Open cast mining method

FIELD: mining, particularly open cast mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating large coarse mineral blocks by cutting slots with load-cutters; transporting mineral blocks to loadout level. Breakage face is advanced along strike. Mineral blocks are excavated in down-top direction to the rise by block sliding on trays along face ground to lower horizon with block movement by means of winches to loading area. Blocks laid on trays are loaded so that the trays are retained with rope and case mountings or without it if not required with the use of high-capacity truck-mounted crane. To develop seams having thickness exceeding maximal cutting depth of load-cutter mineral is cut in top-down direction with following cutting of layers each having thickness of not more than 2.2 m. Lower horizon provided with rail track is located at seam floor. The rail track is erected on lower horizon. Here blocks are loaded into cars. Cut mineral blocks are independently lowered from breakage faces at each layer to lower load horizon along movable mechanized metal structures provided with smooth metal descend having rounded ends, hoisting winch and bypassing block installed on vertical post. Vertical post height provides free snake line movement for cut mineral block movement. Blocks are separately loaded in cars from each layer.

EFFECT: increased output, improved operational and environmental safety and economical efficiency.

4 cl, 7 dwg

 

The invention relates to mining and can be used for open development of mineral deposits, deposited layers or deposits gentle fall.

The method consists in the extraction of fossil without its destruction, by cutting out a large rectangular blocks, which has several major advantages unattainable in other ways.

The known method of surface mining of bedded deposits of minerals /1/ by softening array blasting operations and loading rock mass excavators in railroad cars or trucks heavy-duty trucks.

The closest is the way of Kaimana underground mining of mineral deposits, including its production cutting of the bottom of the array blocks using electric and gidroliznyh machines. The blocks in the process of cutting out the worn metal frames to make with blocks loading and transport operations (see RF patent №2269003 C2, AS 41/16, 2006).

Electric machines cut two slits parallel to the plane of the layer: at its borders with the roof and the ground. Lateral and rear vertical slots are cut gidroliznyi machines. Shipping on fossil lava is on the delivery trucks on the corner rails with cargo winches. Mount lava is clubs the mi mechanized hydraulic roof supports. In relation to the open development technology this method contains some unnecessary processes. This cutting of the upper slit in the seam and fastening. The number of processes is irrational with respect to the open development technology. This cross-cutting and rear vertical slots gidroliznyi machines, as well as shipping cut blocks to the sides of the face on the delivery trucks.

Lateral and rear vertical slots on open works better to cut electric machines. Application gidroliznyh machines, producing cutting array thin water jet water jet high pressure, in this case, unnecessarily complicates the production and increases the cost of production. On public works develop the reservoir has more exposed surface. On this surface can accommodate the equipment and running production processes, in particular the electric cutting machines transverse and rear vertical slots.

When working Stopes along the strike of the seam with the issuance of units of fossil-dip does not require the use of special hauling vehicles (delivery trucks), because moving blocks can be carried out with the use of cargo winches by sliding on metal pallets. At small angles of incidence of the reservoir, magdadagdag efforts cargo winches plus the force of the inclined part of the weight of the unit is insufficient to overcome the friction force of sliding metal tray about rocks soil stope, can be used pallets on the rollers of small diameter.

The objective of the invention is to substantially increase productivity, economic efficiency, safety and environmental remediatio on cuts by creating a production technology of cut blocks fossil from an array of electric machines and loading cut blocks into wagons or trucks. The non-use of blasting for loosening the array fossil can significantly increase the security of wastewater treatment works. Nerazresene array, the development of its large blocks leads to the elimination of fossil placers and to a sharp reduction in the allotment of it of harmful gases and dust and creates a truly environmentally friendly production. The transition from mining in placer mining in large blocks also allows you to significantly increase economic efficiency by eliminating inefficient processes with application malacosoma excavators, bulldozers and scrapers especially at low layers, which greatly increases the cost of treatment.

