Vacuum concrete block and method of making same

FIELD: fixed constructions.

SUBSTANCE: vacuum concrete block comprises dense concrete outer envelop and more porous core. The outer envelop of the block has a gas-tight surface. The core of the vacuum concrete block has a gas-tight envelop. The core is connected from its centre with the outer envelop surface by means of a tube which is hermetically connected with the core envelop and the outer envelop surface having a locking device for closing in the tube hole, and capable of connecting to a vacuum pump. The method of making a vacuum structural block is defined.

EFFECT: enhancement of heat-insulating properties.

7 cl, 8 dwg

 

The invention relates to the construction, in particular to devices and methods for producing multi-layer building blocks used in the construction of walls of buildings and structures in multilayer constructions which to improve the resistance to transfer of heat within the at least one layer create a vacuum.

Known (analog devices) - vacuum panel, designed for heat insulation body having a non-planar surface on the patent RU No. 2003102636, CL F16L 59/06 from 2004.10.20.

Known vacuum panel is made with two main surfaces and contains a flexible membrane made of one or more barrier sheets, and the filler is formed of at least two plates of otkryitogo polymer foam, laid one on another. Known vacuum panel may further comprise plastic sheets placed between each two adjacent plates to slide relative to each other, as well as plates made of polyurethane foam, and it may contain getpagetitle or device to absorb the gas, and also contains at least one substance, chemically absorbing moisture, and at least one component selected from the oxide of the transition metal and alloy based on barium and lithium.

The disadvantage of the analog device is istwa block patent RU No. 2003102636 is that requires the use of special gas and moist collectors, and they do not provide the maximum possible increase of heat-shielding properties due to the vacuum.

Known technical solution, see patent No. 2208102 "Concrete block", CL IS 1/40, from 2001.12.17. (the closest analogue is the prototype device block), which describes a concrete building block, including the face layer of concrete construction layers and located between the insulating layer, the front layer is made from a mixture of cement, limestone, sand and water.

The disadvantage of the prototype device unit according to patent RU No. 2208102 is that of the porous insulating layer cannot pump out the air to create a vacuum, since this layer does not have a waterproof enclosure. In this regard, its insulating properties are insufficient and require large thickness of the heat insulating layer and increased the size of the concrete building block.

The present invention device block is the creation of a vacuum building block, with the possibility of increasing thermal insulation properties by increasing up to the maximum amount of vacuum inside the porous core.

Technical effects of the invention the device unit is achieved by the fact that the vacuum building block, containing more than PLO is strong outer shell and more porous core, has a gas-tight surface of the outer shell and the core of the vacuum building block has a gas-tight shell with reflective properties, for example, of a mirror film of polyethylene, while the core from its center connected to the surface of the outer shell pipe, welded at the junction with the shell of the core and having a locking gate or valve device for pumping air from the core block. The surface of the outer shell of the vacuum building block to give it the properties of air-tightness can be impregnated sealing composition, such as liquid glass. Shell core filled with a porous substance, such as microspheres fly ash of thermal power plants, or mineral wool or expanded clay or other porous filler.

Known technical solution according to the patent No. 2166037 "Building element and tooling for its manufacture", CL IS 1/40, 2000 (similar to the method of manufacturing a vacuum building block), which describes the construction element and method of manufacture, which consists in the fact that in the manufacture of multilayer construction element pre-made one of the layers, using a cuvette with vibration solution, completing this cell, give heart and soul is needful extract this layer, then, using it as formwork, put on his metal shell, insert it either punches or liners and fill the whole form solution is subjected to vibrations, set for natural drying to full readiness of the construction element. However, the described technology and technological equipment is very complex, time-consuming, ineffective.

There are technical solutions that use non-removable formwork, representing, for example, hollow building element of the concrete (see patent No. 2074296, CL ES 1/00, 1993, the analogue of the method of manufacturing a vacuum building block), the emptiness of which in the construction of walls are either filled with heavy concrete or insulating material, or structural concrete.

There is a method of constructing an arched building structure with a double wall in patent RU No. 2261959, CL EV 1/32 from 2003.08.25 (similar to the method of manufacturing a vacuum building block), which describes the building design, made in the form of interconnected through the struts of the inner and outer bearing shells, while between these shells are cells with a hollow core, and the outer surface of the outer bearing shell is a polymer coating with fixed therein by brackets, whereby eliminae floor and the outer bearing shell are connected.

