Regional system for mobile satellite communications and servicing transportation corridors

FIELD: radio communication systems involving use of satellites.

SUBSTANCE: system for regional satellite communications and for servicing transportation corridors consists of a ground-based segment and space segment, which includes a spacecraft, fitted with controllable receiving-transmitting phased antenna array, capable of generation of multi-beam polar pattern with individual control of position of each beam, where one of the beams of polar pattern is constantly directed at servicing zone with gateway station, output of which is connected to dispatching center.

EFFECT: provision of personal mobile communications to users, increased level of interference protection in communication channels, protection from unsanctioned access to channels for management and control of transportation and loads, simplified system for orientation and stabilization of spacecraft position, reduced flow of working substance of propulsion system of spacecraft, reduced economical costs of deployment and operation of system.

3 cl, 8 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of communications, and more specifically to radio communication systems using artificial Earth satellites, and can be used to organize personal satellite communication and data transmission, including maintenance of transport corridors in the Northern and Arctic regions of the Russian Federation.

A known system of personal satellite communications THURAYA [1, 2], consisting of a ground segment (complex), including small ground terminals and control stations, as well as from the space segment, including SPACECRAFT (SC), placed in a geostationary orbit. Part of the SPACECRAFT entered a parabolic antenna with a diameter of 12 meters, equipped by multi-beam irradiator capable of forming by retargeting ray pattern of the service area. The relative immobility of the satellite repeater with respect to earth stations (CS) during the entire time of its operation enables communication using a relatively simple antenna systems CS. To date, however, limiting the number of SC and strict allocation of seats on this orbit, the need to harmonize the frequency range, and so led to the achievement of a certain limit in increasing the bandwidth of the satellite tie the (CCC). In addition, this system cannot provide a link in the high latitudes (North of 70 degrees) areas, which is especially important for the Northern part of the Russian Federation.

Add to this another drawback is the large propagation delay of radio signals to 320-400 MS, resulting in inconvenience during a telephone conversation and network data transfer.

Known low-orbit system personal communications "iridium", "Globster" (USA), "Messenger" (Russia) [2-4], which can provide connectivity in the Northern regions of Russia with the help of a low-orbit SPACECRAFT placed in circular orbits. Their main drawback is the necessity of using a large number of satellites, repeaters (from 24 to 77). This leads to considerable complication of the control system orbital grouping, as well as to frequent occurrences in synchronism with the transitions from one SPACECRAFT to another.

Known satellite system short message (S-SMS) company "SpaceChecker" [2], which allows to determine the location of a moving object, and to perform telemetry, telecontrol and messaging. S-SMS is used for monitoring and managing a fleet of vehicles or remote fixed objects (SCADA).

Mobile subscriber terminal S-SMS is a compact satellite modem with built-in the built-in GPS receiver, has three interface ports to connect up to 256 sensors (e.g., sensors, door status, temperature, container load) and peripheral devices (such as actuators, pumps, actuators). The mobile terminal has a single antenna and is very easy to configure and install. Low power consumption of the device makes it ideal when using battery power.

The disadvantages of the system should include inability maintenance of the earth's surface North of 70 degrees North latitude, and low energy in organized communication channels.

Known satellite communication system "Borealis" [2], the orbital group which consists of 10 spacecraft placed in two orbital planes (5 in each). The shape of the elliptical orbit with the following characteristics: apogee altitude Hand=7605 km, the altitude of perigee Np=633 km, the orbital inclination i=116,6°, the period of revolution Tarr=3 hours.

The disadvantages of the system should include low energy organized the satellite communication channels due to the high altitude of the perigee.

A known system for mobile communications "ORBCOMM" [2], designed for operation in the search mode call, two-way transmission of data in real time and determining the location of a moving volume of the LLC in the U.S., Channels, Argentina, Venezuela, and other countries on a global scale.

However, it cannot be used for voice radio communications. Transmission system data (messages) can be used for emergency ambulances, to conduct search and rescue operations in the system notification about theft of cars.

The orbital system this system consists of 48 SPACECRAFT), 16 SPACECRAFT into a circular polar orbit with an altitude of 825 km and an inclination of 70° and 108°, 32 SPACECRAFT into a circular orbit with altitude of 825 km and an inclination of 45°. The composition of the on-Board satellite equipment is presented in figure 1.

It contains sabnapravlenii transmitting antenna 1, sabnapravlenii receiving antenna 2, a transmitter 3, a receiver 4, the processing unit 5 unit reference frequency 6, command-measuring system 7, the onboard control system 8 and the magnetic-gravitational system of orientation and stabilization of the spacecraft 9.