This object is achieved in that for cutting blocks of fossil all types of cracks: transverse, bottom and back are cut electric machines. Cutting blocks in the lower gap sequentially one after the other after the movement of the cutting e the electric machine drawn massive metal pallets. The contours of pallets correspond to the cross section extracted blocks. After cutting the rear vertical slit blocks fossil under its own weight firmly sit on pallets. Next, cut the blocks down on metal pallets of cargo winches on the bottom of the cargo horizon and pull up another cargo winch for crane high capacity for loading units in rail cars or trucks.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, each of which shows the following:

Figure 1 - chasing (schematically in profile) electric machine No. 1 transverse slit in the array of minerals: 1 - electric machine # 1; 2 - transverse slit in the bottom hole array; 3 - cutter bar cutting a transverse slit.

Electric machine No. 1 in the process of cutting a transverse slit is moved perpendicular to the front stope from its edge at a distance of 60-80 m to ensure the scope of work for cutting blocks other bromaline for a few days. The distance between the transverse slits is equal to the length of cut blocks of fossil and accepted the conditions of his transportation to the consumers. For the preparation of the excavation site of a fossil to the development of transverse cracks should be cut along the entire length of the stope.

F. the Gura 2, a and b - electric cutting machine No. 2 lower slots and electric machine No. 3 rear vertical slits; 2 front view side stope and 2B is a view in plan: 4 - electric machine # 2, cutting through the lower gap; 5 - electric machine # 3, cutting through a given vertical slit; 6 - cutting bar electric machine №3; 2 - transverse slit; 7 - cutting bar electric machine No. 2; 8 - the inner edge of the lower slit; 9 - rear vertical slot; 10 - metal pallets involved in the lower slot.

Electric machines # 2 and # 3 are moved along the stope using a rope, stretched along the path of motion. The cable wound on the drum, located in the input part of bromaline. From the other end of the cable secured to the spacer rack or peg driven into the array fossil. Electric machine No. 2 is moved through the soil stope butt to the chest of the face. Its cutter bar during movement of the machine slots in the array fossil bottom slit on the border with soil slaughter on the accepted depth. When using electric machines "Ural-33", produced Kopeysk the plant, according to the technical feature of the machine to its maximum depth of 2.2 m, and the maximum working speed when cutting a slit 2.8 m/min, the thickness of the slit 14 cm (maximum).

Electric machine No. 3 moves electric machine No. 2, being n the Nude side surface of the reservoir. In order cutter bar, cut through the rear vertical slit, it must be directed vertically downwards. Therefore, the electric machine No. 3, moving parallel to the stope on an exposed surface of the reservoir, and electric machine No. 1 is on the side. Between electric machines # 2 and # 3 is maintained a distance required for on this site stope was laying metal pallets in the bottom slot. Figb dotted line shows the position in lower slots involved in her pallet.

Figure 3 - a metal tray and expanded cable snap-unit fossil for its transportation and loading, type in the plan: 11 - Central supporting ring; 12 - side a supporting ring; 13 - corner loops for retracting pallets in the lower gap; 14 - hooks for strapping the cable ends and snap; 15 - loops for strapping the cable ends from the cargo winches.

Metal pallet is a massive steel plate, corresponding to the cross section extracted blocks and thickness sufficient to withstand the weight of a unit of fossil (21 t) when handling without deformation. The pallet has a metal loop 13 for slinging rope ends when it is retracted into the lower slot and the loop 15 for slinging the cable ends from the cargo winches when his lane is the displacement of the loading on the horizon.

Rope rigging required for lifting heavy blocks of fossil when handling. It consists of a Central and two side rings and six cable ends. Four cable end with one hand free and have the ends of a supporting hook 14. The Central ring has welded to it a semi-circle that clings to the hook of the crane loading blocks. Cable snap-fits over the cut blocks immediately after his removal from the bottom of the array when it is preparing to descend to the lower horizon.

Figure 4 - a metal tray, cable accessories and canvas for zacherley sides of the block of fossil before his descent to the lower horizon, a view in plan: 16 - cloth zacherley sides of the block; 17 - hooks for strapping shrouded blade.

