Method of distinguishing of distances between spaceship and determination stations

FIELD: production methods.

SUBSTANCE: suggested method includes emission and retranslation of primary and final radio signals between spaceship, basic and additional land determinations stations. At the same it is additionally retranslated the final radio signal from spaceship to the basic land station and it is admitted at this station. The radio connection with the radio signal of the spaceship with one or more additional stations, admission of the primary signal to the additional station, its transformation to the final signal and admitting of it to the spaceship. About the distance between spaceship and main determination station is judged by the interval between the moment of emission and moment of admitting the primary signal at this station. About the distance between spaceship and additional determination station is judged by the interval between the moment of emission and moment of admitting the primary signal at the main station. It is measured additionally the moving of the frequency of the final signal, admitted on the main determination station, regarding the frequency of the primary movement, emissed from the same station. The distance between spaceship and additional station is determined with measuring of the Doppler drift.

EFFECT: it is reduced the time and increased the accuracy of distance determination between spaceship and determination stations.

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The present invention relates to the field of space navigation and geodesy, and more accurate ways to measure distances between spacecraft and measurement stations.

The present invention can be used for navigation bindings spacecraft relative to the measuring stations tracking, which can be stationary, mobile, terrestrial, space, etc.

In addition, the present invention with the greatest success can be used to locate the above-mentioned measuring stations, including, as mentioned, ground measuring stations.

Also, the present invention can be used for mutual navigation bindings spacecraft used in global positioning systems objects (GPS, Gallileo, GLONASS and other), with the purpose of refining the orbits of these satellites, their relative position and increasing, thereby, the positioning accuracy of the defined objects.

Currently, much attention is paid to solving problems of geodesy and Geophysics, as, for example, the forecasting of earthquakes, the definition of "progress" lithospheric plates of the Earth, defining the parameters of its rotation, and so on. In this regard, the increasing application finds space technology, in particular, the space apparatus is ATA, used to determine the location of the measuring stations in the current point in time by determining the distances from the measuring stations to these satellites. While there are high requirements for limiting the time of determining the distance between the spacecraft and the measuring stations and to increase the accuracy of measurement of these distances.

A known method of measuring the distances between the spacecraft and measuring stations (Wenborne, Begbick, Rio and other Space geodesy published 1986, Moscow, publishing house "Nedra", p.86-92), namely, that emit a laser signal from the main measuring station in the direction of the spacecraft, reflect it using corner reflectors installed on the spacecraft, in the direction of the measuring station, take it to the measuring station to measure the time interval between emission and reception of the signal and determine the distance between the spacecraft and the measuring stations.

A known method of measuring the distances between the spacecraft and measuring stations (Wenborne, Begbick, Rio and other Space geodesy published 1986, Moscow, publishing house "Nedra", p.93-94) by radiation particleparticle with the main measuring station in the direction of the spacecraft, reception of the primary signal on the spacecraft, the primary relay the radio signal from the spacecraft in the direction of the main measuring station, receiving the primary signal on the main measuring station, the implementation of the radio communication end signal of the spacecraft with at least one additional measurement station, the measurement of the moments of emission and reception of the primary signal on the main measurement station, the measurement time interval, which is judged on the distance between the spacecraft and the main measuring station and the measuring time interval, which is judged on the distance between the spacecraft and additional measuring station. In this way communication between spacecraft and additional measuring station is performed by the radiation target signal with additional measuring stations in the direction of the spacecraft, the reception end signal to the spacecraft, the relay in the direction of additional measuring station, a reception end signal to additional measuring stations, and determining the distances between the spacecraft and, respectively, the main and additional measuring stations measured online is rvalue time between emission and reception of radio signals is performed by measuring the time interval between emission and reception of the end signal on additional measuring stations.

However, in this way, the implementation of direct radio communications between the spacecraft and additional measuring station leads to the fact that the measurement of time intervals between the moments of the radiation and reception of radio signals is carried out on each of the main and additional measuring stations separately and sequentially, which leads to an increase in the time of determining the distance between the spacecraft and measurement stations.

In addition, this way of measuring time intervals between the moments of the radiation and reception of radio signals on each of the main and additional measuring stations separately can correspond to the location of the spacecraft at different points of the orbit, which reduces the accuracy of determining the distance between the spacecraft and measurement stations.

Brief description of the invention

The aim of the present invention is to develop a method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and measuring stations, allowing to reduce the time of determining the distance between the spacecraft and measurement stations.

In addition, the present invention is to improve the accuracy of determining the distance between the spacecraft and measurement stations.

