Method of part manufacturing out of heat resistant composite material, method of manufacturing fiber structure, fibre structure manufactured by this method, and composite structure that contains this structure

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention is manufactured out of thermostable or heat resistant fibres and may be used for manufacturing parts out of thermal structural composite material. Carbon nanotubes are in-built into fibre structure by means of their growing on the heat-resistant fibres of the basis.

EFFECT: provides more well-ordered tightening of parts and improvement of mechanical qualities.

31 cl, 6 dwg, 9 ex

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to a porous three-dimensional fibrous structures made of heat-resistant (refractory) fibers, particularly to such constructions, intended for the manufacture of parts from thermocontracting composite material.

The level of technology

It is known that thermocontracting composite materials have good mechanical properties, making them useful for building structural (structural) elements, as well as the ability to retain these properties at high temperatures. Materials of this type include, first of all, carbon-carbon (C/C) composite material having reinforcing elements made of carbon fibers, densified carbon matrix, and ceramic matrix composite (KMK) materials with reinforcement of refractory fibers (carbon or ceramic) and dense matrix of ceramic material. Thermocontracting composite materials find application particularly in the aviation and space industries, as well as when creating friction devices, in particular brake discs for aircraft.

Parts made of composite materials are usually produced by preparing a fibrous skeleton that is supposed to serve in ognisty reinforcement for composite material with the subsequent consolidation of the frame matrix of the composite material.

The frame is a hollow fibrous structure (structure)made of fibers, yarns or cables. As typical methods of manufacturing three-dimensional fibrous structures, allowing to receive frames having profiles corresponding to the profiles to be manufacturing parts made of composite materials, we can mention the following:

the winding on the template or on the mandrel;

- fabrication of thick felt;

- three-dimensional spinning, knitting or weaving;

- upholstery or stacking of two-dimensional layers of material, possibly with the attachment of the layers to each other. Two-dimensional material can be a two-dimensional woven fabric, a sheet of unidirectional fibers, the sheet multidirectional fibres made from multiple sheets of unidirectional yarns, superimposed on each other at different orientation strands in sheets and bonded together, for example, igloprobivnye or stitching, a layer of felt or laminate containing fabric or sheet coated with a layer of free fibers attached to a fabric or sheet igloprobivnye.

A typical method of manufacturing a three-dimensional fibrous structure that is designed to receive frames for disks from thermocontracting composite materials, the state is t overlaying each other fabric layers or sheets with different orientation of the fibers and bond the layers to each other through igloprobivnye. This method is described in particular in U.S. patent No. 4790052. The fibrous structure may be made of fibers that are precursors or starting reagents (hereinafter referred to as "precursors") for carbon or ceramic material forming the fiber reinforcement of the composite material. After that, the precursor by heat treatment is converted into carbon or ceramics with the subsequent consolidation of the corresponding matrix.

Alternatively, the fibrous structure can be produced directly from carbon or ceramic fibers. In this case, the layers of fabric or sheet with different orientation of the fibers may contain a layer of free fibers forming the source fibers suitable for the workings of the needles during the bonding sheet igloprobivnye.

Fibrous skeleton can be compacted by a corresponding matrix with the use of liquid and/or gas-phase processes. Liquid-phase process consists in the impregnation of the frame liquid composition containing a precursor of the matrix material and the subsequent conversion of the precursor by heat treatment, providing the desired matrix material.

In a typical case, the precursor is a resin. Gas-phase process is a chemical infiltration and the gas phase (chemical vapor infiltration - CVI). The frame is placed in an oven, in which the gas is supplied, contains one or more components, forming a gaseous precursor of the matrix material. Conditions inside the furnace, in particular temperature and pressure, install in such a way as to ensure that gas is able to diffuse into the pores of the skeleton and to bind the matrix material in fiber frame either by decomposition of the corresponding component gas or by reaction between a number of components. Such methods are well known in relation to the formation of both carbon and ceramic matrix.

We have already put forward proposals to enter into the pores of the fibrous structures fillers in order to provide amplification (strengthening) of the fibers thermocontracting composite material before compaction of the fibrous structures of the composite matrix material. Solving this task is to reduce the volume fraction occupied by the fibrous structures pores, and reduce the time spent on the operation of the seal. Alternative or parallel task is to give summary details (products) from composite materials with special properties and especially in the improvement of their mechanical properties.

Fillers, in particular, can be a powder or short fibers of operedili ceramics. The known method of introducing fillers consists in soaking the three-dimensional fibrous structure with the suspension of the filler in the liquid. However, in practice it proved impossible to secure the desired distribution of the fillers within the fibrous structure, i.e. to obtain a uniform distribution or a distribution that is, although uneven, but controlled.

Disclosure of inventions

The problem to which the present invention is directed, is to overcome these difficulties, i.e. in obtaining three-dimensional fibrous structures in such a way as to provide improved properties of parts made of composite material which is formed by sealing frames, which are made of similar structures and improved method of manufacturing such components.

This problem is solved by the creation of a method of manufacturing a porous three-dimensional fibrous structures containing three-dimensional framework of ordered high-temperature resistant fiber, and according to the method according to the invention in the fibrous structure built of carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes are grown on a heat-resistant fibers basics after its impregnation composition containing at least one catalyst for the growth of carbon nanotubes. The result is a three-dimensional design is uccio, consisting of heat-resistant fibers and enriched carbon nanotubes.

Fibrous structure or Foundation referred to in this description are ordered, if it is able to preserve the cohesion of the fibers during processing or operation.

Carbon nanotubes and methods for their preparation are well known. It is also known the use of carbon nanotubes for strengthening (hardening) of carbon or ceramic matrix composite materials. In this regard can be given links to patent documents US 4663230 and EP 1154050. The present invention is not fiber reinforcement of the composite material by carbon nanotubes. Rather, it is to enhance the three-dimensional fibrous structure formed of heat-resistant fibers, carbon nanotubes, obtained by cultivation on a heat-resistant fibers.

Thus, while preserving the structural properties and the consistency of ordered three-dimensional structures, which are essential to impart desirable mechanical properties of parts made of composite material having fiber reinforcement on the basis of similar design, the method according to the invention provides for incorporating into the design of carbon nanotubes, a number of additional advantages.

Growing carbon nanotubes on the fiber into the nah basis in the three-dimensional fibrous structures makes it possible to distribute the carbon nanotubes within the pores of such structures.

According to the method of manufacturing parts made of heat-resistant composite material, this solution leads to a reduction in the duration of operation of the seal due to the decrease in the total volume corresponding to the pores, due to the fact that in the three-dimensional structures are carbon nanotubes. While nanotubes provide the decrease of pore volume in a three-dimensional basis by dividing then into smaller pores without creating obstacles for sealing (i.e. to close the pores), regardless of whether through a process of liquid-phase or gas-phase - is the seal. Split then, in this way also contributes to their becoming less heterogeneous pores and thus to make the seal more orderly. Items (products) made of composite material having fiber reinforcement in the form of such a three-dimensional fibrous structures have the following advantages:

- improved mechanical properties as a result of embedding additional reinforcing thread-like elements having a very high mechanical strength;

- high resistance to wear;

- improved conductivity.

