Method for utilization of forest residues

FIELD: process for utilization of forest residues immediately at production sites in commercial wood harvesting.

SUBSTANCE: method involves extracting stumps and roots of felled trees from ground; crosscutting stumps into parts; collecting crosscut stumps, roots, branches and tops of felled trees and grinding the above; sorting out ground mass and separating particles having sizes of at least 10 mm from main mass; drying main mass to moisture content of 8-10% and pressing to melting temperature of wood resin for forming wood briquettes with the use of its resin; directing part of ground mass separated from main mass for dry distillation in order to obtain distillation products; utilizing thermal energy generated during dry distillation process for drying of main ground mass before pressing process, and directing gas into internal combustion engines for driving of forest residue regeneration complex units.

EFFECT: provision for complete forest residue processing cycle allowing wide range of useful products to be manufactured for various branches of industry, full clearing of cuttings from forest residues, and preparing of soil for forest restoration.

 

The invention relates to the field of waste management, in particular the recycling of wood waste in the plot, and can be widely used in logging production of roundwood, while laying roads and Railways, oil and gas pipelines, high-voltage power lines through the taiga.

Well known the simplest way of utilization of wood waste by burning them at the stake and furnaces depending on conditions and location of their accumulation in the rooms, the yard, the garden, the street, in the Park.

The method has several disadvantages:

- fire at a dilution of fires in windy weather and in large quantities of waste;

- inefficient at burning at the stake, thermal energy of the combustion is not used;

- uncomfortable when incinerated: small waste loading in the form of sawdust, chips and shavings fall apart and clog up space, bulky waste in the form of sticks, scraps of boards require grinding using a saw or axe;

- unsuitable for disposal at the cutting area due to inefficiency and fire hazards of open flames.

There is a method of continuously producing briquettes fuel, providing procurement source of combustible materials in the form of sawdust and binder in the form of paraffin. The latter is heated to melt and mix with sawdust in the mixer, receiving the ing the mixture is cooled in the refrigerator up to ambient temperature, this hot mixture is poured into the fridge continuous flow and there served the air temperature below the hot mixture, the air comes into tight contact with the mixture, taking allocate its heat, the heated air is removed from the refrigerator and chilled the mixture is subjected to formation of obtaining combustible briquettes (U.S. Patent No. 4042349, CL C10L, publication dated August 16, 1977).

The advantages of the way before well-known are the ability to store pellets in special conditions, full use of the heat of combustion, with careful handling does not form Sora, convenient when burning pellets in stoves and fireplaces.

The disadvantages of the method are as follows:

- for storage of briquettes require special temperature conditions;

- when burning briquettes in the oven their stock must be kept as far away from the fire, so that didn't melt;

- on the hands when loading briquettes are traces of wax, which creates certain inconveniences;

- unreliability of transportation and overload;

- the need for extraneous binder;

- suitable for use in the plot because of the need for delivery of a binder on the area and the need for a fine wood waste in the form of sawdust.

A known method of disposal of wood waste, including their selection, limbing, rusk is ageevku large wood, crushing it and turn it into chips, sorting, gas generation for the gas that feeds the internal combustion engine self-propelled chassis (Patent RF №2097964, CL 6 A01G, with priority from 19.12.95 year).

The method has advantages over the previous one, consisting in the use of forest residues in the preparation of raw materials for further utilization in the high technological level of utilization.

However, the method has several drawbacks:

- limited use of waste disposed only on the surface of the soil;

- incomplete volume cleaning area from wood waste;

- obtained by recycling, for example, the gas unsuitable for export from the area because of its low density;

- small volume of recyclable wastes;

- limited applications received at disposal of the product;

- incomplete volume cleaning area from wood waste, deforestation removes only what is on the surface of the soil.

Despite the disadvantages mentioned technical solution, as the closest analogue may be taken as a prototype.

The task of the invention is to provide a method providing technical result consists in:

- thorough cleaning of the area from wood waste, roots, stumps, tops and branches of felled trees;

- prepare the soil for reforestation and planting of trees felled during harvesting, or other breeds;

- full cycle of processing of wood waste to produce a wide range of useful products for various sectors of the economy;

- the receipt of the products, cost-effective for their removal from distant regions from industrial and residential centers: fuel elements (bricks, wood alcohol, vinegar, rosin and others;

- performance, ensuring return on initial equipment costs for waste disposal.