Structurally, each satellite ORBCOMM has a circular structure with a diameter of 1.41 m and a height of 0.16 m Antenna system is combined with a magnetometer and a barbell gradient of the gravitational stabilization. The satellite is equipped with two sensor horizon. Ballistic software motion of the satellite is based on using the onboard GPS sensor. While tracking that reaches extremely the s coordinates of satellites from ground stations is not possible. The satellite's weight 43 kg

This design of the satellites allows you to set the third stage booster "Pegasus-XL" original tapes from 8 satellites. Each satellite is equipped with 7 antennas and 17 processors, providing retransmission 50,000 emails per hour. Throughput of all 26 satellites will be 5 million messages per day. User equipment will operate at frequencies

- line up: 148,00-150.05 MHz;

line down: 137,00-138,00 MHz.

The satellites are equipped with hardware data with a prior record. Taken from one ground station, the data is accumulated, stored in a storage device (memory) and when it is flying over from the other station information is transmitted to the gateway earth station providing including sending messages to the Internet.

To transmit telemetry and command information in the system use the same communication channels for transmission of subscriber messages.

The earth segment consists of four gateway earth stations for satellite communications. Two built in Arcade (NY) and St. John (Arizona), two stations in the States of Georgia and Washington. Each station includes two antennas with a diameter of 5.5 m (main and backup). Between the two antenna structures hosted data center. Home network control center posted on those is subordinated to the headquarters of the Corporation OSC in Dallas (Virginia).

This system is closest to the proposed facility and selected as a prototype.

The disadvantages of this system are:

a large number of satellites in the system and, consequently, high cost of services and maintenance of the orbital constellation;

- limited throughput due to the selected wavelength range;

- the impossibility of continuous cover latitudes from 40 to 90° n;

- the inability to dock with promising terrestrial cellular communication network type CDMA, and others;

- limited protection from unauthorized access due to the use of single-beam directional antenna channel "down".

The purpose of this invention is to provide consumers with personal mobile communication and support of cargoes within the specified transport corridors in limited regions of the Northern hemisphere (from 30° North latitude), increasing the level of noise in communication channels, protection from unauthorized access channels management and control of transport and goods, facilitating orientation and stabilization of the spacecraft, reduce the flow rate of the working fluid propulsion system of the spacecraft, as well as reducing the economic costs of deploying and operating system.

Forachieve the above purpose, a system of regional satellite communications and maintenance transport corridors (figure 2), consisting of a ground segment, including the ground station telephone 10, the mobile terminal transmitting data from sensors monitoring cargo 11, gateway station 12, the dispatch center 13, the space segment, which includes the spacecraft 14, equipped with a controlled transceiver phased antenna array capable of forming multi-beam radiation pattern (NAM) with individual control of the position of each beam. Each beam pattern during motion of the satellite along the orbit and its fluctuations around the center of mass can perennialists and track a specific region 15 with the preservation of a given area service area 16, and one of the beams of the beam is continuously directed to the service area 16 with a gateway station, the output of which is connected with the control center 17.

The availability of the service area 16 with the base station is able to ensure the confidentiality of SPACECRAFT control systems (SRS), as well as reduce the risk of unauthorized system access control cargo transport corridors (substitution of sensors, imitation false graphics and so on).

Orbital constellation regional system of satellite communication and data transmission (RCPSP) consists of 8 spacecraft placed in two orbital planes (4 is). The shape of the elliptical orbit with the following characteristics: apogee altitude Hand=4850 km, the altitude of perigee Np=600 km, the orbital inclination i=63,4° C, the period of revolution Tarr=2.4 hours. Ballistic structure is designed by a special technique [5], created by the authors. This method calculated the parameters of the "Borealis".

Distinctive features of the prototype signs are that in the proposed system the construction of the orbital constellation carried out in accordance with the following requirements: apogee altitude Hand=4850 km, the altitude of perigee Np=600 km, the orbital inclination i=63,4 degrees, the period of revolution Tarr=2.4 hours. In the avionics used controlled transceiver phased array antenna, as well as stabilization and orientation of the rays of the beam of the HEADLIGHTS in space, forming multibeam beam, each beam which is in the process of motion of a satellite in orbit and oscillation around the center of mass, track a specific region with preservation of a given area the service area, and one of the beams which is constantly directed to the service area with a gateway station, the output of which is connected with the control center. The system uses a compact satellite relay is instructive made in the form of a cone, from the top of which extends the telescopic rod gravity damper at the end of which has equivalent mass, and on the outer side of the lateral surface of the cone and along the perimeter of the Foundation hosted disclosed double-sided solar panels, the base of the cone is placed phased array antenna.