According to one variant of the method according to the invention it includes the following performed sequentially steps:

- impregnate TLD is Ernie layers of heat-resistant fibers composition, containing at least one catalyst for the growth of carbon nanotubes

- form a three-dimensional framework by imposing on each other and bonding the impregnated two-dimensional layers and

- ensure the growth of carbon nanotubes within a three-dimensional framework.

When this two-dimensional layers are preferably fastened to each other by igloprobivnye.

Three-dimensional fibrous structure is enriched carbon nanotubes evenly (uniformly) throughout the volume of the fibrous structure.

In accordance with another embodiment of the method according to the invention it includes the following performed sequentially steps:

(a) impregnating a two-dimensional heat-resistant fibrous layers composition containing at least one catalyst for the growth of carbon nanotubes

(b) provide for the growth of carbon nanotubes within a two-dimensional layers and

(C) forming a three-dimensional design by overlaying each other and fastening two-dimensional layers of heat-resistant fibers obtained by performing steps (a) and (b).

Using this option, the three-dimensional fibrous structure may be formed by placing the foot and fastening two-dimensional layers of heat-resistant fibers, and at least some of the layers may contain carbon nanotubes. Thus becomes zmeinym, if it seems desirable to vary in a controlled way, the number of carbon nanotubes by volume of three-dimensional fibrous structures and even to form part of the three-dimensional fibrous structure, completely free from carbon nanotubes.

As an example, two-dimensional layers can knit with each other igloprobivnye. In this case, it is possible to put before igloprobivnye on each or at least some of the two-dimensional layers, the layer of free fibers.

According to another variant of the method according to the invention includes the following performed sequentially steps:

- produce a three-dimensional basis of heat-resistant fibers,

- impregnate the specified base composition containing at least one catalyst for the growth of carbon nanotubes, and

- ensure the growth of carbon nanotubes within a three-dimensional framework.

In this case, the three-dimensional basis of heat-resistant fibers may be enriched carbon nanotubes in a uniform manner throughout its volume.

The specified three-dimensional basis can be obtained by superposition of two-dimensional layers and bond them to each other, for example, igloprobivnye. In one modification of this variant of the three-dimensional framework can be formed by three-dimensional (three-dimensional) spinning in the management or woven using yarn or wire harnesses.

In accordance with one feature of the proposed method, the impregnation is performed with the use of a composition containing at least one catalyst for the growth of carbon nanotubes on a heat-resistant fibers with a specific surface area of not less than 10 m2/g, in order to distribute the catalyst particles across the surface of the fibers. To obtain the desired state of the surface of the fibers, it may be necessary to expose the fiber surface treatment, for example, by controlled oxidation using a gas-oxidant, chemical or electrical effects or plasma treatment).

The impregnation is preferably carried out with the composition containing at least one solution of the salt of the metal catalyst for the growth of carbon nanotubes.

After receiving a three-dimensional fibrous structures enriched in carbon nanotubes, can be performed step consisting in the release of particles of the metal catalyst by exposure to acid or heat treatment.

In accordance with one feature of the method according to the invention in the pores, at least one zone on the surface of the fibrous structure may be introduced additional carbon nanotubes. This can be accomplished by coating the surface of the three-dimensional design the products of the suspension of nanotubes. This solution allows you to fill the surface voids and thereby significantly reduce the proportion of the volume occupied by these pores. In the result you can get after you perform the next step, consisting in compacting the fibrous structure, for example, by seepage from the gas phase, the part made of composite material with an impermeable surface.

The invention also includes a three-dimensional structure of ordered high-temperature resistant fiber obtained by the method described above, i.e. a three-dimensional fibrous structure containing a three-dimensional basis of heat-resistant fibers, and carbon nanotubes, which protrude from the surface, at least part of the heat-resistant fibers.

When this heat-resistant fibers can be made of carbon or ceramic.

Weight uglerodnych nanotubes is preferably from 5 to 200% by weight of heat-resistant fibers.

A three-dimensional framework may be formed from a two-dimensional layers bonded to each other by igloprobivnye.

The invention also covers a method of manufacturing parts made of heat-resistant composite material by manufacturing a fibrous skeleton, representing a three-dimensional fibrous structure obtained by the method described above, and the seal frame with heat-resistant matrix. The invention is hataway, in addition, part of the heat-resistant composite material obtained by this method.

Brief description of drawings

The present invention will become more clear in the study of the following description given with reference to the accompanying drawings.

Figure 1 shows the successive steps (operations) of one embodiment of the method according to the invention.

Figure 2 presents the successive steps of another embodiment of the method according to the invention.

3 shows the successive steps of another variant of the method according to the invention.

Figa, 4B and 4C are photographs, taken using a scanning electron microscope with different magnifications and illustrating the growing carbon nanotubes on the surface of carbon fiber.

The implementation of the invention

Figure 1 presents the sequence of steps of a method of manufacturing a three-dimensional fibrous structures enriched in carbon nanotubes, in accordance with the first embodiment of the invention.

The first step 10 is to prepare two-dimensional fibrous layers.

These layers can be a sheet of unidirectional or multidirectional fibers, the layers of woven, knitted, braided materials, mats or thin felts. The sheets or layers of woven, knitted or braided material can be obtained with the application is receiving the yarn, harness or sliver from the infinite or discrete filaments (i.e. segments threads). Yarn, strands or fibrous tapes from the segments of the filaments can be obtained by pulling yarn, wire harnesses or fibrous bands of endless threads with subsequent rupture. If necessary, the yarns or bundles of strands of filaments can be given cohesion by coated or twisting. Sheets of unidirectional fibers prepared by spreading yarn, wire harnesses or fibrous tapes, which previously could be subjected to stretching and tearing. The result leaves the unidirectional fibers of filaments or strands of the endless threads located essentially mutually parallel.

Leaves multidirectional fibres obtained by overlapping sheets of unidirectional fibers with different orientation of the fibers and to bond these sheets, for example, by stitching or igloprobivnye. The required layers can also be in the form of laminates containing layer formed by a sheet of unidirectional or multidirectional fibers or cloth, with superimposed over the layer of discontinuous fibers formed from the free fibers, Mat, felt, two interconnected layers, bonded, for example, igloprobivnye. The above-mentioned methods for obtaining two-dimensional layers, suitable for the manufacture of Treme the different fibrous structures, well known. In this regard can be given links to the following patent documents: U.S. patent No. 4790052, U.S. patent No. 5528175 and international application WO 98/44183.