This technical result according to the proposed application for the invention is achieved by directly at the place of receipt, logging residues during timber harvest remove all stumps and roots of felled trees from the soil, produce bucking stumps to pieces, the collection raskrashennyj stumps, roots, branches and tops of felled trees and shredding, sorting the crushed mass with separation from the main mass of particle size equal to or more than 10 mm, are primary drying the crushed mass to a moisture content of 8-10% and serves it on pressing, produce pressing the main shredded mass to the melting temperature of the wood resin for forming wood briquettes for own resin, with ismel the military mass, separated from the main, directed to a dry distillation to obtain products of distillation, and the obtained in the dry distillation of thermal energy is used for drying the main mass before pressing, and the gas is sent to the internal combustion engine for driving the components of the complex utilization of forest residues.

Thus, the proposed method allows directly in the plot to carry out a full cycle of processing of wood waste to produce a wide range of useful products used in various industries, and to produce a compact and cost-effective removal from the cutting area produced products: briquettes, wood alcohol, vinegar, rosin, tanning agents, etc. in Addition, the whole cycle of recycling can be accomplished through the use of energy produced by gasification of the same forest waste.

The proposed method is as follows.

In the area derive specialized complex, consisting of some process units that are installed on self-propelled chassis, for example, to track movers, which build in a strictly defined sequence of the technological cycle for collecting green waste, preparation of raw materials for briquetting, extrusion and molding wood briquettes, dry distillation and wood. In the process of collecting green waste, raw material preparation, briquetting, dry distillation, ploughing and sowing complex moves along the plot, picking tops and branches of trees, wykonczenia stumps and roots. Stumps previously subjected to the bucking into several major parts. The tops of the trees handle, cutting off a branch (branches), the trunks of the tree tops along with raskrahsivanie stumps and roots are processed into chips, which together with the branches of the trees are crushed to the size of the particles is not more than 10 mm, Because for various reasons during the grinding of wood chips and branches of trees obtained particle size equal to or greater than 10 mm, wood pulp, consisting of particles of wood, is subjected to sorting, separating from the main mass of a particle size equal to or greater than 10 mm, the Bulk of the wood is dried to a moisture content of 8-10%, for example, aarohanam way. Dried wood pulp fed to the compression. In the process of pressing wood pulp is heated due to the friction of the particles among themselves to the melting temperature of wood resin. Wood resin under pressure is pressed from the cells of the wood particles and binds them together. Wood pulp, mixed with resin, is formed into briquettes. The cooled air briquettes become necessary to transport the strength and the firmness of the weal. The density of the obtained briquettes provides the economic feasibility of the removal of wood waste from logging.

Chopped wood in the preparation of the wood raw material for briquetting partially directed to the dry distillation of wood, and, above all, that part which is separated in the sorting from the main mass of wood. The resulting dry distillation of thermal energy is used for drying wood pulp before pressing, and the gas is partly used to produce mechanical energy by means of internal combustion engines to drive the press units preparation of wood for pressing and produce electrical energy, providing comfortable working conditions and household staff. In the dry distillation of wood in addition to gas also get useful products: wood alcohol, vinegar, rosin and a number of others. These products and fuel briquettes pack, pour into containers and shipped to consumers. Since the density of the products is higher than the original wood waste, export them from the cutting area is economically more profitable than the export of waste in the form of stumps, roots, branches or wood chips obtained from them.

After removal from the soil of stumps and roots and clean the soil from the debris of branches and tops of felled trees the land plowed and special unit C is sewout seeds felled trees or other trees.

Thus, the proposed method of disposal allows you to completely liberate the area from wood waste directly in the plot to make their compaction and get fuel briquettes, as well as the products of dry distillation and implement their compact removal from the cutting area, which significantly reduces the cost of works on utilization of forest residues.

The method of disposal of green waste directly at the place of their reception in the harvesting of timber, including the removal of stumps and roots of felled trees from the soil, bucking stumps to pieces, the collection raskrashennyj stumps, roots, branches and tops of felled trees and shredding, sorting the crushed mass with separation from the main mass of particle size equal to or more than 10 mm, drying the primary crushed mass to a moisture content of 8-10% and applying it to the pressing, pressing main shredded mass to the melting temperature of the wood resin for forming wood briquettes due to its own resins, when this part of the crushed mass, separated from the main, directed to a dry distillation to obtain products of distillation, and the obtained in the dry distillation of thermal energy is used for drying the primary crushed pulp before pressing, and the gas is sent to the internal combustion engines to drive and is Regatul complex utilization of forest residues.



