same color as the square box 21, and therefore visible only to the touch, but not visually. Obviously, more distinguishable to the touch structural what ways can not only take the form of a circle, but any other form, such as a square shape, the shape of the letters or other form. These individual structural elements can be placed anywhere in the main image. In this case, each distinguishable by touch of the structural element is located in the center of the corresponding individual area of the printed image. However, with equal success for more discernible to the touch structural elements can be provided only in every second or third square a separate section of the printed image. You can vary not only the form of such additional structural elements, but also their sizes. In addition, they may have different tonal gradation.

In another embodiment, described, for example, in example 1 and shown in figure 4 separate areas of the image can directly be distinguished from each other discernible in the impression to the touch, and possibly distinguishable visually framing lines. In this embodiment, described in example 1 and shown in figure 4 are black and not visible in the print-line perform discernible to the touch and visually. In the preferred embodiment, these lines extremely dark tone gradations, preferably black. Achieved benefit is relatively easy perception of such lines to the touch and vozmojnostyah use as additional distinguishable to the touch of the structural elements. Such lines can vary, for example, thickness or they may be provided only in a specific part of the image.

To enhance the distinctiveness of the imprint to the touch, it is preferable to use the structural elements of a darker tone compared to the degree of lightness of tone adjacent individual sections of the image, because the darker tone also means a greater elevation difference in height resulting from the thickness of the paint layer and the height of the resulting embossing relief, and due to this it is easier to distinguish by touch. In principle, the invention does not exclude the possibility of using the structural elements of a lighter colour compared with the degree of lightness of tone adjacent individual sections of the image. In this case, such structural elements lighter tones to enhance their distinctiveness to the touch should not be too small, because their relief structure is generally less pronounced, so they are harder to distinguish by touch in comparison with protruding above the surface of the imprint of the structural elements. In this example, the part visible on the touch structural elements are distinguishable only by touch, and the other part at the same time perceptible to the touch and visually. Visible only to the touch of the structural element 25 "integrer the van in the first main square box 21. This structural element, and the main square field in which it is located, have the same - black is the color, but the structural element obtained by transferring the ink on the basis of engraved printed in the form of a recess of greater depth and therefore has a greater difference in height of your terrain compared to the main square field. In areas occupied by the structural element and the main square field, the paint layer varies its thickness, which, however, in both of these areas are chosen so that the printing ink has not had translucent properties, and the structural element and the main square field in which it is located, had thus the same tone and were indistinguishable from each other visually in the form of the plan. However, at an acute angle view some discernible to the touch structural elements under certain conditions depending on their performance becomes visible by the shadows that they cast, even if the plan they are visually not distinguishable from the surrounding background. In this case, distinguishable by touch of the structural elements by giving them the appropriate shape to display some becoming visible at an acute angle information, which may serve as an additional sign of authenticity. In compliance and that, when necessary, to provide the impression of more discernible to the touch structure, which should not be visible, you must use the structural elements, the tone of which coincides with the tone of the surrounding background, but which are distinguishable from him at the touch of relief.

As in the case of tactile perception is a subjective sensation, the minimum elevation difference, from which it can be distinguished by touch, you can define only very approximately. The ability to distinguish by touch relief structure of the stamp along with the absolute height of the terrain and the individual sensitivity of the fingers depends on the two-dimensional extent of the printed patterns and, is whether the touch structure separately or in a relief environment.

However, in the first approximation can be based on the following data. The relief obtained by metallographic printing the print when its height is less than approximately 50 μm is practically not perceptible to the touch. Embossed areas with a height of about 50 to 60 microns well distinguishable by touch. When the terrain drops more than 60 μm, the relief obtained by the method of metallographic printing the print clearly distinguishable to the touch.

On figa shows proposed in the invention of the printing form 30 for metallographic printing used to obtain figure 11 shows the impression and the cutaway plane a-a in Fig. Each of vygravirovany the x in this printed form sections 31, 32, 33 and 34 corresponds to one of the components of the finished print square fields with an integrated discernible to the touch structural element. Engraved in printed form recesses corresponding to these square fields, and deepening corresponding distinguishable to the touch structural elements, separated from each other by a dividing edges 39, not reaching the level of the surface of the printing form. On the section 34 is additionally provided for holding the paint structure, which in the drawing is shown in the form of zigzag lines and which gives the impression of square field surface 24 corresponding texture (see figb).

On figb in the section plane a-a in Fig shows the carrier 40 data figure 11 shows the imprint. The paper base 50 of this data carrier is formed as a result of its relief embossing elements with different degrees of severity, depending on the depth of the engraved printed in the form of grooves and the thickness of the paint layer. In the black area of the main square field 21 the basis of the data carrier has a pronounced embossed relief and covered in the most thick layer 41 of paint. The farther to the right from this main square field severity embossed topography and thickness applied on the basis of the layers 42, 43, 44 inks on PEFC is blowing square fields 22, 23, 24, each of which has a lighter tone compared to the adjacent left square field gradually decreases. For more discernible to the touch structural elements 25, 26, 27, 28 provided on each of these fields are visible in the drawing in the form of bumps of different heights.