If the array fossil loose and destroyed during transport blocks, the first before installing the snap-in unit of fossil must first be shrouded on the sides of the dense material, which then is put on the cable snap. As can be seen in figure 4, on the one hand two cable end sewn into choline canvas. When will be raised up Central and side slinging rings, choline the canvas is fitted around the block and secured by the hooks 17. Then on the sides of the block down four free is breaking the cable end and the hooks 14 stopouts to the rest of the loops of the pallet.

Figure 5, a and b - retraction of the metal pan in the bottom slot, 5A - view the profile in cross-section transverse slit and 5B is a view in plan: 18 - the lower gap; 19 - wire cable ends for retracting the pallet.

Figa and b graphically presents the process of retracting the pallet 10 in the lower gap 18 two cable ends 19, which zastropovana their hooks and loops 13 of the pallet. Retraction is performed by two workers who, holding the free ends of the cables are moved on an exposed surface mined seam along the transverse slits in the direction opposite from the stope. In this case, both the cable end to pass through the adjacent transverse slit from top to bottom from the workers to the loops of the pallet, pulling it in the bottom slot. After the pallet is fully retracted into the slot, the workers return to venotomy the pallet and using poles with curved ends pull out of the loops of the pallet hooks the cable ends and pull of the transverse slits themselves rope ends.

Figure 6 - scheme of development of the mineral from the way Professor Kaimana, view in plan: 4 - electric machine # 2, cutting through the lower gap; 5 - electric machine # 3 cutting the rear vertical slot; 10 - metal pallet, before pulling it in the bottom slot; 20 - winch for lifting pallets on Oistamo slaughter; 21 - unit fossil, and belonged to neither the deposits of horizon slide on pallets using cargo winch; 22 - cargo winch for delivery of the blocks on the lower horizon; 23 - unit fossil pull to the place of loading; 24 - winch for pulling blocks to the place of loading; 25 - large-capacity crane for loading blocks in cars; 26 - railway wagons mining blocks; 27 - crane for loading pallets from cars to trucks horizon.

Figure 6 shows schematically the development of the gently dipping reservoir of fossil large blocks on the way Professor Kaimana. The entire excavation area cut electric machine No. 1 transverse slits 12 bars. Along the stope moved two electric machines: # 2 and # 3. Machine # 2 moves on the ground face close to his chest. Machine # 3 moves on the naked side surface of the reservoir parallel to the stope on the distance of the width of the capture of the electric machine from the edge of the face. To place bookmarks pallets in the lower gap these bromaline the pallets are fed from the bottom of the cargo horizon with a cargo winch 20, located on the upper horizon in the area of its junction with clearing face. On the lower horizon cargo pallets are unloaded together with rope cigolini snap crane 27 of railway cars filed under loading blocks fossil. Then they tightened the winch 24 to the lower area with the voltage, where stopouts cable end of the winch 20 to lift to place bookmarks in the bottom slot.

Before descending to the bottom of the cargo horizon carved block of fossil 21 is shifted from the initial position in the array using the winch 22 for a short distance to mount cable (and cigolini, if necessary) snap-in. Then use the winch 22 block descends along the face on dip on the lower horizon. In the zone of the lower pair of slaughter delivered unit stroumsa cable end of the winch 24 and tightened to the crane for loading into wagons or trucks.

Figure 7 - scheme of descent carved block from fossil stope upper layer on the lower cargo horizon with the development of thick flat layer by layer, frontal views: 21 - descent mining unit of fossil; 22 - cargo winch, used to move the block along the bottom and on the descent; 28 mobile mechanized metal construction for lowering blocks; 29 - bypass block; 30 - metal stand bypass the block.

The use of the mobile mechanized steel structures for descent blocks from fossil stope developing the upper layer of thick layers on the bottom of the cargo horizon, enables you to efficiently develop on layering scheme powerful sloping strata of the way of the Professor To the Riemann problem. The layer thickness, which is taken out by one clearing face, is determined by the depth of capture of the electric machine. Therefore the power of the developed layer may not exceed the maximum depth electric machine 2.2 m Lower cargo horizon, which runs the railway track and where the cargo is loaded blocks in cars, is located on the ground developing a powerful formation. On bottom of the cargo horizon fall extracted blocks from fossil faces of each layer. The development of the layers is made from the top down. Loading blocks in the cars performed separately at each mechanical shutter which is moved on the rollers after clearing face of each layer. When this is achieved the maximum concentration of mining operations on one freight horizon, because the load of the extracted blocks from all layers is one downloadable composition.