Postavlennye achieved those a method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and the measuring stations emit primary radio signal from the main measuring station in the direction of the spacecraft, are the primary signal on the spacecraft, the primary relay the radio signal from the spacecraft in the direction of the main measuring station, take the primary signal on the main measuring station, primary relay the radio signal from the spacecraft at an additional measuring station, take the primary signal at additional measuring stations, convert it to the final signal relay in the direction of the spacecraft, accept the end signal on the spacecraft, relay final signal from the satellite in the direction of the main measuring station, take it to the main measuring station to measure the moments of emission and reception of the primary signal on the main measuring station, carry out the judgment of the distance between the spacecraft and the main measuring station using the following relationship:

l1=(c/2)(t1-t0),

where l1- the distance between the spacecraft and the main measuring station;

C is the speed of spreading the Oia radio waves;

t1- the moment of reception of the primary signal on the main measuring station;

t0the moment of radiation of the primary signal with the main measuring station

measure the time interval between the moment of reception of the primary signal and the end signal to the main measuring station to measure the Doppler shift of the carrier frequency end of the radio signal received by the main measuring station relative to the primary carrier frequency of the radio signal radiated from the main measuring station, and exercise judgment about the distance between the spacecraft and additional measuring station using the following relationship:

l2=(c/2)(t2-t1)/(1+N)

where l2- the distance between the spacecraft and additional measuring station;

t2- the moment of reception of the end signal to the main measuring station;

N - Doppler shift of the carrier frequency end of the radio signal received by the main measuring station relative to the primary carrier frequency of the radio signal radiated from the main measuring station.

Tasks that should be solved by the inventions

The basis of the invention was based on the task of developing a method of determining the distance between the space apt ratom and measuring stations, having such additional operations, radio communications between the spacecraft and additional measuring station would be so, and the measurement of time intervals, which are judged on the distance between the spacecraft and the main and additional measuring stations was carried out between these points is that the measurement of time intervals between the moments of the radiation and reception of radio signals from the main and additional measuring stations would be carried out simultaneously and instantaneously, and would correspond to the location of the spacecraft in the same point of the orbit.

Method of solving problems

This is achieved by a method for determining the distance between the spacecraft and the measuring stations by radiation of the primary signal with the main measuring station in the direction of the spacecraft, the primary relay the radio signal from the spacecraft in the direction of the main measuring station, receiving the primary signal on the main measuring station, the implementation of the radio communication end signal of the spacecraft with at least one additional measurement station, the measurement of the moments of emission and reception of the primary signal on the main measuring station measuring the length of time the cat the rum judge the distance between the spacecraft and the main measuring station and the measuring time interval, judged the distance between the spacecraft and additional measuring station according to the invention to measure the moments of emission and reception of the primary signal on the main measuring station optional relay final signal from the satellite in the direction of the main measuring station and take it to the main measuring station, and radio communication end signal of the spacecraft with at least one additional measuring stations perform retransmission of the primary radio signal from the spacecraft at an additional measuring station, the reception of the primary signal on additional measuring stations, converting it to the final signal relay in the direction of the spacecraft, the reception end signal to the spacecraft and the measurement time interval, which is judged on the distance between the spacecraft and the main measuring station, carried out by measuring the time interval between the moment of emission and the time of reception of the primary signal on the main measuring station and carry out the judgment of the distance between the spacecraft and the main measuring station using the following relationship:

l1=(c/2)(t1-t0,

where l1- the distance between the spacecraft and the main measuring station;

C is the speed of radio wave propagation;

t1- the moment of reception of the primary signal on the main measuring station;

t2the moment of radiation of the primary signal with the main measuring station and the measuring time interval, which is judged on the distance between the spacecraft and additional measuring station, carried out by measuring the time interval between the moment of reception of the primary signal and the end signal to the main measuring station, with an additional measure of the Doppler shift of the carrier frequency end of the radio signal received by the main measuring station relative to the primary carrier frequency of the radio signal radiated from the main measuring station, and exercise judgment about the distance between the spacecraft and additional measuring station using the following relationship:

l2=(c/2)(t2-t1)/(1+N)

where l2- the distance between the spacecraft and additional measuring station;

t2- the moment of reception of the end signal to the main measuring station;

N - Doppler shift of the carrier frequency of the final signal taken at basically the measuring station, regarding the primary carrier frequency of the radio signal radiated from the main measuring station.

It is advisable that the method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and the measuring stations in the case of many additional measuring stations measuring the time interval between the moment of reception of the primary signal and the end signal to the main measuring station, which is judged on the distance between the spacecraft and each of the multiple additional measuring stations, would at the same time.

Preferably, the method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and the measuring stations in the case of determining the distance between the spacecraft and measuring stations for at least three points of location of the spacecraft in orbit simultaneously with the primary relay the signal to additional measuring stations additionally they put him on at least one auxiliary measuring station, the received primary signal on the auxiliary measuring stations, transformed it into the final signal relay in the direction of the spacecraft, took the final signal on the spacecraft, retransliroval in the direction of the main measuring station, took the final signal on the main measuring station and the measured time interval and the Doppler shift of the carrier frequency end of the radio signal received by the main measuring station relative to the primary carrier frequency of the radio signal radiated from the main measuring station, and judged the distance between the spacecraft in each of his whereabouts at the relevant points of the orbit and the auxiliary measuring station.