In the described method of erecting a building structure according to patent RU No. 2261959 used inflatable elastic membrane, in the design position on the inner surface create a polymer coating with fixed therein by brackets, which then attach the first valve, in addition to brackets and/or to the first valve with the first ends are attached to the spacers, and then, on the inner surface of the polymeric coating is applied hardening mortar, closing the first valve and the first ends of the spacers after forming the solidification of the outer bearing shell, then on the inner surface of the outer bearing shell have pipes intended for the formation of cells with a hollow core, facilitating the building structure and to the second ends of the struts attach a second valve, which then cause hardening mortar covering the said pipe and the second armature and forming after solidification of the inner bearing shell connected to the outer bearing shell by means of the above-mentioned spacers, and on the outer surface of the said membrane is applied textured coating. After the formation of the outer bearing shell of the said membrane is removed, and released as a consequence, the outer surface of the polymer pokr is ment applied textured coating.

The disadvantage of this is similar technological complexity, and greater complexity of the manufacturing processes of building design, making described in the patent RU №2261959 method is not suitable for mass production of vacuum building blocks.

There is a method of manufacture of wall building block and wall (options) with blocks made by this method (similar to the method of manufacturing a vacuum building block, RU # 2225487 AS 1/40 from 2001.10.25). In the specified method of manufacturing a wall of the building is made on the basis of cement mortars containing at least a layer of fine concrete and insulating layer of lightweight concrete, arranged in a single horizontal row, including installation and removal of technological barriers, the form of the solutions of the layers and their vibroshaping, technological partition separating the form on the number of horizontal cells corresponding to the number of layers of wall block, set before filling form solutions. A cell in a known way fill with a solution of one layer and remove technological barriers. After that make simultaneous vibroshaping all layers.

The disadvantage of the method of manufacturing a building block for patent RU No. 2225487 (adopted as of the former is further analogue of the method of manufacturing a vacuum unit) is left exposed part of the surface of the heat insulating layer unit, therefore, for the formation of the closed cavity to provide its sealing and vacuum it is necessary to close the open part of the additional insulating layer wall construction elements.

An object of the invention is to provide a method of manufacturing vacuum building block that can improve the manufacturability and to improve the insulating properties of the unit while ensuring its strength required for the construction of buildings increased and uneven floors.

The solution of this problem is due to the fact that in the proposed method of manufacturing a vacuum building block, made on the basis of mainly hard cement mortars containing the laying operation of the concrete mixture into the form, molding the mixture, keeping to the stiffening of the mixture and liberation from the form, use a vacuum pump-compressor, which before placing the mixture in the Central section of the form, place the sealed envelope, pre-filled or not filled with a porous filler, and after filling the form with concrete it is formed into compressed air pulse fed through a tube in the center of the cavity, and leave it under pressure in a locked status and by means of the valve, supplied with tube, prior to the setting of the mixture, and after the liberation from form impregnate the outer surface of the sealing composition, such as liquid glass, after a set of concrete design strength of the valve opening and pump out the air using a vacuum pump, lock the gate after reaching the core unit maximum possible value of the vacuum.

As a sealant may be used for impregnation of concrete "SILER", which was developed under the guidance of Professor Raiselower. (OJSC Trest Gidromontazh" 123423, Moscow, Karamyshevskaja embankment, 37. Technical characteristics composition "SYLAR" THE 2257-001-29363290-97 // EP 01-02 GM guidance document on the protection of hydro-mechanical equipment and steel structures hydraulic structures from corrosion. The publishing CSPA "Genesis", 2002).

As the porous filler may be used: microspheres fly ash of thermal power plants, or light and ultra-light expanded clay, or ceramic wool, or any porous material.

The proposed method is more sophisticated and allows you to fully automate the process of manufacturing the vacuum building block, with the possibility of recycling of packaging polyethylene and waste power plants, namely recyclable products of combustion on the basis of ash C is politely. The proposed method allows for the efficient use of large-tonnage waste heat power industry.

Figure 1 shows the vacuum building block with the main structural elements. Figure 2 shows a cross-section of the vacuum building block.

In figure 1, figure 2, Figure 3, Figure 4, Figure 5, 6, 7, Fig are legend:

(1) to the outer surface of the vacuum building block,

(2) the opening for the discharge tube,

(3) a layer of fine concrete based on hard cement mortar (A)

(4) porous insulating core (B), for example microspheres fly ash of thermal power plants, or mineral wool, or clay, or any porous material,

(5) - connecting tube with a hole on the outer surface of the block, capable of connecting to the vacuum pump,

(6) - locking valve integrated in the tube (5)may be in the form of a one-way valve and can be fitted with a vacuum gauge,

(7) a layer of concrete impregnated sealing composition, such as liquid glass, or impregnation for concrete SYLAR.