 

Same patents:
Forestry method // 2317701

FIELD: forestry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves successively performing cutting, felling, tree bunching operations in cutting area during advancement of machines along swath skidding roads, and planting forest crops; working out cutting area by successively performing the following steps of process circuit using cutting-delimbing-bucking-bunching machine moving along skidding road: successively cutting trees within skidding road width; moving each tree by distance sufficient for horizontal placement of tree in spacing without disturbing trees kept in rows and spacing and, while pulling cut tree with its head, delimbing it in skidding road; bucking successively delimbed trunk part into lengths and laying-bunching lengths near skidding road in spacing; after cutting of all trees for one pass of machine in skidding road, collecting and transporting lengths by means of forwarder to wood loading point to thereby set free spaces for processing of other trees cut in swath strips and bunching of lengths; at subsequent working stroke of machine, successively cutting and shortening cut trees at one side of skidding road wherein maximum access to trees in rows is provided, with direction of skidding road relative to direction of row being taken into account; after collecting and transporting by means of forwarder of stocked lengths to wood loading point, performing third working stroke of machine along skidding road in direction opposite to previous stroke, wherein maximum access to trees from other side of skidding road is provided without necessity for wide turnings of machine tools; providing procedures similar to previous circuit and terminating process by carrying stocked lengths to wood loading point; upon termination of cutting procedures at forest generation alternation stage, creating forest crops on the basis of line-row process by arranging forest crop rows along-parallel to skidding roads through cleaning of strips, tilling of soil and planting of seedlings, each of skidding roads being used as spacing; newly providing skidding roads intersecting forest crop rows at an angle thereto, and closing forest growing cycle.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in realization of various forest growing procedures.

6 ex

FIELD: log processing and conversion.

SUBSTANCE: method involves clamping tree; cutting-off lateral branches and crown; performing barking and horizontal cutting of standing trees, with cutting procedure being performed simultaneously with barking and grinding procedures by drawing through grinding device beginning from tree butt-end and upward; bunching mixture resulted from grinding procedure; notching barked tree in butt-end zone at four sides so as to form base of square section corresponding in size to bar product section; removing notched segments from four sides of tree by performing vertical motion of saws; thereafter separating resultant bar from butt-end; dividing into cuts of predetermined length parameters and individually bunching resulted logs according to designation and sizes. Before or after manufacturing of logs, extracting stumps and grinding or removing from tree growing zone. Method allows ecological situation in wood processing zone to be improved by converting part of waste wood into saw wood and construction or fuel materials, and felled forest to be recovered.

EFFECT: reduced wood losses and waste, improved quality of sawn timber, increased versatility of wood logging procedure, reduced consumption of power and time for wood processing and reclamation by combining a number of procedures and using small-sized maneuverable technique.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: logging industry, in particular, processes for executing of cutting area work.

SUBSTANCE: method involves hauling incompletely bucked tree lengths by means of knuckle boom of forwarder, with axial alignment of buckle boom and axis of incompletely bucked tree length during hauling process being provided by displacing buckle boom base lengthwise of loading platform of forwarder.

EFFECT: simplified accessibility of harvested wood under canopy layer during executing of partial cuttings, and improved retention of young growth.

6 dwg

FIELD: lumbering industry, in particular, processes for amelioration of forest fund areas.

SUBSTANCE: method for amelioration of forest fund areas in compartment involves performing forestry-based, forestry cultivation, forestry amelioration practices; reconstructing young growth; providing swath and main logways; dividing compartment in diagonal lines into zones of fixation of united sub-compartments to compartment lines; laying swath logways perpendicular to compartment lines; forming main logways in the form of ellipses whose larger and smaller axes correspond in sizes to larger and smaller sides of compartment and with centers in compartment corners.

EFFECT: reduced damage to natural environment during logging of tree or tree length bundles, reduced labor intensity for wood logging from forest fund area.

1 dwg

FIELD: logging industry, in particular, processes for felling of forest stock.