It is reasonable that the method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and the measuring stations of the measurement time interval, which is judged on the distance between the spacecraft in each of its locations at the corresponding points of the orbit and the auxiliary measuring station would measure the time interval between the moment of reception of the primary signal and the end signal to the main measuring station and to exercise judgment about the distance between the spacecraft and auxiliary measuring station using the following relationship:

l3=(c/2)(t3-t1)/(1+N)

where l3- the distance between the spacecraft and auxiliary measuring station;

t3- the moment of reception of the end signal to the main measurement is tanzihi.

Advantageously, in the method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and the measuring stations of the Doppler shift of the carrier frequency end of the radio signal received at the base station relative to the primary carrier frequency of the radio signal radiated from the main measuring station would determine from the following equation:

N=(mf0-f2)/2mf0,

where m is the coefficient of conversion of the carrier frequency of the radio signal when it is coherent relay on the spacecraft;

f0the primary carrier frequency of the radio signal radiated from the main measuring station;

f2the carrier frequency end of the radio signal received by the main measuring station.

The present invention allows to measure the time intervals between the moments of the radiation and reception of radio signals from the main and additional measuring stations simultaneously and instantaneously, which reduces the time of determining the distance between the spacecraft and measurement stations.

In addition, the present invention provides a consistent measurement of time intervals between the moments of the radiation and reception of radio signals from the main and additional measuring stations the location of the spacecraft in the same point of the orbit, which increases the accuracy of the races of the situation between the spacecraft and measurement stations.

Detailed description of the invention

The method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and the measuring stations is that radiate the primary signal with the main measuring station in the direction of the spacecraft and take it on the spacecraft, and then relay the primary radio signal from the spacecraft in the direction of the main measuring station and take it to the main measuring station. After primary relay the radio signal from the spacecraft in the direction of at least one additional measuring station, take an additional measurement stations and convert the primary signal in the target radio signal is relayed in the direction of the spacecraft. Then take the final signal on the spacecraft, relay final signal from the satellite in the direction of the main measuring station and take it to the main measuring station, then measure the time interval between emission and reception, respectively, of the primary signals to the main measuring station and carry out the judgment of the distance between the spacecraft and the main measuring station using the following relationship:

l1=(c/2)(t1-t ),

where l1- the distance between the spacecraft and the main measuring station;

C is the speed of radio wave propagation;

t1- the moment of reception of the primary signal on the main measuring station;

t0the moment of radiation of the primary signal with the main measuring station;

and, finally, measure the time interval between the moment of reception of the primary signal and the end signal to the main measuring station to measure the Doppler shift of the carrier frequency end of the radio signal received by the main measuring station relative to the primary carrier frequency of the radio signal radiated from the main measuring station, and exercise judgment about the distance between the spacecraft and additional measuring station using the following relationship:

l2=(c/2)(t2-t0)/(1+N)

where l2- the distance between the spacecraft and additional measuring station;

t2- the moment of reception of the end signal to the main measuring station;

N - Doppler shift of the carrier frequency end of the radio signal received by the main measuring station relative to the primary carrier frequency of the radio signal radiated from the main measuring station.

In the patented method is the determination of distances between the spacecraft and the measuring stations in the case of many additional measuring stations to determine the location of the spacecraft measured the time interval between the time of reception of the primary signal and the end signal to the main measuring station, which is judged on the distance between the spacecraft and each of the multiple additional measuring stations operate simultaneously.

In the case of determining the distance between the spacecraft and measuring stations for at least three points of location of the spacecraft in orbit on patent-pending method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and the measuring stations simultaneously with the relay, the primary signal at additional measuring stations optional relay it to at least one auxiliary measuring station, take the primary signal to the auxiliary measuring station and transmits it to the final signal relay in the direction of the spacecraft. Then take the final signal on the spacecraft, relay it in the direction of the main measuring station and take the final signal on the main measuring station. Then measure the time interval and the Doppler shift of the carrier frequency end of the radio signal received by the main measuring station, relative to the carrier frequency of the primary happy is signal, emitted from the main measuring station, and it is judged on the distance between the spacecraft in each of its locations (locations) on the relevant points of the orbit and the auxiliary measuring station.

Through patent-pending method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and the measuring stations of the measurement time interval, which is judged on the distance between the spacecraft in each of its locations at the corresponding points of the orbit and the auxiliary measuring station is performed by measuring the time interval between the moment of reception of the primary signal and the end signal to the main measuring station and carry out the judgment of the distance between the spacecraft and auxiliary measuring station using the following relationship:

l3=(c/2)(t3-t1)/(1+N1),

where l3- the distance between the spacecraft and auxiliary measuring station;

t3- the moment of reception of the end signal to the main measuring station.