Be aware that the height of the relief formed on the surface of the media data does not match the depth of the engraved printed in the form of recesses. Shown in figb the surface topography shown in idealised form. Formed in the printing process, the topography on the substrate surface due to local seal of its material and the application of paint layers with a certain thickness. The total height of the elevation is measured from the normal level, i.e. not sealed and embossed surface of the data carrier. In practice, the height obtained on the basis of topography and depth engraved in printed form recesses significantly differ. Such differences between the height obtained on the basis of elevation and depth engraved in printed form recesses due to the fact that in the process of printing the data carrier, according to its base, is pressed into the engraved in printed form cavities are not up to their floor, and also the fact that in these engraved in printed form to the deepe which deposits the ink is not fully transferred to the data carrier. In accordance with this depth engraved in printed form recesses intended to receive the imprint of the embossed structures, should be approximately 40 to 250 microns, preferably from about 55 to 150 μm. The height obtained in the impression at that depth, engraved in printed form recesses relief structures is about 5 to 100, preferably from 25 to 80 μm. Will engraved in printed form the recess, the depth of which lies in the boundary interval values, to the formation of the imprint with more relief or, conversely, a flat surface, in each case depends on the slope (angle of elevation) of the walls engraved in printed form recesses, the properties of the printed base (its strength, plastic deformability) and from the properties of the printed ink.

Because, as noted above, the height of elevation of the finished print is not only dependent on the depth of engraving printing forms, but also on the characteristics of the printed substrate and printing inks, in extreme cases, to obtain relief print enough engraving depth of 40 μm, while the other parameters of the substrate material and printing process for obtaining such a print may be insufficient and the engraving depth of 50 μm. But in any case, intended for the implementation of the relief areas of the imprint cavities of the printing form must be deeper recesses, for performing so-called flat, i.e. not discernible to the touch, plots of the same fingerprint.

Example 10

On the accompanying drawings 12-14 as the example shows various embodiments of the proposed invention of the printing form, and sealed with the media data. It is obvious, however, that this description applies not only to shown in the drawings, specific variants of the invention, but is intended more generally to explain the basic idea of the latter.

On Fig-14 schematically shows fragments of engraved surface proposed in the invention of the printing plate 60 for metallographic printing, suitable for implementation by means of imprint, shown in figure 4. Engraved in printed form the recess 61 has a substantial depth and is suitable for forming, for example, indicated by the black color section of the fingerprint. In the immediate vicinity of the recess 61 is separated from the latter by a dividing edge 39 engraved recess 62 lesser depth, suitable for forming, for example, light-gray area of the print. Next to light gray private area footprint provides a middle gray is a separate part, which corresponds engraved in print FD is IU the recess 63. Next, the dark-gray area of the fingerprint matches in printed form broad and deep engraved to the recess 64. Engraving ends located after section 65, suitable to run with him through the medium gray area of the print, plot 66, suitable for performing a light gray area of the print. All forming the engraving depth plots 61-66 are separated from each other by a dividing edges 39. Printed form, shown Fig corresponds shown in Fig with the difference that a wide section 66 has an additional holding the paint structure, which Fig marked zigzag reliefs bottom section 66.

The carrier 70 data, which could be sealed with the help of such printed forms, shown in section on Fig. It is based on 50, in this case the emission of paper, sealed with the use of translucent paint method of metallographic printing, and has undergone the printing process corresponding deformation. As described above, by deep engraved areas of the printing form perform having a greater height of the relief embossed areas of the printout, sealed with a thick layer of colorful, while using less deep engraved areas of the form that is less deformation of the media data, the last in the discharging less relief areas, the paint layer which has a smaller thickness. The area marked on Fig position 61 corresponds to the area marked on Fig position 71. Distinct the distinct terrain and thick paint layer. Located to the right of this section of the recess 79 is made of a separating edge 39. Light grey sealed section 72 of smaller diameter than section 71, a layer of colorful, seamless adjacent to the black section 71 of the fingerprint, in spite of the separating edge. Impressive medium-gray areas 73 and 75 have a relatively thicker layer of paint and more embossing. Having significantly more embossing and covered with a thicker layer of colorful section 74 of the fingerprint impression dark grey. With only weakly expressed embossed and covered with a thin layer of colorful plot 76 produces the print impression of light grey. As shown in the drawing area of the print surface is expressed relief structure caused by the presence of the embossed relief, and thick layers of paint. This relief structure is easily discernible to the touch even to non-specialists and is a suitable for a single-control protective criterion.