SUBSTANCE: method involves felling forest stock on timber compartment restricted by compartment lines; providing main skid roads perpendicular to one another with intersection point at the center of compartment, with plots formed upon dividing of compartment by main skid roads into parts being rectangular. Joint sub-compartment attraction zones adjoining to main skid roads are formed as rectangular triangle defined by main skid roads and process corridor laid in parallel with straight line connecting leading points of main skid roads. Attraction zones adjoining to compartment lines are shaped as quadrangle defined by compartment line, main skid ride plot adjoining to said compartment line, process corridor and diagonal line of compartment. Swath roads of attraction zones adjoining to main skid roads are laid in parallel with process corridor, and swath roads of attraction zones adjoining to compartment boundary are laid perpendicular to nearby compartment lines.

EFFECT: reduced average distance for logging from compartment and, consequently, reduced labor costs associated with timber logging.

1 dwg

FIELD: forestry, in particular, execution of cutting works.

SUBSTANCE: method involves dividing cuttings into swaths with logways; felling trees on swaths using front-type felling-bunching machine and bunching trees onto workbench; laying out rounded plots at both sides of each swath logway, said rounded plots beginning on swath logway having radius equal to width of strip processed on felling-bunching machine, and center of each rounded plot being arranged in end point of rounded plot of adjacent swath logway which is curved with the same radius and center in end point of said rounded plot; felling workbench with apex oriented in direction opposite to tree logging direction, at an angle to swath logway; felling trees felled by felling-bunching machine during operation on rounded plots of swath logway so that tree apexes are laid onto logway and their butt parts are laid onto workbench.

EFFECT: increased width of swaths and reduced adverse effect of logging machines upon soil mantle.

2 dwg

FIELD: forestry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining, on the basis of description of crop, belonging of plot of specific crop to bilberry, mountain cranberry, long-moss or bog moss group of forest types and its age; determining basic wood increment of forest crop by sampling wood and bark using coring instrument and measuring diameters of 15-20 randomly selected trees; measuring thickness of their bark and thickness of wood samples consisting of 3-10 rings; calculating average thickness of annular rings for each tree; determining Q which is criterion for necessity of carrying out forestry practice from formula: Q =4ZA/(D-2B), where Z is annular radial growth (basic growth), mm; A is age of forest crop; D is diameter of trunk, mm; B is thickness of bark, mm. In case Q<1 and relative density is >07, cleaning cutting is provided, and in case there is no necessity in cleaning cutting of forest crop, soil is fertilized when forest crop belongs to bilberry or mountain cranberry group of forest types. In case forest belongs to long-moss or bog moss group of forest type, soil is drained and fertilized.

EFFECT: increased precision in determining the necessity of ameliorative practice and cleaning cuttings for crop forest, and reduced costs.

6 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: forest industry, in particular, performing of cutting area works.

SUBSTANCE: method involves dividing cutting into plots, each of said plots being divided into swaths-triangles whose apex is defined by spar; laying swath logway in the mid portion of swath; dividing swaths into strips extending in parallel with swath logway; felling trees on strips; attaching trees or tree lengths felled onto strips adjoining to logway to working cable of rope unit; moving trees or tree lengths to spar and uncoupling from working cable; felling trees from strips remote from logway onto butt parts of trees or tree lengths felled onto strips adjoining to and positioned close to logway so that their axes coincide to maximum extent with one another; securing butt parts of trees or three lengths felled onto strips adjoining to and positioned close to logway with apex parts of trees or tree lengths felled onto strips remote from logway and using as guiding and supporting members during movement onto logway of number of trees or tree lengths secured with one another, with first of said trees or tree lengths felled onto strip adjoining logway being coupled to working cable of rope unit.

EFFECT: increased width of swath, reduced area for logways, reduced hazard to environmental nature during logging of wood, reduced number of movements performed by cable during forest operation, and increased efficiency of logging technique.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: forest industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves dividing plots into swaths; providing logways; felling trees intended for cutting with their apexes oriented in logging direction, followed by logging thereof; performing thinning of semi-swaths by cutting corridors at an angle of 30-35 deg with respect to logway, with desired thinning extent being reached by providing corridors cut from adjacent logways. Corridors cut from adjacent semi-swaths intersect with one another to form plantation of mosaic structure where cells are defined by cut corridors. With employment of tree harvesting machines having load-bearing handler, 2-3 corridors are cut from one operating position, with 2 corridors from said 2-3 corridors being cut at an angle of 30-32 deg, and third additional corridor being cut perpendicular to logway. Working out of swath by intersecting corridors provides tree stand thinning without injuring of trees left for additional growing.

EFFECT: provision for creating of effective forest growing conditions and desired thinning extent without tree injuring.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: forestry industry, in particular, cutting area works.