The way Professor Kaimana mineral development on open work permits to achieve high performance even on the reservoir of small capacity. So when the power of the shallow aquifer in 2 m mined blocks with dimensions 3 m×2.2 m×2,0 m With a speed of electric machines 2,8 m/min, the rate of admission to lower freight horizon cut blocks is 1.07 minutes When lifting the weight of 1.45 t/CBM weight of each block extending t is so 19,1 This gives the watch a performance of one stope 1080 t/H. Since the idle driving electric machine No. 2 takes a little time, as is done with the help of the winch 22 without electric machine from the operating position, the overall average performance is almost not reduced, accounting for 24 tonnes per day.

When developing a powerful reservoir layers by way of Professor Kaimana daily production from the reservoir consists of production on each layer. Therefore, when developing a reservoir with a capacity of 11 m, developed in five layers with a capacity of 2.2 m each, total production from the area will be equal to 24 tonnes×5=120 tonnes/day.

An important advantage of the method of development is that the high performance of mine sites is also achieved on polomosnih formations that many of the cuts are not being developed, as are considered substandard. So on the reservoir with a capacity of 1 m average daily production can be increased to 10-12 tonnes per day.

Very high performance, as well as the non-use of expensive mining equipment: excavators, bulldozers, scrapers, etc. greatly reduces cleanup work when they are doing way Professor Kaimana make them cost-effective.

This method of exploitation of mineral resources significantly increases without the security and sustainability of wastewater treatment works in connection with non-use of blasting. The failures of electric detonators, not exploding the explosive cartridges in the coal wells then explode on detonation when the excavators or bulldozers, seriously injuring workers. No bulldozers removes the risk of severe or fatal injury tractor from side tipping or overturning of the back of the tractor during its movement on an inclined rough surface mined seam in connection with the collapse of the cab of a heavy motor, reinforced by the action of a large overturning moment when dumping.

Development of fossil large blocks, you can create sections in ecologically clean production. No blasting during mining of fossil allows you to avoid creating dust clouds, especially on deep cuts hanging, not scattered in the atmosphere, poisoning the environment and causing occupational diseases of miners. Nerazresene fossil extraction leads to a reduction in 3-4 times the emissions of harmful gases contained in the fossil. Nephaline in the context of fossil placers dramatically improves the environment.

Extraction of minerals by way of Professor Kaimana gives many advantages and further transportation of production to consumers. So almost half gr increases the forth railway cars on the placement of the extracted mineral. This is because the volumetric weight in fossil blocks much more than its weight in the filling, when transported fossil placers. Increase one and a half times the capacity of the cars, respectively, in half reduces the need for cuts in the number of cars for loading, the length of freight trains, the length of the train platforms station railway tracks, etc. When equipping rail freight sufficient number of powerful locomotives capable one and a half times more heavier trains of the same number of cars, with the current development of railway lines and loading wagons fossil in large blocks by half will increase rail capacity on major freight routes. For Russia, which has the most basic of large mining enterprises located in the Eastern and Western Siberia, and the main consumers in the European centre and abroad, removed to a distance of 4-5 km, is very important.

When transporting production in large units are greatly simplified and are becoming less expensive handling, storage, port terminals, transportation of fossil marine vessels and other

With regard to transportation and storage of coal mining its large blocks gives two vagnerplast: will not occur spontaneous combustion of coal and it is not freezing in the winter. These phenomena are currently very seriously complicate the work of many industrial enterprises. Substantial savings on rail transport, handling, sorting and storage for fossil Russia as a mining country is of paramount importance.

References.