1. The use of the printing plate engraved surface which are directly primasius the e to each other separate parts of at least three different values of the depth of engraving, for the print method of metallographic printing halftone images depicting the story in the three-dimensional representation using the play of light and shadow and/or plastic effects.

2. The use according to claim 1 of the printing form for printing by the method of metallographic printing the specified halftone image reproducing portrait (5).

3. The use according to claim 1 of the printing form for printing by the method of metallographic printing the specified grayscale image, some parts of which are halftone screening of the original due to the imposition of a raster.

4. The use according to claim 1 of the printing form for printing by the method of metallographic printing the specified grayscale image, some parts of which are halftone screening of the original due to the imposition of a dot screen (12).

5. The use according to claim 1 of the printing form for printing by the method of metallographic printing the specified grayscale image, some parts of which are halftone screening of the original due to the imposition of a raster formed on the basis of information contained in the half-tone image of the original visual information.

6. The use according to claim 1 of the printing form for printing by the method of metallographic printing the specified grayscale image, some parts of which are discernible to the touch.

Frienemies according to claim 1 of the printing form for printing by the method of metallographic printing the specified halftone image, having more distinguishable to the touch structural elements.

8. The use according to claim 1 of the printing form for printing by the method of metallographic printing the specified halftone image, in some areas which is a discernible to the touch structural element.

9. The use according to claim 1 of the printing form for printing by the method of metallographic printing the specified halftone image, in some areas which is a discernible to the touch structural element having a larger or smaller compared to an individual plot a grayscale image differential relief.

10. The use according to claim 1 of the printing form for printing by the method of metallographic printing the specified halftone image, in some areas which is a discernible to the touch and visually indistinguishable structural element.

11. The use according to claim 1 of the printing form for printing by the method of metallographic printing the specified grayscale image of at least part of individual sections which has a rough figure, calling visually distinguishable reflection of light.

12. The use according to claim 1 of the printing form for printing by the method of metallographic printing the specified grayscale image, in which at least parts of superimposed fine structure, which is Lieut created on them visual impression and which have different orientation in various separate parts of a grayscale image.

13. The use according to claim 1 printed forms, which are directly adjacent to each other separate parts have the same and/or different depth of the engraving.



 

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FIELD: optically changeable elements and application thereof as protective element for preventing counterfeiting of valuable documents or objects.

SUBSTANCE: the optically changeable element at least on sections of surface contains a boundary plane, which constitutes an optically active structure, which projects spatially to the front or to the back relatively to imaginary supporting surface. The boundary surface has free form surface, which appears three-dimensional to observer. The free form surface is composed of a section of boundary surface which is lens-like, or, in other words, appears spatially convex or shifted backwards, with creation of magnification, reduction or distortion effects. The free form surface is made with a diffraction screen structure, lines of which practically follow the contour of free form surface.

EFFECT: the optically changeable element, as a part of decorative layered structure of transfer film or laminated film, due to creation of three-dimensional optical effects which obstruct counterfeiting, ensures protection of valuable documents or objects.

2 cl, 23 dwg

FIELD: production of valuable documents.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to the method, valuable document (1), made of counterfeiting-protected paper, is provided with marking distinguishable by touch (2) in form of laser-generated profiled structure, projecting from its surface. New protective feature for valuable documents is created.

EFFECT: increased reliability of valuable documents.

3 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: production of valuable documents.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to the method, valuable document (1), made of counterfeiting-protected paper, is provided with marking distinguishable by touch (2) in form of laser-generated profiled structure, projecting from its surface. New protective feature for valuable documents is created.

EFFECT: increased reliability of valuable documents.

3 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: printing technologies.

SUBSTANCE: steel printing form for deep printing contains on its surface at least one first section with printing structures, meant for producing an imprint by deep printing method, and at least one second section with structures intended for stamping, size of which is less than 100 micrometers. Parts of structures which are closest to the surface of printing form are positioned at a distance from 20 to 100 micrometers below level of printing form surface.

EFFECT: ensured stamping of securities and their simultaneous printing with usage of a single steel printing form for deep printing, and also high protection of securities from forgery is ensured.

9 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: data carrier 14 with forgery-protecting imprint 1 made by metallographic printing method consists of several contrasting structural elements 2,3,4,5,7,22, positioned with precise alignment to each other, while one portion of these structural elements 3,4,5,7 is made relief-type and can be sensed by touch, and other portion of structural element 2, 22 is made flat and undetectable by touch.

EFFECT: exceptionally high level of protection.

4 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: information medium sealed up by the method of metallographic printing, method for its manufacture, as well as a printing plate suitable for the purpose and the method for its manufacture.