SUBSTANCE: method involves carrying out preparatory works; laying out main skid and swath roads for timber skidding; felling trees on swaths; bunching and skidding timber to loading points; laying out swath roads perpendicular to compartment line - haulage road, said swath roads adjoining to loading points located along part of compartment line - haulage road; laying out main roads perpendicular to compartment line and haulage road at distances equal to length of strip for collecting of wood bundle, said main roads adjoining loading points positioned along part of compartment line - haulage road parallel to swath roads.

EFFECT: reduced average timber skidding distance and increased efficiency of skidding machines.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: timber industry.

SUBSTANCE: rotator includes housing hinge-mounted on manipulator and consisting of two spaces. Upper space is made in form of reciprocating hydraulic cylinder. Rod of hydraulic cylinder is made in middle part length wise in form of threaded screw engaging with nut. Guides for rod are made in lower cover of lower space. Means for fastening of working member and fastening to hydraulic manipulator are mounted on upper cover of housing and of rod of hydraulic cylinder lower than lower cover. Rod of hydraulic cylinder consists of two parts interconnected by rotary-axial joint located higher than threaded part. Nut is rigidly secured in partition rigidly fitted in lower space. Seal for rod is installed in partition between upper and lower spaces. Inlet-outlet of hydraulic liquid into upper space are made, one over piston, and the other, under piston. Housing of rotator is split.

EFFECT: increased reliability of rotator, facilitated mounting and demounting.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: technique for raking of cut forest and scrub cover, may be used in agriculture, forestry and amelioration for clearing of land from scrub and low forest.

SUBSTANCE: rake has hanger and frame system, upper and lower tines fixed along edges of frame, and guides fixed to tines. Telescopic devices are attached within interior of guides, at their both ends. Raking teeth are rigidly fixed to free ends of telescopic devices, at sides of rake. Raking teeth disposed between upper tines and lower tines are mounted on guides for movement thereon. Each of raking teeth is connected to central pivot joints of Nuremberg type shears mechanism driven by means of extension tines rigidly fixed to lower and upper pivot joints disposed in mid portion of Nuremberg type shears mechanism. Hydraulic cylinder is pivotally mounted on said mechanism. Internal pressing teeth are pivotally fixed to upper free ends of raking teeth and fixed to guide for movement thereon. Telescopic devices are disposed at both ends of guide. There are lateral pressing teeth on telescopic devices free ends, said pressing teeth being pivotally mounted on upper free ends of raking teeth. Guide is pivotally connected to hydraulic cylinder pivotally fixed to frame. Additional taking out teeth are fixed by their free ends on upper pivot joints of Nuremberg type shears mechanism. Guiding slots are provided in additional taking out teeth for receiving lower pivot joint pins of Nuremberg shears mechanism.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in clearing of lands from large sized trunks of scrub owing to the possibility of varying distance between raking teeth and width of rake, and improved quality of works related to clearing of land from small-sized forest and scrub cover.

5 dwg

Harvesting machine // 2318370

FIELD: forestry engineering.

SUBSTANCE: harvesting machine has self-propelled chassis equipped with manipulator, and gripping-and-cutting apparatus. Machine is equipped with cart connected to self-propelled chassis by means of pivotal multilink chain and telescopic hydraulic cylinder. Pivotal multilink chain members fixed to cart are made in the form of supporting beams over which beams manipulator and gripping-and-cutting apparatus are movably mounted by means of carriage. Outriggers are located in multilink chain pivot joints positioned beyond self-propelled chassis and cart.

EFFECT: increased efficiency, wider operational capabilities, increased tree felling front at one setting and improved retention of young growth.

6 dwg

Harvesting machine // 2318370

FIELD: forestry engineering.

SUBSTANCE: harvesting machine has self-propelled chassis equipped with manipulator, and gripping-and-cutting apparatus. Machine is equipped with cart connected to self-propelled chassis by means of pivotal multilink chain and telescopic hydraulic cylinder. Pivotal multilink chain members fixed to cart are made in the form of supporting beams over which beams manipulator and gripping-and-cutting apparatus are movably mounted by means of carriage. Outriggers are located in multilink chain pivot joints positioned beyond self-propelled chassis and cart.

EFFECT: increased efficiency, wider operational capabilities, increased tree felling front at one setting and improved retention of young growth.