These layers can be obtained from fibers, yarns, bundles, or fiber ribbons, made of heat-resistant fibers, in particular carbon or ceramic fibers. According to one variant of the invention, the layers can be obtained from fibers, yarns, bundles, or fiber tape is made of a precursor of a carbon or ceramic, and then converting the precursor into carbon or ceramics by heat treatment (pyrolysis), carried out after formation of the layers. As an example, precursors of carbon fibers are fibers of pre-oxidized polyacrylonitrile (PAN), isotropic or anisotropic fibers from the resin, and cellulose (in particular, viscose rayon) fibers.

It is desirable that the condition of the heat-resistant fibers, forming two-dimensional layers, it was possible to ensure uniform distribution on the surface of the fibers of the particles of the catalyst for the growth of carbon nanotubes.

With respect to the carbon fibers of viscose fiber precursors have a relatively large specific surface area (typically about 250 m2/g), i.e. provide a surface conducive to the specified target.

Pimentel is but carbon fibers, derived from the precursor in the form of fibers from the resin or of the PAN, this requirement is generally not performed. Therefore, these fibers are preferably subjected to surface treatment (optional step 20). Such surface treatment may consist in a moderate activation, for example, by oxidation in air (or steam and/or carbon dioxide), which can increase the specific surface of the carbon fibers to a value preferably greater than 10 m2/, it is also Possible surface treatment method chemical attack, in particular, with the use of hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, electrochemical effects, plasma treatment, etc.

With respect to the ceramic fiber surface treatment is applied to the carbon fiber coating in order to obtain the desired specific surface area, perhaps after successful activation. The carbon coating can be a pyroelectric layer of carbon formed on the fibers by chemical infiltration from the gas phase or by pyrolysis deposited on the fiber layer of carbon precursor, such as phenolic resin, furan resin or any other resin with a non-zero content of coke.

It should be noted that the surface obrabatyvaemykh or ceramic fibers may be carried out before the formation of two-dimensional layers, if these layers are formed from fibers, yarns, bundles or fibrous bands of carbon or ceramic fibers.

After an optional surface treatment of fibers of two-dimensional layers impregnated with an aqueous solution of one or more metal salts, which serves as a catalyst for growth of carbon nanotubes (step 30). Such catalysts are known; they are based on certain metals, preferably selected from the group consisting of iron, cobalt and Nickel. These metals can be used individually or in the form of alloys. As examples of salts are the nitrates or acetates. The impregnation can be carried out by dipping layers in a bath or by spraying layers.

Salt concentration (salt) in aqueous solution should be such that the amount of catalyst (based on the molar content of metal), preferably lying in the range 0.01 to 1 mol.%.

Soaked and possibly dried two-dimensional layers then impose on each other and fasten together with the formation of coherent three-dimensional framework (step 40). Bond (binding) can be carried out by implantation of yarn across the layers, or preferably by stitching igloprobivnye, for example, as described in the aforementioned U.S. patent No. 4790052.

Igloprobivnye preferably carried out on wet layers to t the th, to avoid problems arising due to the presence of solid metal salts present in the dried layer. In order to facilitate the capture fibers needles for their transactions through the layers, the two layers preferably contain threads that are not continuous, i.e. these layers are formed from sheets or fabrics made from yarn, wire harnesses or sliver formed by fibres of finite length, or, alternatively, from laminates containing layer from a sheet or tissue that is associated with the layer of strands of thread.

After igloprobivnye the resulting three-dimensional framework dried (step 50), for example, when moving through the vented dryer.

Salt (salt) metal-catalyst decompose to the oxide (oxides) by heat treatment, for example by heating the dried three-dimensional material to a temperature in the range from 100 to 500° (step 60). Steps 50 and 60 preferably are one combined operation.

Then, three-dimensional material is served in a furnace with a reducing atmosphere to restore the hot oxide (oxide) catalyst (step 70). A repair is performed, for example, in an environment of gaseous ammonia (NH3) or gaseous hydrogen (H2) at temperatures e.g. in the range from 400 to 750°C. Gaseous ammonia or the location may be diluted with a neutral gas, for example, nitrogen (N2).

The result is a three-dimensional fibrous base made of heat-resistant fibers, bearing metal particles of the catalyst for growing carbon nanotubes distributed discrete manner on the surface of the fibers.

Carbon nanotubes are grown (step 80) by bringing gaseous carbon precursor into contact with the fibers of the three-dimensional framework, placed in a furnace at a temperature corresponding to the formation of carbon by decomposition (cracking) of the gaseous precursor. For this purpose, can be used the same oven that was used to restore oxide (oxide) of a metal catalyst.

Gaseous precursor selected from aromatic or non-aromatic hydrocarbons. In particular, there can be used ethylene, propylene or methane in the furnace, the temperature of which is in the range from 450 to 1200°C. the Gaseous precursor may be mixed with the hydrogen, the presence of which is particularly desirable in the case of using ethylene as the growth of nanotubes in this case is faster and more complete. Gaseous precursor, it is also desirable to dilute a neutral gas, such as nitrogen, in order to facilitate homogeneous distribution and diffusion of the gaseous precursor throughout the oven cavity. Soda is the content of gaseous precursor in the gas-diluent may be 10-50% by volume. The pressure in the furnace corresponds to, for example, atmospheric pressure. The flow rate of the gaseous precursor selected so that the time of flow through the furnace was in the range of from several seconds to several minutes. Time flow is calculated as the ratio of empty furnace volume to the flow rate of the gaseous precursor at a temperature furnace.

In accordance with a variant of the method according to the invention, the step 70 of rebalancing oxide (oxide) catalyst, can be carried out simultaneously with the growth of nanotubes, i.e. to coincide with the beginning of step 80. This combination is possible because the cultivation may be performed in an atmosphere containing a mixture of ethylene and hydrogen. Indeed, the decomposition of ethylene is accompanied by release of hydrogen.

The presence of the fibers of the metal particles of the catalyst causes the growth of carbon nanotubes with the side surface of the fibres with random orientation of the nanotubes, as seen from tiga, 4B and 4C. These shapes correspond to the fibers of the precursor based on the cellulose. On figa and 4B, the fiber remains partially visible; figs shows the appearance of the nanotubes.

The duration of the process is determined depending on the number of carbon nanotubes, which must be obtained on a three-dimensional basis of heat-resistant fibers, the number rolled is congestion and the size of the basis. This duration can vary from tens of minutes to several hours.

The number of nanotubes is selected sufficient to provide a significant improvement in properties of fibrous structures, but without overlap while its still above the set limit, the exceeding of which could impede the subsequent compaction of the fibrous structure, preventing access to all of the pores within the structure. In a preferred embodiment, the amount of carbon nanotubes is in the range of 5-200 wt.% relative to the weight of the three-dimensional structure of heat-resistant fibers.