SUBSTANCE: the information medium, first of all a bank note, securities or a similar document, which has at least one sealed up section (13) and at least one separate section (14) practically completely encircled by this section. The mentioned section (13) and the separate section (14) are sealed up by the metallographic method, and both sections are sealed up by paint coats of a different thickness and differ from one another.

EFFECT: provided a high degree of protection against forgery of the information medium.

21 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: information carriers, and methods for manufacture thereof.

SUBSTANCE: falsification-protected information carrier has at least one section, imprinted using metallographic printing method, consisting of profiled lines, which constitute an image. Given profiled lines have colored layer on part of their length and are made with production of non-imprinted continuation, while a smooth color transition is formed at the boundary between imprinted and non-imprinted section of line.

EFFECT: ensured high degree of protection of polygraphic products from falsification, with simple technology for manufacturing it.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: polygraphic products, in particular, methods for its manufacture, possible use for manufacturing various types of securities.

SUBSTANCE: falsification-protected information carrier has at least one section imprinted using metallographic printing method, which consists of profiled lines which constitute an image. The imprinted section is made of profiled lines, colored along whole length, alternating with profiled lines, having colored and non-colored profiled sections along their length.

EFFECT: ensured production of falsification-protected information carrier with an image, which is used for visual or machine-readable control of authenticity.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; printing industry; other industries; methods of production of the composition of the paint including the optically changeable pigments.

SUBSTANCE: the invention may be used in production of the optically changeable pigments. The optically changeable pigment includes the stratified set composed of the different materials, in which, at least, one of the layers represents the reflecting layer and, at least, one of the other layers represents the dielectric layer. At least, one of the surfaces of the indicated layers is subjected to the chemical action. The indicated materials also include, at least, one of the layers, which represents the semitransparent metallic layer made out of chromium and also one or more metals and-or their inorganic compounds. At that the metal and-or its inorganic compound are subject to corrosion. The subjected to the chemical action surface of the reflecting and dielectric layer along the edge of the layering block of the edge structure of the pigment is coated with the passivating agent, which is selected from the group consisting of the organic esters and the fluorinated organic esters of the phosphoric acid, having the following structural formula: (Rf-CH2-CH2-O)xP(O)(OH)y, where Rf=F-(CF2-CF2)z, х=1 or 2, у=2 or 1, х+у=3, z=l-7. The composition of the printing paint includes the binding system, water and the optically changeable pigment. The invention allows to diminish oxidation of the metallic layers and dissolution of the dielectric layers of the optically changeable pigment and to use it in the compositions of the printing paint.

EFFECT: the invention allows to diminish oxidation of the metallic layers and dissolution of the dielectric layers of the optically changeable pigment and to use it in the compositions of the printing paint.

22 cl, 7 ex

FIELD: producing decorative effects.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises applying solutions of salts of alkaline metals during printing. The alkaline metals inhibit solidification.

EFFECT: improved quality of coating.

14 cl

FIELD: dyes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates typography dyes, in particular, to dye for deep printing. Invention describes dye for deep printing comprising the first binding agent chosen from group of water-soluble or water-diluted acrylate oligomers, photoinitiating agent and, optionally, a monomer as the second binding agent chosen from group consisting of water-soluble or water-diluted monomers of polyethylene diacrylates or polyethoxylated triacrylates used for correction of the composition dye viscosity value. Dye can comprise additives, such as pigments, filling agents, photosensitizing agents, photostabilizing agents and special pigments. Dyes shows viscosity value from 7 to 60 Pa . s at temperature 40°C and dispersed completely in aqueous washing off solution with sodium hydroxide in the concentration from 0 to 0.5 wt.-%. Dyes possesses the excellent capacity for paint removing and it is can be precipitated from the indicated washing off solution.

EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of dye.

28 cl, 9 ex

The invention relates to the art graphics and can be used in original art, industrial art, decorative or other purposes

FIELD: dyes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates typography dyes, in particular, to dye for deep printing. Invention describes dye for deep printing comprising the first binding agent chosen from group of water-soluble or water-diluted acrylate oligomers, photoinitiating agent and, optionally, a monomer as the second binding agent chosen from group consisting of water-soluble or water-diluted monomers of polyethylene diacrylates or polyethoxylated triacrylates used for correction of the composition dye viscosity value. Dye can comprise additives, such as pigments, filling agents, photosensitizing agents, photostabilizing agents and special pigments. Dyes shows viscosity value from 7 to 60 Pa . s at temperature 40°C and dispersed completely in aqueous washing off solution with sodium hydroxide in the concentration from 0 to 0.5 wt.-%. Dyes possesses the excellent capacity for paint removing and it is can be precipitated from the indicated washing off solution.

EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of dye.

28 cl, 9 ex

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