6 dwg

Forestry method // 2317701

FIELD: forestry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves successively performing cutting, felling, tree bunching operations in cutting area during advancement of machines along swath skidding roads, and planting forest crops; working out cutting area by successively performing the following steps of process circuit using cutting-delimbing-bucking-bunching machine moving along skidding road: successively cutting trees within skidding road width; moving each tree by distance sufficient for horizontal placement of tree in spacing without disturbing trees kept in rows and spacing and, while pulling cut tree with its head, delimbing it in skidding road; bucking successively delimbed trunk part into lengths and laying-bunching lengths near skidding road in spacing; after cutting of all trees for one pass of machine in skidding road, collecting and transporting lengths by means of forwarder to wood loading point to thereby set free spaces for processing of other trees cut in swath strips and bunching of lengths; at subsequent working stroke of machine, successively cutting and shortening cut trees at one side of skidding road wherein maximum access to trees in rows is provided, with direction of skidding road relative to direction of row being taken into account; after collecting and transporting by means of forwarder of stocked lengths to wood loading point, performing third working stroke of machine along skidding road in direction opposite to previous stroke, wherein maximum access to trees from other side of skidding road is provided without necessity for wide turnings of machine tools; providing procedures similar to previous circuit and terminating process by carrying stocked lengths to wood loading point; upon termination of cutting procedures at forest generation alternation stage, creating forest crops on the basis of line-row process by arranging forest crop rows along-parallel to skidding roads through cleaning of strips, tilling of soil and planting of seedlings, each of skidding roads being used as spacing; newly providing skidding roads intersecting forest crop rows at an angle thereto, and closing forest growing cycle.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in realization of various forest growing procedures.

6 ex

Forestry method // 2317701

FIELD: forestry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves successively performing cutting, felling, tree bunching operations in cutting area during advancement of machines along swath skidding roads, and planting forest crops; working out cutting area by successively performing the following steps of process circuit using cutting-delimbing-bucking-bunching machine moving along skidding road: successively cutting trees within skidding road width; moving each tree by distance sufficient for horizontal placement of tree in spacing without disturbing trees kept in rows and spacing and, while pulling cut tree with its head, delimbing it in skidding road; bucking successively delimbed trunk part into lengths and laying-bunching lengths near skidding road in spacing; after cutting of all trees for one pass of machine in skidding road, collecting and transporting lengths by means of forwarder to wood loading point to thereby set free spaces for processing of other trees cut in swath strips and bunching of lengths; at subsequent working stroke of machine, successively cutting and shortening cut trees at one side of skidding road wherein maximum access to trees in rows is provided, with direction of skidding road relative to direction of row being taken into account; after collecting and transporting by means of forwarder of stocked lengths to wood loading point, performing third working stroke of machine along skidding road in direction opposite to previous stroke, wherein maximum access to trees from other side of skidding road is provided without necessity for wide turnings of machine tools; providing procedures similar to previous circuit and terminating process by carrying stocked lengths to wood loading point; upon termination of cutting procedures at forest generation alternation stage, creating forest crops on the basis of line-row process by arranging forest crop rows along-parallel to skidding roads through cleaning of strips, tilling of soil and planting of seedlings, each of skidding roads being used as spacing; newly providing skidding roads intersecting forest crop rows at an angle thereto, and closing forest growing cycle.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in realization of various forest growing procedures.

6 ex

FIELD: forestry.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has boom pivotally fixed for performing pendulum motion on attached frame, working tool formed as disk saw, drive for working tool, and system designed for feeding of arboricide mixture and equipped with arboricide mixture feeding valves. Working tool is driven by hydraulic motor through reducer. Hydraulic motor with reducer is positioned within boom cavity, and working tool is fixed on output shaft of reducer. Vertical column is positioned on top the boom and axially aligned with output shaft of reducer. Mechanism for bending of brushwood trunks during cutting thereof is positioned in upper part of vertical column. Said mechanism comprises supporting disk rigidly fixed on vertical column. Cylindrical sleeve mounted with its base on supporting disk is designed for moving in horizontal plane and equipped with circular recess in its base. Cylindrical sleeve is spring-loaded by means of safety springs on every side relative to vertical column. Mechanism for bending of brushwood trunks is connected to system for feeding of arboricide mixture through hollow pushing ring on which mixture feeding valves are positioned and which is fixed on outer wall of cylindrical sleeve. System for feeding of arboricide mixture is formed as cylindrical reservoir rigidly fixed on upper free end of vertical column. Cavity of cylindrical reservoir is connected through flexible pipeline to hollow pushing ring. Said valves are joined through flexible pipelines with flexible pipes curved opposite to direction of rotation of disk saw and fixed on disk positioned in base of vertical column. Protective housing fixed on outer vertical wall of cylindrical reservoir is formed as truncated cone with its base directed downward.