1. Mountain encyclopedia. M: Soviet encyclopedia. 1984.

1. The method of open pit mining of mineral deposits, including fossil large rectangular blocks with cross-cutting, bottom and rear slits electric machines, laying in the process of cutting metal pallets in the lower gap, the subsequent transportation of the extracted blocks for loading the horizon and loading into wagons or cars, characterized in that the cutting of all kinds of cracks produced electric cars, the moving line stope occurs along the strike of the formation, extraction of the blocks is made from the bottom up by the uprising of the formation and descent of blocks fossil is made by dip by slip on pallets in the soil pit at the bottom horizon moving winches to the place of loading; loading block is on pallets, astrobunny cable and cigolini or without it, rigging, cranes greater capacity.

2. The method according to claim 1, otlichalis the same time, the cutting of the slits is made simultaneously by three electric machines: first cut a transverse slit by movement of the first electric machine from the edge of the face along strike on the naked side surface of the reservoir, while on the side, so that its cutting bar goes down and cuts through the transverse slit perpendicular to the plane of the layer and the line stope; a second electric machine cuts through the lower gap in a layer on its border with the breed of the soil so that the bottom plane of the slit parallel to the plane of the layer, while the 2nd electric machine is moved along the line of the stope at the uprising of the reservoir in the soil next to the chest of the face; a third electric the machine also moves the uprising of the reservoir along the stope being on the side and along the top of the Nude side surface of the reservoir, with its cutting bar is directed vertically downwards and forms when driving rear vertical slit to cut blocks of fossil in this cycle of the notch.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that at sites along the length of the stope between the 2nd and 3rd bromaline is the tab of metal pallets lower slit slit; retraction of the pallets in the gap is two cable ends with hooks, zastropovana to loops welded to the corners of the pallets from the side of the face; two workers will have Amasa top on the side surface of the reservoir, tension cable ends, passing downwards through a transverse slit to loops pallets, draw the pallets at the bottom slit throughout its depth.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that during the development of the reservoir with a capacity greater than the maximum depth of capture of the electric machine 2.2 m developing layer is the layer from top to bottom with successive refinement layers capacity of each is not more than the depth of capture of the electric machine; the lower cargo horizon, which runs the railway track and where the cargo is loaded blocks in cars, is located on the ground layer; Stopes each layer separately is the descent of the extracted blocks on fossil cargo horizon mobile mechanized structures, equipped with smooth rounded on the ends of the metal descent, cargo winch and bypass unit mounted on the vertical post, with which ensures the smooth movement of the cable to move the extracted blocks; loading blocks into wagons separately with each layer.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining and pit protection against underground water inflow in the case of open-pit kimberlite pipe and other mineral deposits development in subpermafrost horizon.

SUBSTANCE: method involves discharging water initially contained in deposit section to be developed and precipitation water from said deposit section; drilling injection wells around kimberlite pipe perimeter and from pit bottom; performing explosions in wells surrounding kimberlite pipe perimeter and carrying-out hydraulic fracturing from wells drilled from pit bottom to create jointed subvertical and subhorizontal rock fissured zones, which have uniform fissures; supplying plugging materials therein and creating joined solid watertight diaphragms shaped as integral cups.

EFFECT: possibility to create watertight diaphragm, which protects deposit section to be developed against underground water ingress.

FIELD: mining, particularly mining and pit protection against underground water inflow in the case of open-pit kimberlite pipe and other mineral deposits development in subpermafrost horizon.

SUBSTANCE: method involves discharging water initially contained in deposit section to be developed and precipitation water from said deposit section; drilling injection wells around kimberlite pipe perimeter and performing explosions through regular system from pit bottom to create joined subvertical annular and subhorizontal rock fissured zones which have uniform fissures; supplying plugging materials therein and creating joined solid watertight diaphragms shaped as integral cups.

EFFECT: possibility to create watertight diaphragm, which protects deposit section to be developed against underground water ingress.

FIELD: mining, particularly to perform stripping and mining in pits with 6-8 crushing index.

SUBSTANCE: method involves filling previously created trench with rock loosened with milling machine, wherein loosened rock is poured in the trench from which said rock had been excavated. In the case of conveyer deactivation device usage rock is left in open trench just after rock cutting with milling means. After that rock is scooped with scrapers following pit machine without pit machine stopping.

EFFECT: increased open-pit work efficiency due to decreased milling machine downtime during rock mining.