Authors unknown solutions from the essential features listed in the characterizing part of the claims.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 2 shows the structure of the regional system for mobile satellite communications and maintenance transport corridors, 3, 4 - avionics offer satellite-relay, figure 5 - principle of the width control charts when moving SPACECRAFT in orbit, 6, 7 - structural appearance of the proposed spacecraft communication.

In the avionics offer KA includes (3): antenna system comprising a transmitting phased array millimeter band 17 and the receiving phased array of millimeter range 18; a signal processing unit 19; a subsystem for a single time and the reference frequency of 20 for forming the system time on Board the SPACECRAFT, the synchronization generator reference frequencies and signal processing the spread spectrum (ALS); subsystem transmitter 21 for modulation and amplification of the signals on the line "down"; the receiver subsystem 22 for processing the received signals line up, handling of CDS and transfer the spectrum to an intermediate frequency; block angular orientation and stabilization rays NAM in space for electronic control of antenna beams 23 (accurate to 0.001 degrees); command-measuring system 24; onboard control system 24 and magnetic-gravitational stabilization and orientation of the SPACECRAFT 26.

Block angular orientation for electronic control of antenna beams 23 (figure 4) as part of the navigation receiver 27, the on-Board computer 28, interface blocks 29 and 30 operates as follows.

Navigation receiver 27 receives signals from a GPS system and determines the exact coordinates of the satellite repeater. The received coordinates from the output of the navigation receiver 27 is fed to the input side of the special processor 28, which calculates the required sizes of the service areas and their geographic coordinates on the earth's surface. The calculation results in the form of digital code transmitted from the outputs of the computers 28 to the control inputs of the HEADLIGHTS of the transmission 17 and HEADLIGHTS reception 18.

As a result, the input of the HEADLIGHT intake 18 and the output of the HEADLIGHTS of the transmission 17 is formed of a multi-beam pattern. Moreover, errors in the system a hundred the waste utilization technologies and orientation of the satellite repeater in orbit eliminated by changing the digital code, expect on-Board computer 28 with regard to the coordinates of the satellite repeater, the received navigation receiver 27.

In the result, it is possible to simplify the system stabilization and orientation of the SPACECRAFT, due to carrying out high-precision stabilization and orientation of the rays of the beam in space electronically. This will help keep a supply of working fluid to the propulsion system of the spacecraft, that will help prolong its active life in orbit.

A new set of elements and functional relationships enables us to provide personal mobile satellite communications in the Northern regions of Russia on the basis of a regional system of satellite communication and transmission are above 30° n.

The width of the directional diagram of the HEADLIGHT when moving SPACECRAFT in orbit are presented in figure 5, where displayed:

D1- the diameter of the service area at time t1;

D2- the diameter of the service area at time t2;

θ1- the size of the pattern beam HEADLIGHTS point in the orbit at time t1;

θ2- the size of the pattern beam HEADLIGHTS point in the orbit at time t2.

On the drawing it is seen that if you do not make adjustments to the size chart healthy lifestyles is nasty θ then at the point of the orbit, corresponding to the time t2the size of the service area D2will be greater than the dimension D1. This results in excessive energy transmitter spacecraft communication.

Reducing the size of the pattern is due to the switching of the selected set of partial segments of the HEADLIGHTS.

Resizing and geographical coordinates of coverage due to fluctuations of the center of mass communication satellites is due to a change in the mode of thermal phasers partial segments of the HEADLIGHTS.

HEADLIGHTS are now widely used in various SPACECRAFT, payload which operates in different frequency bands. So, on the SPACECRAFT TDRS used 30-element HEADLIGHTS of spirals, operating at a frequency of 2.3 GHz.

Antenna WED DSDS-III is a 61-element phased array with metal plate lens range of centimeter waves. In the range of 44.5 GHz operates two-mirror antenna, as the antenna feed which is used HEADLIGHT from 468 waveguide elements [6, 7].

Structurally, the building KA CCC is made in the form of a cone, the side walls of which are located deployable solar panels (6, 7). At the top of the cone is installed telescopic rod gravity of the stator. On bottom of the cone placed the antenna system.

The companions of the CAS are the following tacti what about the-technical specifications:

- operating frequency range of onboard equipment (receive/transmit) 20/30 GHz;

- bandwidth on-Board relay to 1000 telephone communication channels (data transmission speed in the communication channel 9,6-19,2 kbit/s) and up to 10,000 channels of transmission of information from sensors located in the accepted transport corridors;

the SPACECRAFT mass is not more than 100 kg;

- length of body KA 1.2 metres (without taking into account the length of the rod gravity damper)

- power on-Board power plant solar order of 0.8 kW;

the term Autonomous operation on the working orbit (without contact with ground control stations) - up to 6 months.