EFFECT: increased efficiency by eliminating the possibility of jamming disk saw to thereby improve cutting conditions, effective utilization and saving consumption of arboricide mixture.

6 dwg

FIELD: forestry, in particular, processes for sowing of small-sized seeds of coniferous kinds of trees, such as pine, fir and larch seeds, on cuttings and silvicultural areas.

SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting-off sod and simultaneously moving it to one side so as to form spherical sowing furrow at least 250 mm wide and 80-100 mm deep; providing central mellowing of furrow to 30-50 mm depth so as to form side walls spaced from each other by distance less than 30 mm; sowing seeds to 10±1 mm depth from sowing furrow surface.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of seeding material and increased efficiency of carried-out works.

3 dwg

FIELD: timber industry; cutters.

SUBSTANCE: proposed hydraulic drive of cutting member contains hydraulic pump with suction and pressure hydraulic lines, tank, hydraulic distributor to control flow of working liquid, hydraulic motor and feed hydraulic cylinder of cutting member. Hydraulic drive includes additionally second feed hydraulic drive of cutting member mechanically connected by rod with rod of first feed hydraulic cylinder of cutting member, both feed hydraulic cylinders of cutting member are of single-acting design. Hydraulic drive contains reversible hydraulic pump connected by hydraulic lines with feed hydraulic cylinder of cutting member and with check and safety valves unit. Hydraulic motor is made reversible, it is mechanically connected with shaft of reversible pump and is connected by hydraulic lines with check and safety valves unit. Coarse filter of working liquid is installed in suction hydraulic line connecting check and safety valves unit with tank. Filter with safety valves is installed in drain hydraulic line connecting hydraulic distributor and tank.

EFFECT: provision of reverse feed of cutting member and feed from side convenient for sawing, facilitated bringing saw chains cut of kerfs at wedging.

1 dwg

Bush cutter // 2316206

FIELD: agricultural engineering.

SUBSTANCE: bush cutter has basic tractor, telescopic boom with telescope, hydraulic cylinder for extending said telescope, and working tool formed as disk saw fixed at end of telescope. Telescopic boom is fixed on handle of hydraulic manipulator mounted on basic tractor. Working tool of bush cutter is driven through hydraulic motor and is equipped with cutting height adjusting device comprising cylindrical body and flange, between which body and flange disk saw is fixed. Upper part of body is rigidly joined with cover fixed on shaft of hydraulic motor. Two symmetrically arranged slots are formed in cylindrical body. Guiding retainers located within said slots are rigidly connected to base positioned for movement within cylindrical body. Return spring is placed between base and cover. On the outside of cylindrical body there is ring fixed on guiding retainers for engagement with electric end switch fixed for movement by means of bolted connection within slot provided in column rigidly connected to telescope. Indicator is fixed at electric end switch, and ruler is located at column. Hydraulic cylinder is rigidly fixed on telescopic boom. Plate-like base with indicator is fastened on stem of hydraulic cylinder. Such construction prevents disk saw from contacting with ground surface.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and quality of work performed using bush cutter owing to and improved cutting conditions.

3 dwg

FIELD: timber industry, forestry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manipulator-type loggers, namely, to their slewing circles. In proposed slewing circuit with inclined design leveling device turntable is mounted on frame of self-propelled chassis for tilting forward and backward under action of hydraulic cylinders which are installed in X-like manner, viewing from side, and are hinge-connected to leveling device. Front and rear surfaces of leveling device in contact with frame are made to the same radius of turning as inner surfaces of frame. Stops are rigidly installed on upper surface of frame before and after leveling device. Rear surface of front stop and front surface of rear stop form angles of 90o plus angle of tilting of leveling device with upper horizontal surface of frame. Proposed design of slewing circle makes it possible to tilt turntable forward and backward, and X-shape arrangement of hydraulic cylinders provides reduction of height of device and contact of leveling device and frame over surface improves reliability.

EFFECT: reduced height of device, improved reliability in operation.

3 cl, 2 dwg

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