2 cl, 1 ex, 4 dwg

FIELD: open-cast mining, particularly for mineral mining in the case of vertical ore body confined in plane view, particularly kimberlite pipes.

SUBSTANCE: method involves spacing common pit edges at intermediate stage along with new edges creation, wherein the new edges are formed of triple ledges with stability provision parameters so that the ledges are separated one from another with safety berms; creating transport descent for double-path large dump truck movement; creating U-turn platform and annular transport descends at finishing stage, wherein annular transport descends provide opposite single-path dump truck movement and are joined one to another at U-turn platform; constructing pit edges in superhigh ledges in steep ore body pitch areas; transporting ore to plant and conveying gob to extreme refuse heaps. At pit finishing stage U-turn plate forming is accompanied by transfer platform creation. Steeply inclined descent and U-turn platform are created below transfer platform along rock pillar between pits. The descent is created through the full pillar depth. Ore bodies are alternately cut with steeply inclined end descents having thicknesses providing double-path crawler dump movement. Ore and gob of the first pit are transported to transfer platform. Then ore is loaded in dump trucks. Gob is piled on the second pit edge. After total the first pit excavation gob of the first and the second pits is arranged in the worked-out space of the first pit. Inclined galleries are cut along rock pillar base to provide drain water passage from the first pit into another one.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and mineral mining completeness.

1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly excavation of hard rock in confined environment demanding prevention of blasted rock cuttings falling under high ledge slopes, namely during re-activation of temporarily unworked edges of deep pits, spacing sides of deep rock excavations in road building and so on.

SUBSTANCE: method involves separating high ledge into layers so that each layer has height not exceeding excavation equipment digging height; preparing the layers for following blasting by arranging light-weight woven mat with weight on side slope of high ledge below layer to be blasted; drilling blast-holes in each layer; filling blast-holes with charges, wherein blast-holes, which are outermost from side slope, are filled with decreased charge; arranging two-layer gas-permeable covering on all opened surfaces of area to be blasted, wherein lower end of the covering is made of metal mesh, upper one is created of mats formed of worn-out car tires; inserting lower covering part under mat for distance of not less than tire diameter; blasting rock; removing covering and excavating cut rock.

EFFECT: prevention of rock fragment dispersion under high ledge slopes during blasting works performing and rock excavation.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly open cast kimberlite pipe mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mining ore body by hydromining device of floating dredger; supplying diamond-containing pulp to floating dressing plant, recovering diamonds and transporting reject material from pit to preliminarily prepared plate for following utilization thereof. Ore body is developed by hydromining device reciprocation across total ore body area. Diamonds are recovered by serial pump decomposition, sizing, dressing and conditioning. Residual material is utilized by dewatering thereof in centrifuge and stacking for following usage for building material production.

EFFECT: simplified method and rig and decreased power inputs for kimberlite pipe development.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly for underground mining of steeply-dipping and inclined ore bodies having low and high thickness, as well as streaks.

SUBSTANCE: method involves separating stages and substeps in pit side slope; constructing deep pit with steeply-dipping side slopes in hanging and lying ore deposit walls, wherein side slope direction vary up to vertical direction at final stage; cutting zones in upper horizons and constructing the first continuous transportation path made as conveyer lifting means in trenches as pit is excavated; moving upper conveyer lifting means to new pit side point of upper stage when shifting to other mining stages at central and deep horizons and constructing conveyer system in trench located in central horizon; mounting conveyer lifting means at vertical side slope reinforced with polymers, bolts and mesh along with deep horizon excavation so that curvature of formed stable side sections correspond to surface and path of continuous ore and capping rock transportation from lower horizons to upper ones, wherein increasing shear loads in material to be transported are accommodated in conveyer structure by control of pull system and pressing means of tape drive mechanism. Device for said method realization is also disclosed.

EFFECT: increased operational efficiency, decreased costs of ore and capping rock delivery from deep pit.