Before you apply three-dimensional design, in particular, as a reinforcement (reinforcing) patterns for parts made of composite material, can be carried out post-processing (step 90), aimed at liberation from particles of metal catalyst. Such processing can be exposed to acid, in particular hydrochloric acid, or in the heat treatment at a high temperature exceeding 1800°or even 2000°in order to destroy metal particles by evaporation.

It should be noted that various processes, including those described above, aimed at growing carbon nanotubes by depositing particles of the metal catalyst is and the corresponding basis with the subsequent cracking of gaseous precursor, themselves known. These known processes are suitable for implementing the method according to the invention. For example, the cracking may be performed using plasma.

Another variant implementation of the method according to the invention is schematically illustrated in figure 2.

This option includes the step 110 of preparing a two-dimensional fibrous layers, an optional step 120 surface treatment of fibers and the step 130 impregnation of two-dimensional layers with an aqueous solution of one or more salts of a metal catalyst for growth of carbon nanotubes. These steps are similar to steps 10, 20 and 30 of the method according to the first embodiment of the invention, described above with reference to figure 1.

After completion of the impregnation of two-dimensional layers are dried, for example, as they move through the vented dryer (step 140).

Salt (salt) metal-catalyst decompose to oxide (oxides) (step 150), then produced (step 160) restore oxide (oxide), as described above in relation to steps 60, 70 variant of the method, illustrated in figure 1.

Then at step 170, which consists in growing carbon nanotubes on a heat-resistant fibers of two-dimensional layers. This step is carried out similarly as described in relation to step 80 the previous variant embodiment of the invention.

Operatsionistki preferably be grown on two-dimensional layers in continuous mode, i.e. during continuous movement of these layers through the oven.

The result is a two-dimensional layers of heat-resistant fibers enriched carbon nanotubes.

Three-dimensional fibrous structure is made by applying and bonding with each other obtained two-dimensional layers (step 180). The bond layer may be performed by implanting yarns, stitching or igloprobivnye. In the case of igloprobivnye two-dimensional layers before the mutual imposition preferably moistened to reduce their rigidity and to avoid nanotubes or powdered particles of nanotubes in the environment. You can also overlay on a two-dimensional layer or layers of the mesh of fibers that are not continuous, i.e. loose fibers, a Mat, a felt or fibrous tape. These fibers form a source of fibers, convenient for grasping needles for subsequent movement through the layers. Igloprobivnye can be carried out similarly as described in the aforementioned U.S. patent No. 4790052.

Three-dimensional fibrous structure may be manufactured by stacking in the foot and fastening two-dimensional layers, similar to each other, i.e. made of heat-resistant fibers, which were similarly enriched in carbon nanotubes. Consequently what would those obtained three-dimensional design, which is enriched with carbon nanotubes essentially uniformly throughout its volume.

In accordance with a modification of this variant provides for the making of three-dimensional structures, in which the number of carbon nanotubes varies according to the thickness of the structure. This purpose is made of two-dimensional layers, which are enriched with different amounts of carbon nanotubes, and then these layers are put against each other in such a manner which provides the desired distribution of carbon nanotubes in a three-dimensional structure.

If deemed desirable, it is possible to use two-dimensional layers obtained on completion of step 110, to form three-dimensional structures of the free zones of carbon nanotubes.

May also be undertaken post-processing (step 190), aimed at liberation from particles of metal catalyst and is similar to the processing executed in step 90 variant of the method depicted in figure 1. This processing may be performed for two-dimensional layers enriched in carbon nanotubes, before forming a three-dimensional structure.

Figure 3 illustrates a third variant of the method according to the invention.

This option includes a step 210 of preparing a two-dimensional fibrous layers and optional step 220, the surface processing the weave of the fibers. These steps equivalent to steps 10 and 20 of the first variant embodiment of the invention described above with reference to figure 1.

Then two-dimensional layers are placed in the foot and fasten with the formation of three-dimensional fundamentals of heat-resistant fibers (step 230). The bond layer may be performed by implanting yarns, stitching or igloprobivnye, which is performed in accordance with the above-mentioned U.S. patent No. 4790052.

It should also be noted, as a possible modification of this variant, which is an optional step, the surface treatment of the fibers may be performed after forming a three-dimensional fibrous basis.

The generated three-dimensional fibrous base impregnated (in the same way as described with reference to step 30 variants of the method of figure 1) with an aqueous solution of one or more metal salts, which can serve as a catalyst for growth of carbon nanotubes (step 240). However, it is most preferable to perform the operation of impregnation by dipping three-dimensional framework in an appropriate bath, possibly with the use of hoods in order to facilitate the impregnation of the inner layers.

After that, perform the following steps: drying (step 250), the decomposition of salts (salts) of the catalyst to the oxide (oxides) (step 260), the restoration of the oxide (oxides) (step 270), the growing carbon on trubek (step 280) and, possible exemption from particles of metal catalyst (step 290). These steps are performed in the same way as described above in relation to steps 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 variant of the method depicted in figure 1.

It should also be noted that the described third variant of the method according to the invention can be implemented by forming a three-dimensional fibrous basis using processes different from the stacking and bonding of two-dimensional layers. In particular, step 220 may be performed for a three-dimensional framework formed by a thick felt or obtained through the bulk of spinning, knitting or weaving yarn or wire harnesses.

In the described embodiments, an optional step of surface treatment of fibres (steps 20, 120, 220) is performed before impregnation of the fibers with an aqueous solution of one or more salts of the catalyst. Alternatively, the surface treatment may be carried out after impregnation and drying, but before recovery of the catalyst.

Applying particles of metal catalyst on the fiber by impregnation with a liquid composition provides good discrete distribution of particles on the fibers. The receipt of such distribution is facilitated by the preliminary surface treatment of fibers.

Porous three-dimensional fabric, enriched with carbon fibers obtained by the method appropriate to Estulin any of the options, described with reference to Fig 1, 2 or 3 fit (possibly, after pruning for shaping) for the manufacture of fibrous skeleton (or fiber reinforcement) details of thermocontracting composite material. When this item get through the sealing frame material forming the matrix of the composite material. As mentioned at the beginning of this description, the liquid-phase processes and the processes of infiltration from the gas phase, are used to seal fibrous frames in order to obtain a carbon or ceramic matrix, in themselves well known.

Carbon nanotubes formed on the fibers of the fibrous base, serve to break then this framework into smaller ones. As a consequence, decreases the time required to seal the frame. It should be noted that nanotubes can be separated from the fibers on which they were grown, for example, by application to the fibrous structure of ultrasonic energy. Nanotubes, released in this way are distributed in a uniform manner on the pore structure.

Next, the random orientation of the nanotubes around the fibers leads, after compaction of the matrix, to obtain deposited on the nanotubes of the matrix material, in which the microscopic scale is oriented randomly relative to the hair the he framework.