Through patent-pending method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and the measuring stations of the Doppler shift of the carrier frequency end of the radio signal received by the main measuring station, about an hour is the notes primary carrier signal, emitted from the main measuring station is determined from the following relationship:

N1=(mf0-f3)/(2mf0),

where m is the coefficient of conversion of the carrier frequency of the radio signal when it is coherent relay on the spacecraft;

f0the primary carrier frequency of the radio signal radiated from the main measuring station;

f3the carrier frequency end of the radio signal received by the main measuring station.

Brief description of drawings

Other objectives and advantages of the present invention will be shown below when considering the description of examples of embodiment with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

figure 1 depicts the block diagram of the known geodetic system that implements a patent-pending method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and measuring stations;

figure 2 depicts the block diagram of the known geodetic system that implements a patent-pending method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and the measuring stations of figure 1 to determine the location of a spacecraft according to the invention;

figure 3 depicts the block diagram of the known geodetic system that implements a patent-pending method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and will measure lname stations, according to figure 3 to locate the auxiliary measuring stations located in the area of high seismicity according to the invention;

figure 4 depicts the block diagram of the known geodetic system that implements a patent-pending method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and the measuring stations in figure 3 for three points the location of the spacecraft on the orbit according to the invention.

The method is implemented on a known geodetic system (Wenborne, Egoic, Rio and other Space geodesy, §18, "Radiotelemetry observation satellites", Moscow, Nedra, 1986, p.93-94).

Known geodetic system contains the base 1 (Fig 1) and an additional 2 measuring stations, each of which has respectively the antenna 3, 4. Orbit 5, conventionally shown by the dotted line shows the movement of the spacecraft 6 with the antenna 7 via her point 8 (B1) and 9 (C2). Sweep 15, conventionally shown by the dotted line shows the movement of additional measuring stations 2 through its point 16 (D1) and 17 (D2). In figure 1 is also provided conditionally designated radio signals. The primary signal 10, radiated from the main measuring station 1, located at point a in the direction of the spacecraft 6, the primary signal 11, retranslate the p with the space of the device 6 in the direction of the main measuring station 1 and the primary signal 12, relayed from the spacecraft 6 in the direction of additional measuring station 2.

The final signal 13, relayed with additional measuring stations 2 in the direction of the spacecraft 6, and the final signal 14, relayed from the spacecraft 6 in the direction of the main measuring station 1.

Primary radio signals 10, 11, 12 defined when the spacecraft 6 point 8 (B1) orbit 5.

The final radio signals 13 and 14 are defined, respectively, when the spacecraft 6 point 9 (C2) orbit 5 and additional measuring station 2 at the point 17 (D2trajectory 15.

Alternatively perform a known geodetic system that implements a method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and measuring stations, similar to the geodetic system of figure 1. The difference lies in the fact that it contains one additional measuring station 18 (figure 2).

Orbit 5 is another point 19 (b3located between its points 8 (B1) and 9 (C2).

Figure 2 is additionally given conditionally designated radio signals. The primary signal 20, relayed from the spacecraft 6, located at the point 8 (B1) orbit 5, in the direction of the second additional m is th station 18 and adopted it when in point 21 (E 2). The final signal 23, relayed from the second additional measuring stations 18 in the direction of the spacecraft 6, and the final signal 24, relayed from the spacecraft 6 in the direction of the main measuring station 1. The final radio signals 23, 24 are defined when the second measuring station 18 in condition 21 (E2and spacecraft 6 point 19 (b3) orbit 5.

Another variant of execution known geodetic system that implements a method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and measuring stations, similar to the geodetic system of figure 2. The difference lies in the fact that it contains are at the point F of the auxiliary measuring station 26 (Fig 3). Orbit 5 is another point 27 (B4located between the points 19 (b3) and 9 (C2).

Figure 3 is additionally given conditionally designated radio signals. The primary signal 28, relayed from the spacecraft 6, located at the point 8 (B1) orbit 5, in the direction of the auxiliary measuring station 26. The final signal 29, relayed from auxiliary measuring station 26 in the direction of the spacecraft 6, and the final signal 30, relayed from the spacecraft 6 healthy lifestyles in the Institute on the main measuring station 1. The final radio signals 29 and 30 are defined when the spacecraft 6 at the point 27 (4) orbit 5. To simplify the docking station 18 and the auxiliary measuring station 26 is conventionally shown motionless.

According to the latest version of the run (figure 4) is known geodetic system that implements a method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and measuring stations, similar to the geodetic system in figure 3. The difference lies in the fact that the orbit 5 has two points 31 (B5) and 32 (In6).

A geodetic system that implements a method of determining the distance between the spacecraft 6 (1) and 1 main and 2 additional measurement stations, operates as follows.

On the main measuring station 1(a) form and radiate from an antenna 3 in the direction of the orbiting 5 spacecraft 6 primary signal 10. This signal 10 receive antenna 7 spacecraft 6, located at the point 8 (B1) orbit 5, and coherently relay in the direction of 1 main and 2 additional measuring stations, respectively, the primary signals 11 and 12. Additional measuring station 2 is located at the point 16 (D1trajectory 15. Then take the primary signal 11 on the main measuring station 1. Take the indicate the primary radio antenna 12 4 additional measuring stations 2, moving from point 16 (D1in point 17 (D2trajectory 15, coherently convert it to the output signal 13 of the relay in the direction of the spacecraft 6 and take the final signal 13 on the spacecraft 6, which during this time will be moved from point 8 (B1in point 9 (C2) orbit 5.