2 cl, 1 ex, 10 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly to create high dumps during open pit mineral mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves forming preliminary dump layer near outermost deep pit outline with the use of cyclically acting means at optimal rock transportation shoulder; digging out steeply inclined semi-trench in pit side in overburden rock location zone and in direction of pit outline sections of the first, the second and the third excavation orders from depth corresponding to optimal vehicle operation height; creating embankment on surface by forming a number of transversal transport paths made as temporary dumps having heights increasing to preliminary dump mark so that embankment is at predetermined angle to preliminary dump; mounting crushing machines on main haulage level inside pit; installing in-line conveyance means in trench and in preliminary dump; covering thereof with light-weight snow-protection tent. Dumping operation is performed in parallel runs from stacking conveyor, wherein rock is received with inclined boom-mounted mechanism of plate feeding means arranged in tube-shaped structure supported by sliding supports so that the structure may rotate in place of structure connection with stacking conveyer. Boom length is selected from inclined dumped rock layer thickness to provide minimal dump settlement in unloading device installation place. Dump embankment forming for main conveyer of the second order is continued by preliminary dump forming within design dump outline by means of in-line conveyance means and by rock stacking on dump and by cyclic means. After that the second and the third dump layers are constructed. To prevent dump deformation rock layer stacked in winter is covered with snow-free buffer rock so that said layers have equal thicknesses. As central and deep pit zones are developed main conveyer is enlarged by installing new crushing equipment section on the second haulage level formed in permanent side. Conveyer path enlargement is continued with the use of steeply inclined and vertical conveyers to provide threshold distance of rock conveyance to crushing unit by collecting transport specified by optimal collecting transport operation.

EFFECT: increased dumping efficiency.

1 ex, 5 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly safe refuse disposal during deep laying kimberlitic pipe excavation in extreme northern permafrost zone conditions.

SUBSTANCE: method involves constructing protection dam of overburden and creating water-tight screen of loamy soil; stacking waste and rock mass of different types inside protective dam; dumping rock in layers along with layer slopes and berms creation. Each protective dam layer is formed along finite outline. Water-tight screen is covered with zeolite layer to neutralize poisonous gas. Rock saturated with brine is stacked inside formed bowl in direction from layer periphery towards center thereof. As layer is filled with brine-saturated rock the layer is covered with zeolite layer. Then upper layer is formed in the same order. After all layer dumping termination slopes are treated to impart variable geometry thereto and the slopes are covered with sapropel. Dump has elliptical configuration oriented depending on wind rose.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and safety of aggressive brine-saturated rock dump stacking and storage.

1 ex, 2 tbl, 5 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly opened development of horizontal and gently sloping mineral deposits.

SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting next to last overburden bench; providing explosion to shift rock to goaf during above cutting operation; forming road over shifted rock; performing transportation of rock cut from next to last bench; transporting rock remaining after explosion out of ore body outline along with rock bench slope cleaning and ore body roof cleaning; removing remaining cone with bulldozer; digging-out pit along contact line between ore and shifted rock; mining mineral and transporting thereof along temporary ore-transportation road formed over shifted rock pile.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of deposit development, increased discharge coefficient, decreased distance of next to last bench and mineral rock transportation.

7 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.

SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.

7 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes dividing quarry on rows, of which first one is extracted to planned depth with external dump-forming, and extraction of following rows is performed with use of internal dump-forming, placing dug rocks to extracted space of adjacent row with common displacement of dump front with development of mining operations. Second and following rows of quarry are divided on basis of height on extraction levels, extraction of uppermost level is performed with placement of dug rocks in upper dump level of extracted space of adjacent row, using surface transporting communication lines, and during extraction of second extractive level dumping of dump level of inner dump is primarily performed by forming pioneer dump at longitudinal processed edge of quarry, on upper area of which transporting lines are placed and dumping of dump level is performed from there, with descent of mining operations in working area of extractive level profile of upper dump area is altered to provided necessary cargo communications of working horizons of extractive level to dump level, after extraction of extractive level remaining pioneer dump is dug to upper mark of following extractive level, and extraction of following extractive levels is performed analogically, using reformed upper area of pioneer dump.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

10 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55°, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60° and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85°, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85°.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.

SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.

EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex, 10 dwg

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