In this case the presence of carbon nanotubes within the fiber reinforcement details of thermocontracting composite material improves the mechanical properties and resistance to wear due to the reinforcing properties of carbon nanotubes and the properties of cohesion, and organization of three-dimensional fiber structure, bearing carbon nanotubes.

The presence of carbon nanotubes, in addition, can improve thermal conductivity of the details.

After receiving a three-dimensional porous fibrous structure, enriched carbon nanotubes, as described above, and before compaction, the surface of the fibrous structure may be introduced additional carbon nanotubes in order to substantially fill the pores near the surface of this design. Due to this, during the subsequent sealing with the use of liquid-phase process or infiltration from the gas phase of the applied matrix can easily close the surface pores that will allow you to get the part made of composite material, having a completely closed (impermeable) surface. The introduction of additional carbon nanotubes can be performed only on part of the surface of the three-dimensional structure or on its entire surface. Additional carbon nanotu the key is made separately and placed in a liquid (for example, in water with formation of a suspension. The suspension is applied to the surface of the three-dimensional structure. To ensure penetration of the nanotubes at a certain depth from the surface, the suspension may be added wetting agent or surfactant, such as sodium dodecyl sulphate, as described in particular in international applications WO 01/063028 and WO 02/055769.

Next will be described examples of manufacturing three-dimensional fibrous structure of heat-resistant fibers enriched carbon nanotubes.

Example 1

Layers of carbon fabric made from cellulose precursor was subjected to carbonization at temperatures up to 1200°With, were impregnated with an aqueous solution of nitrate of iron molar concentration equal to 0.2. 20 layers impregnated in this way, were laid in the foot and fastened to each other by igloprobivnye. Igloprobivnye was carried out with a gradual realignment parameters as placing more and more layers in order to provide essentially a constant depth of penetration of the needles, as described in U.S. patent No. 4790052.

The obtained wet three-dimensional framework has been air dried at 200°in vented the dryer, and this treatment has also led to the decomposition of the nitrate to the oxide. Then a three-dimensional basis of the pome is recorded in the oven, the temperature at which drove up to 700°when applying it neutral gas (nitrogen) in order to avoid oxidation of carbon. After that undertook the restoration of the oxide by creating in the furnace reducing atmosphere containing a mixture of equal volumes of gaseous ammonia and nitrogen for a period of about 60 minutes Then, maintaining the temperature in the furnace at 700°C in an oven for 12 h gave the gas containing acetylene diluted with nitrogen (at a ratio of 1 volume of acetylene on the 3rd volume of nitrogen). After cooling in an atmosphere of nitrogen to ambient temperature were discovered carbon nanotubes originating from carbon fiber three-dimensional design. The increase in mass compared to the mass of the dry layer was about 100%.

Example 2

Layers of carbon fabric made from cellulose precursor of the same type as in example 1 were impregnated with an aqueous solution of nitrate of iron molar concentration equal to 0.05.

Layers were dried with air at 200°With vented dryer with simultaneous decomposition of the nitrate to the oxide. Dried layers was placed in a furnace, the temperature of which was brought to 700°when applying it neutral gas (nitrogen). Then carried out the restoration of the oxide by creating in the furnace reducing atmosphere containing a mixture of equal volumes razoobrazny the th of ammonia and nitrogen for a period made 30 minutes After that, maintaining the temperature in the furnace at 700°C in an oven for 2 h gave the gas containing acetylene diluted with nitrogen (at a ratio of 1 volume of acetylene on the 3rd volume of nitrogen). After cooling to ambient temperature, carried out in nitrogen atmosphere, were discovered carbon nanotubes, the exhaust from the carbon fiber layers. The increase in mass compared to the mass of dry layers was approximately 50%.

Collected in this way the layers were wet, and then with a grid of the available carbon fibers of limited length (fiber mats), which was applied to the surface layers and fastened to them by igloprobivnye.

Multiple layers enriched in carbon nanotubes, which was given the flexibility of using wetting and which were provided with fibrous mats were laid on each other and fastened by igloprobivnye, which was carried out as described in U.S. patent No. 4790052. After igloprobivnye collected in this way a three-dimensional fibrous structure was dried in a ventilated drying at 150°C.

Example 3

Was implemented by the process described in example 2, except that the original layers were impregnated with an aqueous solution of Nickel nitrate to molecular concentration equal to 0.2 and the duration is rasiwasia carbon nanotubes was increased from 2 to 10 o'clock The measured increase in mass compared to the mass of dry layers was about 175%.

Example 4

Layers of carbon fabric, obtained from POLYACRYLONITRILE precursor, were treated with acetone in order to eliminate fouling of the carbon fibers, and then were impregnated with an aqueous solution of Nickel nitrate with a molar concentration equal to 0.2.

Layers were dried with air at 200°With vented dryer with simultaneous decomposition of Nickel nitrate to oxide. The temperature of the layers was then increased to 600°in a neutral atmosphere (nitrogen). Then made the restoration of the oxide, creating a regenerative furnace atmosphere, feeding it a mixture consisting of equal volumes of ammonia gas and nitrogen for 30 minutes Then, while maintaining the furnace temperature of 600°C in an oven for 2 h gave a gas consisting of acetylene diluted with nitrogen (1 volume of acetylene on the 3rd volume of nitrogen). After cooling to ambient temperature, carried out in nitrogen atmosphere, were discovered carbon nanotubes, the exhaust from the carbon fiber layers. The increase in mass compared to the mass of dry tissue was about 150%.

Layers enriched carbon nanotubes were then hydrated with grids free of fibers laid in a foot and fastened by igloprobivnye like this is what was done in example 2.

Example 5

Layers of carbon fabric made from cellulose precursor of the same type as used in example 1 were superimposed on each other and bonded by igloprobivnye. Igloprobivnye was carried out with a gradual realignment parameters as input layers to provide essentially a constant depth of penetration of the needles, as described in U.S. patent No. 4790052.

The resulting three-dimensional base was impregnated with an aqueous solution of nitrate of iron molar concentration of iron, amounting to 0.2%. The impregnation was carried out by soaking in the tub.

Thus obtained three-dimensional fibrous structure was subjected to the same processing (drying decomposition of nitrate of iron oxide and growing carbon nanotubes), as in example 1. The final measured weight increase compared with the three-dimensional mass basis was approximately 100%.

Example 6

Layers formed carbon sheet obtained from yarn PAN-precursor, superimposed on each other and fastened by igloprobivnye with a gradual restructuring of the parameters in the process of stacking layers. The sheets were a multidirectional sheets, made of multiple unidirectional sheets obtained from carbon fibers of limited length, R is slicnoj orientation of the unidirectional sheets when laying and their subsequent bond, as described in U.S. patent No. 4790052.