Measure the time t0the primary radiation signal 10 with the main measuring station 1, t1receiving a primary signal 11 on the main measuring station 1 and measure the time interval (t1-t0time defined by these moments of t0and t1. Then on the measured interval (t1-t0time define the length l1between spacecraft 6, located at the point 8 (B1) orbit 5, and the main measuring station 1 from the following equation:

l1=(c/2)(t1-t0),

where C is the speed of propagation of radio waves.

To determine the distance l2between spacecraft 6 and additional measuring station 2 relay final signal 14 from the spacecraft 6, located at the point 9 (C2) orbit 5, in the direction of the main measuring station 1. Accept the end signal 14 on the main measuring station 1 and measure the time t2his admission. Then measure the interval (t 2-t1time determined by the time t1measured earlier, and t2. In addition, measure the Doppler shift of the N frequency f2carrier end signal 14 with respect to the frequency f0carrier of the primary signal 10, radiated from the main measuring station 1.

On the measured interval (t2-t1time and Doppler shift of the N frequency f2the final signal 14 determines the distance l2between spacecraft 6, located at the point 8 (B1) orbit 5, and additional measuring station 2 from the following equation:

l2=(c/2)(t2-t1)/(1+N)

where N=(mf0-f2)/2mf0,

where m is the coefficient of conversion of the carrier frequency of the radio signal when it is coherent relay on the spacecraft 6.

The obtained values of the distances l1and l2consistent with the finding of the spacecraft 6 point 8 (B1) orbit 5, that is, the time T of reception of the primary signal 10 on the spacecraft 6, determined from the known composition:

T=(t1+t0)/2.

Let us consider the ratio illustrating the implementation of the proposed method.

The distance AB1from the main measuring station 1 to spacecraft 6 and the distance B1D1from additional measure concentration is entrusted station 2 to spacecraft 6 (figure 1) correspond to the time T (where T=(t 0+t1)/2) receive and relay the signal 10 on the spacecraft 6 point 8 (B1), with additional measuring station 2 is located at the point 16 (D1).

Express the distance In2And

where Vab- the rate of change of the distance between the spacecraft 6 and the main measuring station 2;

Express the distance B2D2

B2D2=B1D2+Vbd(B1D2/c)+V4(B2D2/(c)

or B2D2[1-V4/c]=[B1D2+Vbd(B1D2/c)], i.e

where Vbd- the rate of change of the distance between the spacecraft 6 and additional measuring station 2;

V4- velocity of spacecraft 6 in the direction DB;

Express

B1D2=B1D1+V3(B1D2/(c)

or B1D2[1-V3/s]=B1D1i.e.

V3- velocity of an additional measuring stations 2 in the direction BD;

from (1), (2) and (3)

Where can I get taking into account (1)

Further, taking into account (4) and (5), sex is to them as a result of transformations

Opening brackets and converting (8) we get

Because

[(Vbd/c)(Vbd/c+(V3/c)(V4/c))]<7,3·10-10

get from(9)

Finally, we obtain from (7) and (10)

B1D2+D2B2=2B1D1[1+Vbd/c]=c(t2-t1)/(1+Vab/(c)

and then

or considering the fact that

Express the velocity Vaband Vbdthrough Doppler shifts of the frequencies of carrier signals f1and f2respectively, for the end of radio signals 11 and 14, relative to the carrier frequency f0the primary signal 10.

f1=f0(1-2Vab/(c)

f2=f1(1-2Vbd/(c)

and then taking into account (12)

Vab/c+Vbd/c≅(f0-f2)/2f0

After transformations we obtain from (13)

Considering the fact that the primary signal 10, emitted from the measuring station 1, when receiving and relaying on the spacecraft 6 coherently is relayed with the conversion factor m, and the final signal at the reception and retransmission of additional measuring stations 2 coherently is relayed with a coefficient convert the cation 1/m, finally we Express the relation (13) as follows:

where

Thus, the measured values of the signal parameters can be defined synchronous distance AB1and B1D1corresponding to the positions of the spacecraft 6 point 8 (B1and additional measuring station 2 at the point 16 (D1) at time T=(t1+t0)/2.

Further, with the passage of the spacecraft 6 within the footprint of the measuring station 1 and additional measuring station 2, after the definition of a few or several synchronous distances AB1and B1D1for different moments of time T, determine the trajectory of the moving spacecraft 6 relative to the measuring stations 1 and 2. Then, knowing the trajectory of additional measuring stations 2, determine the components of the velocity V3and V4. Finally, knowing the components of the velocity VabVbdV3and V4by the above ratios you can specify values for the distance AB1and B1D1.