(8) - gas-tight shell of the porous core unit, for example of polyethylene,

(A) concrete mix hard cement mortar;

(B) a porous insulating core, such as microspheres ash of the University of the sa power plants or Rockwool or expanded clay, or any porous material;

(B) the air pumped by the compressor (KSS) or pumped by a vacuum pump (ESD);

(SW) - compressed air;

(IV) air vacuum.

Operates vacuum building block, as an ordinary element of the supporting structure, such as a wall, in which, however, for radiant heat transfer there is a barrier in the form of a reflective surface in the form of polymeric mirror film, from which the shell is porous core inside the unit, and to reduce heat transfer through the wall by convection is reduced to a minimum the amount of heat transfer substance - air - thanks to the created vacuum and, in addition, difficult to move residue air porous structure of the filler in the cavity of the core block. Therefore, previously unknown and proposed by the authors of the invention the design of the vacuum building block has a very large resistance to heat transfer due to a new set of features. When loss of tightness property maximum resistance to heat transfer can be restored by re-pumping the air and create a vacuum inside the unit. To control the magnitude of the vacuum in the core block of the locking valve can be equipped with a vacuum gauge.

Figure 3, Figure 4, Figure 5, 6, 7, Fig - shows the schematic sequence of the method of manufacturing a vacuum building block:

Figure 3 - concrete placement (A) in the form, in the Central part of which is placed a plastic shell filled with a porous filler (B);

Figure 4 - formation of a mixture of compressed air (B), the pulse fed through a tube in the center of the cavity;

Figure 5 is an extract under pressure in a locked state by means of a valve, which is provided to the tube, until the mixture setting;

6 is a release from the mold and impregnating the outer surface of the sealing composition;

Fig.7 - pumping air from the middle of the cavity using a vacuum pump after a set of concrete design strength;

Fig - gate locked after reaching in porous core unit maximum possible value of the vacuum.

1. Vacuum building block containing a dense outer skin and a more porous core, wherein the block has a gas-tight surface of the outer shell and the core of the vacuum building block has a gas-tight shell, and the core of its center connected to the surface of the outer sheath tube, hermetically connected to the shell of the core and surface of the outer shell, and having a locking device for blocking the channel in the tube, and a connection to the vacuum pump.

2. Vacuum building block according to claim 1, characterized those who, the surface of the outer shell to give it the properties of air-tightness can be impregnated sealing composition, such as liquid glass or composition "Sylar".

3. Vacuum building block according to claim 1, characterized in that the gas-tight shell is made from a material with reflective properties, such as mirror film of polyethylene.

4. Vacuum building block according to claim 1, characterized in that the locking device for blocking the channel in the tube is made in the form of gate.

5. Vacuum building block according to claim 1, characterized in that the shell of the core block is filled with a porous substance, such as microspheres fly ash of thermal power plants, or mineral wool or expanded clay, or other light porous filler.

6. A method of manufacturing a vacuum building block according to claim 1, performed on the basis of mainly hard cement mortar including stacking of concrete mixture into the form, molding the mixture, keeping to the stiffening of the mixture and liberation from form, characterized by the fact that before laying the concrete mix in the Central part of the form is placed a sealed envelope, pre-filled porous filler to form a core block, and after filling the form, the mixture is formed into compressed air pulse is supplied by a pump-to what impression through a tube in the center of the porous membrane core unit, and kept under pressure in a closed state of the valve, which is provided with a tube, to seizure, the mixture is freed from form, is impregnated with the outer surface of the sealing composition, and after a set of concrete design strength, the gate unlocked, pull vacuum pump-compressor and lock the gate after reaching in porous core unit maximum possible value of the vacuum.

7. A method of manufacturing a vacuum building block according to claim 6, characterized in that the shell of the core block is filled with a porous filler, or pre-space shell and core unit in the form, or after a set of concrete design strength before pumping air from the core block.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: gypsum compositions and gypsum plates made from such compositions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed composition contains hardened gypsum, binding matrix made from hardened and calcined gypsum, water and modifying material containing mixture of organic poly- phosphonium compound or mixture of organic poly-phosphonium compounds in the amount of 0.01-3% of calcined gypsum and borate in the amount of 0.1-2% of mass of calcined gypsum containing ulexite, colemanite or mixture of ulexite and colemanite or modifying material containing poly-carboxyl compound or mixture of poly-carboxyl compounds in the amount of 0.01-4.99% of mass of calcined gypsum and poly-phosphate compound or mixture of poly-phosphate compounds in the amount of 0.004-2% of mass of calcined gypsum.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

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FIELD: construction material production, particularly for low building construction, or civil and industrial object erection, namely to construct residential houses, cottages and other buildings.