The resulting three-dimensional base was treated with acetone to eliminate fouling of the carbon fibers, and was then impregnated by soaking in a bath with an aqueous solution of Nickel nitrate with a molar concentration of Nickel, 0.2%.

After drying with air at 200°With vented dryer with simultaneous decomposition of Nickel nitrate to oxide, carried out the oxidation in air atmosphere in a furnace for 30 min at a temperature of 420°s, which corresponded to a surface treatment (moderate oxidation) of carbon fiber base. Then raise the temperature to 600°neutral atmosphere (nitrogen). Next undertook the restoration of the oxide by creating in the furnace reducing atmosphere containing a mixture of equal volumes of gaseous ammonia and nitrogen for the period, amounting to 30 minutes After that, maintaining the temperature in the furnace at 600°C in an oven for 12 h gave the gas containing acetylene diluted with nitrogen (at a ratio of 1 volume of acetylene on the 3rd volume of nitrogen). After cooling to ambient temperature, carried out in nitrogen atmosphere, were discovered carbon nanotubes originating from carbon fiber three-dimensional design. The increase in mass compared to the mass of dry three-dimensional foundations accounted for the ILO about 150%.

Example 7

Layers of high-strength woven fabrics of carbon fibers derived from POLYACRYLONITRILE precursor, were exposed for 3 min to surface treatment using oxygen plasma in order to promote good distribution of the metal catalyst. Then the layers were impregnated with an aqueous solution of Nickel nitrate with a molar concentration equal to 0.2.

Impregnated layers were dried with air at 150°With simultaneous decomposition of Nickel nitrate to oxide. The oxide was restored at 650°in a confined space in a reducing atmosphere consisting of nitrogen with the addition of hydrogen in the amount of 7% by volume. Then at a temperature of 650°was gradually added a mixture containing, by volume, about 2/3 of ethylene and about 1/3 of nitrogen and 7% hydrogen. Growing nanotubes was carried out under these conditions for 5 hours

The measured increase in mass compared to the mass of dry layers was about 70%.

Layers enriched in carbon nanotubes, were suitable for use in the manufacture of three-dimensional fibrous structure in the same way as described in example 2.

Example 8

High-strength layers of carbon fabric, obtained from POLYACRYLONITRILE precursor, were subjected to surface treatment of an argon plasma for 5 min, and then soaked in a solution of nitrate of cobalt in which canola with molar concentration, equal to 0.1.

The temperature of the impregnated layers increased to 650°C in nitrogen atmosphere, and then made the recovery at this temperature, the formed cobalt oxide in a reducing atmosphere containing, by volume, 2/3 of nitrogen and 1/3 of hydrogen. Then, at the same temperature 650°S, has been growing carbon nanotubes, in the same way as described in example 7.

The measured increase in mass compared to the mass of dry layers is approximately 99%.

Layers enriched in carbon nanotubes, proved to be suitable for use in the manufacture of three-dimensional fibrous structure, for example, in the same way as described in example 2.

Example 9

Were made, bonding igloprobivnye, three-dimensional framework in the form of rings, with each base had an outer diameter of 150 mm, an inner diameter of 80 mm, thickness 40 mm, fiber content by volume average of 22% (from full volume basis), and weight 180, Such bases can be obtained by cutting the fibrous structure formed by overlapping and fastening two-dimensional layers, for example as described in U.S. patent No. 4790052.

Three-dimensional foundations were impregnated under vacuum with a solution of Nickel nitrate in ethanol with a molar concentration equal to 0.05.

After drying under a fume hood during 5 h foundations were placed in a furnace and raised their temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere to 150° C. the Nitrate of Nickel in the decayed before the oxide, after which the carbon fibers were subjected to surface treatment (controlled oxidation) by keeping the basics in a reactor at 420°C for 20 min in an atmosphere of nitrogen (N2containing also oxygen (O2) in an amount of 1% by volume at a pressure of 70 kPa.

Then, after purging the reactor with nitrogen, the temperature was raised from 420 to 650°and at 60 min was fed a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen in equal volumes. After that 10 min was filed hydrogen, and the pressure was maintained equal to 70 kPa.

While maintaining the temperature, 650°has been subject to growing nanotubes during the flow through the reactor within 6 h of gas containing, by volume, 1/3 hydrogen (H2and 2/3 of ethylene (C2H4).

The final measured increase in mass compared to the mass of dry foundations amounted to about 41%.

1. A method of manufacturing a porous three-dimensional fibrous structures containing three-dimensional framework of orderly heat-resistant carbon or ceramic fibers with a specific surface area of not less than 10 m2/g, characterized in that the fibrous structure built of carbon nanotubes formed by growing on a heat-resistant fibers basics after its impregnation composition is provided which, at least one catalyst for the growth of carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanotubes are grown by bringing the precursor of carbon in contact with the fibers of the substrate and heat treatment at a temperature of from 450 to 1200°to provide the possibility of obtaining three-dimensional structures consisting of heat-resistant fibers and enriched carbon nanotubes dispersed within the pores of the fibrous structure and the quantity of carbon nanotubes is in the range from 5 to 200 wt.% relative mass of a fibrous basis

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it includes the following performed sequentially steps:

impregnate two-dimensional layers of heat-resistant fibers a composition containing at least one catalyst for the growth of carbon nanotubes, forming a three-dimensional framework by imposing on each other and bonding the impregnated two-dimensional layers and ensure the growth of carbon nanotubes within a three-dimensional framework.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that a two-dimensional layers bond to each other igloprobivnye.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it includes the following performed sequentially steps:

(a) impregnating a two-dimensional heat-resistant fibrous layers composition containing at least one catalyst for the growth of carbon nanotubes

(b)provide for the growth of carbon nanotubes within a two-dimensional layers and

(C) forming a three-dimensional design by overlaying each other and fastening two-dimensional layers of heat-resistant fibers obtained by performing steps (a) and (b).

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the three-dimensional fibrous structure is formed by overlapping two-dimensional layers with different amounts of carbon nanotubes.

6. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that a two-dimensional layers bond to each other igloprobivnye.

7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that before igloprobivnye, at least some of the two-dimensional layers, put a layer of free fibers.

8. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that before igloprobivnye two-dimensional layers with carbon nanotubes moisten.

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it includes the following performed sequentially steps:

make a three-dimensional basis of heat-resistant fibers, impregnated with the above base composition containing at least one catalyst for the growth of carbon nanotubes, and ensure the growth of carbon nanotubes within a three-dimensional framework.

10. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the fabrication of three-dimensional framework includes overlaying each other and bond two-dimensional layers.

11. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that a two-dimensional layers bond to each other igloprobivnye.

13. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the heat-resistant fiber is subjected to surface treatment to ensure the values of the specific surface area of not less than 10 m2/year

14. The method according to item 13, wherein the surface treatment is carried out by controlled oxidation.

15. The method according to item 13, wherein the surface treatment is carried out by exposure to acid.

16. The method according to item 13, wherein the surface treatment of heat-resistant fibers produced before the impregnation composition containing at least one catalyst for the growth of carbon nanotubes.

17. The method according to item 13, wherein the surface treatment of heat-resistant fibers produced after the impregnation composition containing at least one catalyst for the growth of carbon nanotubes.

18. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the impregnation is performed with the composition containing a solution of at least one metal salt, which is a catalyst for growth of carbon nanotubes.

19. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it includes a step of releasing from the metal particles of the catalyst after receiving Treme the Noi design, enriched carbon nanotubes.

20. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the nanotubes are separated from the fibers on which they were grown.

21. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that impose additional carbon nanotubes in the pores, at least one zone on the surface of the fibrous structure.

22. The method according to item 21, wherein the additional carbon nanotubes is performed by applying a suspension of nanotubes on the surface of the three-dimensional structure.

23. A method of manufacturing parts made of heat-resistant composite material comprising manufacturing a fibrous skeleton, representing a three-dimensional fibrous structure, and the seal frame with heat-resistant matrix, characterized in that the frame is manufactured by the method according to any one of claims 1 to 22.

24. Three-dimensional structure containing a three-dimensional porous framework of orderly heat-resistant carbon or ceramic fibers, which further comprises carbon nanotubes, which protrude from the surface, at least part of the heat-resistant fibers distributed within the pores of the fibrous substrate with a split then this framework into smaller, and the number of carbon nanotubes is in the range from 5 to 200 wt.% relative to the weight of the fibrous base.

25. Design by paragraph 24, otlichayas the same time, that three-dimensional framework made of two-dimensional layers, bonded igloprobivnye.

26. Three-dimensional structure of ordered carbon fibers containing a porous fibrous base formed from a variety of two-dimensional layers of carbon fibers that are superimposed on each other and bonded to each other by igloprobivnye, which further comprises carbon nanotubes dispersed within the pores of the support, and the number of carbon nanotubes is in the range from 5 to 200 wt.% relative to the weight of the fibrous base.

27. Design p, characterized in that the carbon nanotubes are in a free state within the pores of the framework.

28. Design by paragraph 24 or 26, characterized in that the carbon nanotubes are oriented randomly around the fibers.

29. Design by paragraph 24 or 26, characterized in that it is enriched in carbon nanotubes essentially uniformly throughout its volume.

30. Design by paragraph 24 or 26, characterized in that the number of carbon nanotubes vary in the thickness of the structure.

31. Detail from thermocontracting composite material comprising fiber reinforcement in the form of three-dimensional fibrous structure and heat-resistant matrix, characterized in that the three-dimensional fibrous structure made in accordance with any of the point 24 or 26.



 

Same patents:
Biomat // 2321982

FIELD: reinforcement and protection of ground surfaces such as ground planning embankment slopes, automobile and railway roads, open pits, dry slopes of earth-fill dams etc from erosion processes by quick recovery of soil and plant layer.

SUBSTANCE: biomat is formed as multiple-layer, at least three-layer, structure including layers of cloth comprising artificial chemical fibers, and intermediate layer placed between each two cloth layers and secured therewith, said intermediate layer comprising plant seeds. Natural fibers are added into cloth so as to form mixture of natural and synthetic fibers, said mixture containing at least 15-50 wt% of synthetic fibers and 50-85 wt% of natural fibers from materials which form upon decomposition nutritive medium for plants, and surface density of cloth ranging between 250 and 800 g/m2. Apart from seeds of plants presented in cloth structure in an amount of 60-150 g/m2, cloth additionally contains nutrient mixture consisting of fertilizers, plant growth promoters and soil forming additives selected with soil-ground conditions of region where biomat is to be utilized and composition of used seeds being taken into consideration. Content of nutrient mixture is 20-90 g/m2. Also, natural or artificial sorbing substances are introduced into biomat structure in an amount of 30-600 g/m2 by embedding of these substances into cloth or composition of intermediate layer. Biomat may be readily unrolled on any ground surface and serves as artificial soil layer.

EFFECT: high moisture retention capacity providing formation of stable soil and ground covering, improved protection of ground surface from erosion processes, retention of plant seeds during growing, efficient development of root system during vegetation and high vitality of plant covering during formation thereof.

7 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemical and light industry, in particular, production of viscose staple fiber containing antibacterial preparation for manufacture of non-woven material used for manufacture of air filters.

SUBSTANCE: method involves washing formed viscose threads; squeezing to provide 50%-content of α-cellulose; treating with aqueous catamine solution having mass concentration of 15-40 g/dm3; providing two-staged washing procedure in countercurrent of softened water at feeding and discharge temperature difference making 4-6 C at first stage and 3-5 C at second stage. Temperature of aqueous catamine solution is 18-30 C. Resultant thread has linear density of single fibers of 0.17-0.22 tex and mass fraction of 0.6-4.0% of catamine. Thread is subjected to drying process at temperature of drying drum surface of 80-90 C, followed by corrugation and cutting into 60-70 mm long fibers. Method further involves fixing resultant fibrous web by stitching process on substrate of thermally secured polypropylene having surface density of 10-30 g/m2.

EFFECT: enhanced antibacterial properties and reduced aerodynamic resistance of resultant material allowing blowing-off of fibers from filter layer by flow of air under filtering process to be prevented.

3 cl, 2 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: textile industry, in particular, versions of nonwoven fibrous material made in the form of needle stitched web.

SUBSTANCE: material is manufactured from mixture of high-melting point and various low-melting point fibers, with main fiber being two-component polyester fiber of "core-coat" type. Polymer of "coat" has melting temperature substantially lower than polymer of "core". According to first version, low-melting point fiber used is staple two-component polyester fiber of "core-coat" type having thickness of 0.4-1.0 tex, length of 50-90 mm and melting temperature of "coat" polymer of 105-115 C. High-melting point fiber is staple polyester fiber having thickness of 0.3-1.7 tex, length of 60-90 mm and melting temperature of 240-260 C. Ratio of fibers in mixture, wt%, is: staple two-component polyester fiber of "core-coat" type 30-70; staple polyester fiber the balance to 100. According to second version, nonwoven fabric additionally comprises auxiliary staple polypropylene fiber having thickness of 0.6-1.7 tex, length of 50-90 mm and melting temperature of 150-160 C. Ratio of fibers in mixture is, wt%: staple two-component polyester fiber of "core-coat" type 30-70; staple polypropylene fiber 5-20; staple polyester fiber the balance to 100.

EFFECT: improved operating properties and form stability of parts manufactured from nonwoven fibrous material under conditions of changing temperature loadings.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: textile industry.