When it is necessary to determine the location of the spacecraft 6, known geodetic system of figure 2, implements a method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and the change is sustained fashion stations, works like described geodetic system of figure 1. The difference lies in the fact that simultaneously with the primary relay signal 10 from the spacecraft 6, located at the point 8 (B1) orbit 5, in the direction of additional measuring station 2, the relay primary signal 20 in the direction of additional measuring station 18. This signal 20 take at station 18 and is converted into the final signal 23 of the relay in the direction of the spacecraft 6. On the spacecraft 6, located at the point 19 (b3) orbit 5, take the final signal 23 and the relay in the direction of the main measuring station 1 end signal 24. Next on the main measuring station 1 accept the end signal 24 to measure the time t3reception of this signal and then measure the time interval (t3-t1time determined by the time t1measured earlier, and t3.

In addition, measure the Doppler shift of N1frequency f3carrier end signal 24 with respect to the frequency f0carrier of the primary signal 10, radiated from the main measuring station 1.

On the measured interval (t3-t1time and Doppler shift of N1frequency f3end signal 24 to define the Ute length l 3between spacecraft 6, located at the point 8 (B1) orbit 5, and additional measuring station 18 - point 25 (E1), from the following equation:

where

On detected distance l3and the previously determined length l1and l2between spacecraft 6, located at the point 8 (B1) orbit 5, and 1, respectively, the main and additional 2 measurement stations, as well as well-known locations station 1 - point a, station 2 - point 16 (D1and station 18 - point 25 (E1), in a known manner (Wenborne, Egoic, Rio and other Space geodesy, Moscow, Nedra, 1986, s) determine the location of the spacecraft 6, located at the point 8 (B1) orbit 5 at the time T of reception of the primary signal 10 on the spacecraft 6, which is determined from the relationship:

T=(t1+t0)/2.

When the task is to predict earthquakes, it is necessary to quickly determine the location of the measuring station, in this case ground, in the area of high seismicity, i.e. to determine the movement of the earth's crust at the location of this station. In addition, known geodetic system 3, 4, implements the method of determining distances to the economic apparatus and measuring stations, works like described geodetic system of figure 2. The difference lies in the fact that the primary signal 10, which was adopted on the spacecraft 6, located at the point 8 (B1) orbit 5, simultaneously convert the relay in the primary radio signals 12, 13 in the direction of additional measuring stations 2, 18 and the primary signal 28 in the direction of the auxiliary measuring station 26.

The signal 28 take at station 26 and is converted into the final signal 29 of the relay in the direction of the spacecraft 6.

On the spacecraft 6, located at the point 27 of the orbit 5, take the final signal 29 and the relay in the direction of the main measuring station 1 end signal 30.

Next on the main measuring station 1 take the final signal 30, the measured time t4reception of this signal and then measure the time interval (t4-t1time determined by the time t1measured earlier, and t4.

In addition, measure the Doppler shift of N2frequency f4carrier end signal 30 with respect to the frequency f0carrier of the primary signal 10, radiated from the main measuring station 1.

On the measured interval (t4-t1time and Doppler shift of N3frequency f4 the final signal 30 to determine the distance l4between spacecraft 6, located at the point 8 (B1) orbit 5, and the auxiliary measuring station 26 from the following equation:

where

Further, similar to the above to determine the location of the spacecraft 6 points 31 (figure 4) and 32 orbit 5. For these points 31 and 32 respectively define a length l5and l6between spacecraft 6 and auxiliary measuring station 6.

Now, knowing the location of the points 8, 31, 32 orbit 5 and, consequently, the distance l4, l5and l6between the points 8, 31, 32 and the auxiliary measuring station 26 determines widely known, the location of the auxiliary measuring station 26.

When implementing the method (including the formation, transmission, transformation, receiving and processing radio signals, correction of atmospheric and other components of the measurement) can be used known hardware and software solutions used in global positioning systems GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and others (see, for example: http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/gps/gps_ftoc.html, http://europa. eu. int/comm/dgs/energy_transport/galileo/documents/technical_en.htm).

When determining distances in addition to the Doppler frequency shift N can be is to use other ratios, contains information about the Doppler frequency shift of the emitted and received signals, such as Doppler account for a certain period of time, the ratio of the instantaneous values of the frequency integral of the Doppler account etc. by converting, respectively, equations(14)-(20).

The effectiveness of inventions

The present invention allows simultaneous measurements of distances between the spacecraft and measuring stations, the number of which is not limited to, than can be achieved with the implementation of the "geometric" method of determining the location of the spacecraft in orbit, as well as build a geophysical network of measuring stations in real-time. This provides increased accuracy and efficiency of building geophysical network, because its construction does not require a preliminary accurate knowledge of the orbits of the spacecraft, because the definition of these orbits occurs immediately after receipt of the measurement data.