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FIELD: building material production, particularly adapted for low building erection and for civil and industrial structure construction.

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EFFECT: improved building appearance, heat insulation and soundproofing, simplified structure, increased masonry strength and decreased construction costs.

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FIELD: construction, particularly two-layer facing panels used for decorative civil and industrial building facing.

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EFFECT: improved heat-insulation properties, increased article service life and reliability.

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FIELD: construction, particularly to product reinforced concrete articles, for instance floor slabs or framing structure panels for industrial, civil and other building erection.

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FIELD: construction, particularly means to protect building against radon and other ground gases, for instance multilayered building blocks used for radon-protective foundation base and wall panel production.

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FIELD: construction industry, in particular, manufacture of multilayer construction stones.

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FIELD: building materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the gypsum composition made of hardened gypsum and to a method for its preparing. The composition made of hardened gypsum comprises the bound matrix unbroken phase made of hardened gypsum having the enhanced volume of empty spaces from water, and/or the indicated composition is prepared from a mixture showing the enhanced ratio of water to calcined gypsum at least 3:1. Also, invention describes an article comprising composition made of hardened gypsum. Invention provides preparing nonshrinking composition of hardened gypsum with reduced density, improved insulating and/or acoustic properties.

EFFECT: improved preparing method and properties of composition.

21 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: building, particularly to fill cavities in articles.

SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding article having at least one cavity by conveyer; providing filling station; positioning the article under vessel with filling material as viewed in vertical plane; filling the cavity with filling material along with simultaneously shaking the article; removing the article with filled cavity from the filling station by conveyer. Filling material is pumped under pressure created by rotor blades. The rotor is installed in the vessel. Filling material poured in the cavity is stirred and simultaneously compacted by pressure application during cavity filling or after filling operation termination. Filling station comprises vessel with filling material made as supply bunker, conveyer to move trays each having one article arranged in the tray, compacting means adapted to fill cavity with filling material under pressure. The compacting means has at least one rotor with guiding blades installed in vessel. The blades are secured to at least one cantilever holder and provide supply of filing material to at least one cavity of the article.

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15 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: building units to erect walls characterized by increased resistance to breaking.

SUBSTANCE: building member comprises rectangular concrete body and reinforcing frame. Concrete body is formed of class B60-B90 concrete. Reinforcing frame is composed of two reinforcing members having rectangular sections and of at least one V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member. The reinforcing members having rectangular cross-sections are flush with inner side of building member and extend to edges thereof. The V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member ends are fixedly secured to one reinforcing member having rectangular section. Top thereof faces outer side of building member. In accordance to the second embodiment building member comprises one reinforcing member having rectangular cross-section and at least one V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member having top fixedly secured to reinforcing member having rectangular cross-section.

EFFECT: increased resistance to breaking, reduced metal consumption and simplified structure.

17 cl, 15 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: construction industry; methods of manufacture of the wall products made out of the light concretes with the facial surface finish layer.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of construction industry, in particular, to the method of production of the wall products made out of the light concretes, which may be used at erection of the external walls of the buildings and structures. The technical result of the invention consists in the capability of production of the wall products from the light concretes having the high compression strength, the low thermal conductivity, the qualitative facial finish layer, and also the sufficient degree of fastness of cohesion between the layers excluding the possibility of destruction caused by delamination or spalling. The method of production of the wall products made out of the light concretes with the facial surface finish layer providing for preparation of the molding mass, its piling into the mold and the bilayered molding differs by the fact, that the molding mass for the facial surface finish layer is prepared from the cement-sand admixture with addition of the ferric oxide pigments of different colors, and the molding mass for the primary layer is prepared from the light-concrete mixture including the natural or artificial porous fillers, which is placed in the mold in the form of collapsible or detachable formwork with the mounted in it plug-in technological molding bed. Then exercise compaction by light pressure of the light-concrete admixtures and, in the mold volume formed after the compaction of the light-concrete admixture place the layer of the cement-sand admixture with the added the ferric oxide pigments, on which the upper punch with lower die, the dimension and the form of which are identical to the formwork and the mounted in it the plug-in technological pan, then, exercise the molding with the simultaneous compression and the vibration compaction of the layers being in the mold.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the wall products made out of the light concretes having the high compression strength, the low thermal conductivity, the qualitative facial finish layer, the sufficient degree of fastness of cohesion between the layers excluding destruction caused by delamination or spalling.