SUBSTANCE: three-dimensional nonwoven fibrous textile material is composed of netted woven carcass and layers of fibrous cloths arranged at both sides of carcass and mechanically attached thereto. Carcass is produced from thermoplastic weft threads with linear density of 29-72 tex and thermoplastic warp threads with linear density of 14-20 tex and surface density of 80-220 g/m2. Said threads are preliminarily subjected to shrinkage. Method involves applying onto melted netted woven carcass layers of fibrous materials and mechanically attaching said layer in alternation to each side; applying onto each side of carcass at least one layer of fibrous cloth and attaching it by needle stitching; subjecting nonwoven material to thermal processing at temperature of 80-1580C under pressure of 0.3-0.6 MPa for 40-120 min.

EFFECT: improved organoliptical properties and improved appearance of material.

3 cl

The invention relates to the manufacture of nonwoven materials and can be used as a protective material for aggressive environments
The invention relates to the production of multi-layer materials and can be applied in the construction field at facing of walls, finish floor coverings, insulation, roll roofing materials
The invention relates to the textile industry, in particular to non-woven materials, and can be used, for example, as insulating spacers in clothing for low or high temperatures are used, in particular, in construction, for the manufacture of sleeping bags, etc
The invention relates to the textile industry, in particular to non-woven materials, and can be used, for example, as insulating spacers in clothing for low or high temperatures are used, in particular, in construction, for the manufacture of sleeping bags, etc
The invention relates to the textile industry, in particular nonwovens used, for example, in the manufacture of heat-protective clothing used in extreme low temperatures in combination with high pollution environment, harmful emissions and discharge

The invention relates to the textile industry, namely the nonwovens obtained from chemical fibers, bonded hypoproteinemia, and can be used in particular in road construction

FIELD: aerogel composite material reinforced with high fibrous batting.

SUBSTANCE: aerogel composite material has reinforcement layer in the form of high fibrous batting, preferably combined with individual, short, randomly oriented microfibers and/or current conducting layers. Such composite material has high flexibility and drapeability, prolonged service life, increased resistance to sintering, high heat conductance in plane x-y, high electric conductance in plane x-y, reduced level of radio or electromagnetic interferences, and improved resistance to burning-through process.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and improved quality of composite material.

15 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: manufacture of nonwoven material having antistatic properties.

SUBSTANCE: nonwoven material has layer 1 of synthetic high-volume fiber-filler and carcass polypropylene cloth 2 arranged at both outer sides of layer 1 of high-volume fiber-filler, with layer 1 and cloth 2 being interconnected with one another through current-conductive filaments 3. Current-conductive filaments 3 are arranged at both outer sides of carcass polypropylene cloth 2, symmetrically with respect to one another to define cells 4 having length of sides not in the excess of 15 cm. Current-conductive filaments 3 are tangled with one another through thickness of material.

EFFECT: increased heat-shielding properties of material.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: method and device for introduction of a textile-auxiliary substance, essentially of an avivage agent, at hardening of the geotixtile by method of hydrodynamic hardening.

SUBSTANCE: the method of introduction of an avivage substance in the process of hydrodynamic hardening of the geotextile consisting of endless fibers consists in metering of the avivage substance directly to the liquid used for hydrodynamic hardening.

EFFECT: provided a uniform and controllable hardening of nonwoven matered at a hydrodynamic treatment.

7 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: fibrous structures, in particular, glass structures.

SUBSTANCE: fibrous structure comprises at least one layer of randomly distributed continuous yarns and at least one layer of reinforcing fabric such as layer of chopped yarns. Various layers of structure are joined to one another mechanically, by sewing or stitching, and/or chemically with the use of binder. Such structure may be produced by continuous or periodic process and is preferably used for manufacture of composite materials.

EFFECT: improved permeability and good deformation extent allowing this structure to be used for manufacture of various materials, preferably glass-based composites.

26 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: structurized wall-covering material with base side connected to ornamental side.

SUBSTANCE: base side and ornamental side are formed from dried non-woven materials, with fibers of ornamental side having mean diameter less than 10 micrometers. Base side is connected with ornamental side by means of flexible glue, and said composition has elongation exceeding 10% upon applying of maximal force.

EFFECT: provision for creating of wall-covering material having single structure, wider range of ornamental effects and good elasticity in covering of wall cracks resulted from processing.

5 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: polymer materials in textile industry.

SUBSTANCE: spatial nonwoven warm-keeping material for clothing is manufactured by forming fibrous cloth from polyester yarn, joining its layers with liquid binder used in amount 12-15% of dry binder material per 85-88% of fibrous cloth, and drying at 100-120°C, said liquid binder being acrylic copolymer composed of 44-53% methyl methacrylate, 44-53% methyl acrylate, and 2.5-3% polymerization reaction stabilizer.

EFFECT: achieved high strength, elasticity, and incompressibility without loss of strength after dry cleaning.

3 tbl

FIELD: fire prevention systems, namely systems for protecting buildings against fire.

SUBSTANCE: fireproof composite base for bitumen roofing sheets includes first layer 1 and second layer 7 of mat formed by co-extrusion of polyester used as non-woven synthetic material; placed between said layers glass film 6; large number of longitudinally oriented reinforcing glass fibers 4.

EFFECT: improved strength and fireproof properties of sheet material.

2 dwg

FIELD: production of insulating mats from fibrous materials, in particular, from mineral filaments.

SUBSTANCE: method involves forming and packaging felted insulating mats from fibrous materials, such as mineral filaments, composed of set of parallel strips moved by means of transportation device, said strips being moved through at least one branch of device, with following bringing of said strips to at least one feeding device for arranging strips one onto another to create at least one longitudinal stack of strips manufactured from mineral material; compressing said stack and cutting compressed stack of strips in transverse direction for forming felted insulating mats.

EFFECT: provision for producing and packaging of felted insulating mats without employment of large-sized transportation, cutting, compressing and packaging equipment, and reduced labor intensity.

13 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: production of thermally- and fire-resistant textile materials, in particular, materials produced from mixture of thermally stable synthetic fiber and oxidized polyacrylonitrile fiber, which may be used for manufacture of protective clothing for rescuers, servicemen, firemen, oil industry workers, and gas industry workers, filtering fabrics for cleaning of hot gases from toxic dust in metallurgical, cement and other branches of industry, decorative materials, thermally-resistant isolation, and toxic asbestos substitutes.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing non-oxidized polyacrylonitrile fiber with thermally stable synthetic fiber in the ratio of from 30/70 to 80/20, respectively; subjecting resulting mixture in the form of yarn, tape, fabric to thermally oxidizing processing at temperature of 240-310 C during 10-180 min.

EFFECT: elimination of problems connected with textile processing of frangible oxidized polyacrylonitrile fibers owing to employment of elastic polyacrylonitrile fibers rather than such oxidized fibers.

2 cl, 7 tbl, 6 ex

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