As a "reference" measurement stations, according to the measurements which determine the orbit of the spacecraft, can be used stations installed in seismically inactive areas, and "progress" measuring stations installed in seismically active regions, is determined taking into account data about the orbit aerospace the machinery and the distances between the spacecraft and these measuring stations.

In addition, the present invention provides the radiation, reception, and processing of all signals at one measuring station, which gives the possibility to determine the location of the spacecraft at any point in time, and to determine on this measuring station the distance between the spacecraft and other measuring stations without the need for collection and transmission of additional data.

Also the present invention allows the use of implements patented method of geophysical system is quite simple radio devices - repeaters, which increases the reliability and mobility of this geophysical system, and also allows you to automate the mode of its operation, which will allow you to install measuring stations in earthquake-prone-to-reach areas to define "progress" of these stations. It is known that before the earthquake observed crustal deformation associated with the movement of lithospheric plates, resulting in the displacement of points on the surface of the Earth (see, for example: Pevnev A.K. "the Way to practical prediction of earthquakes". "Izv. the section of Earth Sciences natural Sciences. 2001, issue 6, s-92).

As the spacecraft it is possible to use artificial Earth satellites (AES) with the optimal (from the point of view of the geometry of the location of the ISM is satisfactory stations) the parameters of the orbits. It does not require knowledge of the exact parameters of the orbits of these satellites, because the definition of these parameters can be made directly in the measurement process. It is possible to install repeaters on numerous satellites designed to monitor the status of the Earth's atmosphere and weather.

In addition, the present invention can be used for mutual navigation bindings spacecraft used in the global positioning system objects (GLONASS as well as GPS, Gallileo, and others), with the purpose of refining the orbits of spacecraft that are in the system, their relative position and increase, thereby positioning accuracy defined objects (see, for example: http://www.glonass-center.ru/; http://www.igeb.gov/; http://www.gallileolonass-center.ru/)

On satellite navigation systems can be installed above the repeaters, and can also be considered a software reprogramming regular radio these satellites for the implementation of the proposed method.

In addition, the proposed method can be used for mutual synchronization and binding of different navigation systems (GPS, Gallileo, GLONASS and other) to each other to improve the accuracy of determination of coordinates of objects using positioning systems.

It is also possible to use the suggested ways is to study geodynamic movements of the earth's crust, for example, in places where pipelines in the design and operation of bridges and so on (see, for example: "research project - geomechanics", "Modern geodynamics and security interest in the underground space", Adisorn, Institute of Mining, Ural branch of RAS, Ekaterinburg, 2000, http://igd.uran.ru/).

The list of positions and letter symbols used in the description:

1 - the main measuring station;

2 - additional measuring station;

3 - station antenna 1;

4 - station antenna 2;

5 - orbit of the spacecraft;

6 - spacecraft;

7 antenna of the spacecraft;

8 - point (B1) orbit 5 spacecraft;

9 - point (B2) orbit 5 spacecraft;

10 - primary radio;

11 is a primary signal;

12 - primary radio

13 - end signal;

14 - end signal;

15 - the trajectory of additional measuring stations;

16 - point (D1trajectory additional measuring stations 2;

17 - point (D2trajectory additional measuring stations 2;

18 is an auxiliary measuring station;

19 - point (3) the orbit of the spacecraft 6;

20 is a primary signal;

21 - point (E2path of the auxiliary measuring station 18;

22 - tra is ctoria movement of the auxiliary measuring station 18;

23 - end signal;

24 - end signal;

a 25 - point (E1path of the auxiliary measuring station 18;

26 is an auxiliary measuring station;

27 - point (B4) orbit 5 spacecraft;

28 is a primary signal;

29 - end signal;

30 - end signal;

31 - point (5) orbit 5 spacecraft;

32 - point (6) orbit 5 spacecraft;

l1- the distance between the spacecraft 6 and the main measuring station 1;

t1- the moment of reception of the primary signal 10 to the main measuring station 1;

t0the moment of radiation of the primary signal 10 with the main measuring station 1;

t1- the moment of reception of the end signal 11 on the main measuring station 1;

l2- the distance between the spacecraft 6 at the time of its location in point 8 (B1) orbit 5 and additional measuring station 2;

t2- the moment of reception of the end signal 14 on the main measuring station 1;

N is the Doppler frequency shift f2the bearing end of the signal 14, adopted by the main measuring station 1, versus frequency f0carrier of the primary signal 10, radiated from the main measuring station 1;

N1- dople what's the frequency shift f 3carrier end signal 24 adopted by the main measuring station 1, versus frequency f0carrier of the primary signal 10, radiated from the main measuring station 1;