3 cl, 3 tbl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: construction, particularly to erect multilayered units, for instance, concrete articles, namely building blocks and slabs for envelope forming during industrial, civil and other building structures erection.

SUBSTANCE: method to produce multilayered building block on the base of rigid cement mixes and including one at least one heat-insulation layer of light-weight concrete and at least two fine concrete layers involves serially pouring different concrete mixes in form. After at least two different concrete mix layers pouring in two horizontal parallel planes upper block part is covered with additional form part. Then form with laid concrete mix layers is rotated through 90° about horizontal axis. Form part is removed from top part of the block and form is built up to adapt form for upper fine concrete layer pouring so that upper fine concrete layer is transversal to previously poured layers. After that all layers are subjected to vibroforming and curing up to cement mix stiffening. Finally form is removed.

EFFECT: improved heat insulation properties of straight and corner wall areas, window and door openings, increased strength, possibility to erect high buildings and buildings characterized by varying number of stories without the use of additional structural members to cover opened heat-insulation layers at wall corners and in window and door opening edges.

6 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly multilayered construction blocks and stones used for building wall erection and adapted to stabilize temperature inside room.

SUBSTANCE: construction block has several layers formed of cement based material. Block includes two extreme layers, one core layer and one face layer. Block is provided with the second face layer. Extreme layers are heat-insulating ones and are formed of porous concrete. Core layer is arranged between extreme ones and is made of fine concrete having high heat capacity and heat conductivity. Face layers lie in planes transversal to extreme and core layers and are arranged from opposite construction block ends. Face layers are hollow and made as sealed panel of two-ply sheet provided with inner stiffening ribs. Each cavity of sealed panel is defined by concrete layer in inner space of two-ply sheet along face panel perimeter. Each sealed panel has two connecting pipes with valves to be linked to pipelines. Fluid supply device is also discloses.

EFFECT: increased cold- or heat-accumulation capacity, possibility of inward and outward heat radiation.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly production of multilayered building blocks provided with pneumatic structural members used for building and building structure wall erection and having ability of heat conductive properties change in response to ambient temperature change.

SUBSTANCE: building unit comprises concrete layer made of concrete mix preferably based on rigid cement and heat insulation layer. Concrete layer is box-like member with faces defining cavity for heat-insulation layer receiving. Heat-insulation layer is made as sealed bag of air-tight elastic material. The bag is secured inside the cavity and has inlet and outlet orifices provided with two chambers. The first chamber has mechanical thermocontroller to close outlet orifice if ambient temperature is greater than predetermined temperature value and one-way valve. The one-way valve opens in the case of decreased ambient air pressure. The second chamber has the second mechanical thermocontroller to close inlet orifice if ambient temperature is below predetermined temperature value and one-way valve. The one-way valve opens in the case of increased ambient air pressure.

EFFECT: improved heat-insulation properties and possibility of building block usage as load-bearing member.

6 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: air conditioning, particularly laminated building blocks used for building wall erection and having properties facilitating dust removal from ambient air passing into building.

SUBSTANCE: filtering building block for load-bearing wall enclosure erection comprises outer concrete layers formed of material mainly based on rigid cement mixes and porous layer arranged in-between. Porous layer is located in sealed cavity defined by outer concrete layer. Inlet and outlet orifices are made in opposite cavity sides. The inlet and outlet orifices are communicated with two chambers located near porous layer. The first chamber is provided with one-way valve assembly so that if ambient air pressure increases the valves are brought into opened state. The second chamber has one-way valve assembly and opens the valves if ambient air pressure decreases.

EFFECT: improved heat-insulation and sound-proofing properties of filtering building block used in load-bearing building structure.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: building materials, particularly heat-insulation materials used for all-purpose building frame filling structure erection.

SUBSTANCE: heat-insulated modular structure comprises multilayered shell defining inner cavity and made as plastered reinforced net. Filler is placed in the cavity. The shell is made as rectangular parallelepiped with height h equal to b or 2b, where b is parallelepiped width. Parallelepiped length is equal to b, 2b or 4b. The shell is covered with air-tight heat-shrinkable film. Modular structure comprises stiffening members made as ribs extending along diagonal lines connecting cavity corners and crossing each other. The ribs are provided with slots formed in rib centers to insert the ribs one into another to connect the ribs in cross structure.

EFFECT: facilitation of structure sides mating, increased efficiency of heated building and building structure space filling, improved rigidity and manufacturability, as well as storage and transportation ability.

3 cl, 14 dwg

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