N2- Doppler shift frequency f4carrier end signal 30, adopted by the main measuring station 1, versus frequency f0carrier of the primary signal 10, radiated from the main measuring station 1;

l3- the distance between the spacecraft 6 at the time of its location in point 8 (B1) orbit 5 and additional measuring station 18 at the time of its location at the point 25 (E1);

t3- the moment of reception of the end signal 24 on the main measuring station;

f0the carrier frequency of the primary signal 10, radiated from the main measuring station 1;

f1the carrier frequency of the final signal 11, adopted by the main measuring station 1;

f2the carrier frequency of the final signal 14, adopted by the main measuring station 1;

f3the carrier frequency of the final signal 24 adopted by the main measuring station 1;

f4the carrier frequency of the final signal 30, adopted by the main measuring station 1;

m - conversion frequency chosen to replace the radio when it is coherent relay on the spacecraft 6;

1/m is the conversion of the carrier frequency of the radio signal when it is coherent relay on the measuring stations 2, 18, 26;

t4- the moment of reception of the end signal 30 on the main measuring station 1;

l4- the distance between the spacecraft 6 at the time of its location in point 8 (B1) orbit 5 and the auxiliary measuring station 26;

l5- the distance between the spacecraft 6 at the time of its location at the point 31 (In5) orbit 5 and the auxiliary measuring station 26;

l6- the distance between the spacecraft 6 at the time of its location at the point 32 (6) orbit 5 and the auxiliary measuring station 26.

1. The method of determining the distance between the spacecraft and the measuring stations by radiation of the primary signal with the main measuring station in the direction of the spacecraft, receiving the primary signal on the spacecraft, the primary relay the radio signal from the spacecraft in the direction of the main measuring station, receiving the primary signal on the main measuring station, the implementation of the radio communication end signal of the spacecraft with at least one additional measurement station, the measurement points izlucheniya reception respectively of the primary signals to the main measuring station, the measurement time interval, which is judged on the distance between the spacecraft and the main measurement station, the measurement time interval, which is judged on the distance between the spacecraft and additional measuring station, characterized in that it further relay final signal from the satellite in the direction of the main measuring station and take it to the main measuring station, and radio communication end signal of the spacecraft with at least one additional measuring stations perform retransmission of the primary radio signal from the spacecraft at an additional measuring station, the reception of the primary signal on additional measuring stations, converting it to the final signal by relaying in the direction of the spacecraft and the reception of the end signal on the spacecraft, and as time interval, which is judged on the distance between the spacecraft and the main measuring station to measure the interval between the moment of emission and the time of reception of the primary signal on the main measuring station, and the distance (l1) between the spacecraft and the main measuring station is judged by the ratio

l 1=(c/2)(t1-t0),

where C is the speed of radio wave propagation;

t1- the moment of reception of the primary signal on the main measuring station;

t0the moment of radiation of the primary signal with the main measuring station

as of the time interval, which is judged on the distance between the spacecraft and additional measuring station to measure the interval between the time of reception of the primary signal and the end signal to the main measuring station, with an additional measure of the Doppler shift of the carrier frequency end of the radio signal received by the main measuring station relative to the primary carrier frequency of the radio signal radiated from the main measuring station, and the distance (l2) between the spacecraft and additional measuring stations are judged by value

l2=(c/2)(t2-t1)/(1+N).

where t2- the moment of reception of the end signal to the main measuring station;

N - Doppler shift of the carrier frequency of the final signal, received on

the main measurement station relative to the primary carrier frequency of the radio signal radiated from the main measuring station.

2. The method according to claim 1, Otley is audica fact, in the case of many additional measuring stations measuring the time interval between the moment of reception of the primary signal and the end signal to the main measuring station, which is judged on the distance between the spacecraft and each of the multiple additional measuring stations carry the same primary signal radiated from the main measuring station.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in the case of determining the distance between the spacecraft and measuring stations for at least three points of location of the spacecraft in orbit simultaneously with the primary relay the signal to additional measuring stations relay it to at least one auxiliary measuring station, the location of which to be determined, are the primary signal at the auxiliary station, turned it into a final signal relay in the direction of the spacecraft, accept the end signal on the spacecraft and relay it in the direction of the main measuring station, take the final signal on the main measuring station to measure the interval time and the Doppler frequency shift of the carrier horse the nogo signal, adopted by the main measuring station relative to the primary carrier frequency of the radio signal radiated from the main measuring station, and it is judged on the distance between the spacecraft in each of its locations at the corresponding points of the orbit and the auxiliary measuring station.

4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that as the time interval, which is judged on the distance between the spacecraft in each of its locations in orbit and the specified auxiliary measuring station to measure the interval between the time of reception of the primary signal and the end signal to the main measuring station, and the distance (l4) between the spacecraft and auxiliary measuring station is judged by the ratio

l4=(c/2)(t4-t1)/(1+N)

where t4- the moment of reception of the end signal to the main measuring station.

5. The method according to claim 1 or 4, characterized in that the Doppler shift (N) the carrier frequency of the final signal is determined from the ratio

N=(mf0-f2)/(2mf0),

where m is the coefficient of conversion of the carrier frequency of the radio signal when it is coherent relay on the spacecraft;

f0the primary carrier frequency is audiosignal, emitted from the main measuring station;

f2the carrier frequency end of the radio signal received by the main measuring station.



 

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