Sending messages is as follows (figure 2). The transmitting subscriber message is composed, including: the code of the destination and the route through which the message will be delivered, the location coordinates, and information about the state of the object code of the sender.

In the system adopted method of code division of channels.

The signal from the subscriber 10 or 11, located in one of the service areas 16 formed by the beam pattern of the satellite repeater 14, enters the processing equipment of the satellite and then relayed to the gateway station 12, located in the service area 16. The service area 16 is common to the aircraft the x satellites, repeaters 14. Accepting the message, the gateway station 12 sends a signal to the control center 13, which performs the sorting and processing of information received.

Energy calculation of satellite links, shows that for the given characteristics (table 1) transceiver equipment ground terminal and the on-Board relay it is possible to arrange for a personal, mobile digital communication in predetermined regions of the Northern hemisphere.

In the basis of the energy calculation is based on the expression [8]:

signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver input of terrestrial user terminal (AT)

and the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver input CF

where RSHZ=kTΣCΔfSHZ, RShB=kTΣBΔfShB, k=1.38·10-23 W/Hz·hail) is the Boltzmann constant; TΣCequivalent noise temperature of the receiving earth station; TΣBequivalent noise temperature of the receiving system Board; fSHZ- equivalent (energy) noise band terrestrial receiver; ΔfShB- equivalent (energy) noise band airborne receiver; Rlane B- power transmitter WED; λ1that λ2the wavelengths of the signals used in radio "up and down"; Glane B- coeff what they gain transmitting antenna CF; GPR AT- gain receiving antenna AT; ηlane B- transfer rate (power) of the waveguide path (cap tract) on WED; ηPR at- transfer rate (power) of the waveguide path (cap tract) AT; Ld- additional propagation loss of the signal at site CF-ATA; d is the slant range to the satellite repeater.

The results of the calculation for the source of the data presented in table 1 show that when the power transmitter ground AT 1-5 watts. Signal-to-noise ratio decisive receiver CF will be from 5.5 to 12.5 dB. Similarly, when the transmitter power CF 10-15 W, signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver input AT will amount to 22.3 20.5 dB.

Table 1
no PPName characteristicsValues for ATValues for CFNote
1The radiation power, W1-510-15
2Transmission frequency, GHz3020
3The gain of the transmitting antenna, dB2030
4Loss in Tr is regarding subsection transceiver 0,90,9
5Noise temperature of the receiver,300200
6The gain of the receiving antenna, dB2030
7Reception frequency, GHz2044
8Equivalent (energy) noise bandwidth, kHz2525
9Additional loss, dB33

Using the proposed system it is possible to solve the following tasks: monitoring the location and condition of valuable expensive and dangerous goods on moving objects; operational transfer data from their services supervising and accompanying these objects, as well as issuing, if necessary, control commands (so-called service RDSS - detecting objects by radio from satellites); message delivery status and results from the operation of stationary objects; the establishment of bilateral telephone connections between subscribers. Additional service - the transfer of data between arbitrary subscribers of the system. System and specifications of EOS is Antonovna for a certain class of consumers in the domestic and global markets, associated with the control of movement of valuable and dangerous goods.

The analysis of published materials and partially conducted marketing Northern regions of Russia showed that the users of the system may be organizations and agencies that own different types of transport, including road, river, Maritime and railway enterprises with distributed structure of production, including oil and gas, forestry and agriculture; the organization, supervising the state of the environment and rational nature management, the control of hazardous and noxious industries, state hazardous and valuable goods; organizations that need operational systems, emergency call, including emergency rescue teams, geologists, tourists, hunters the fishermen; organizations involved in disaster relief, emergency disasters; special services, including police, ambulance, fire brigades and others; individuals (entrepreneurs, farmers, herders, shepherds, and others).

In addition, it should be noted that the proposed system allows to carry out all these tasks with the least expenses on creation of the system and its further operation in comparison with the proposed foreign and domestic projects.

High is conomic indicators obtained through optimization of the system's technical parameters. The most important indicators of specialized systems, oriented to the solution of these tasks are time information delivery and small size, weight and power consumption of the earth stations users.

Based on this we can conclude that, using the proposed practical solutions, you can create a regional system for personal satellite communication and data transmission at the transport corridors.

Sources of information

1. Mokhov CENTURY System for mobile communications "Sadko" // news of cosmonautics, 36. - 2002.

2. sotovik@sotovik.ru "Softpedia" information-analytical Agency.

3. http://www.globalstar.com/

4. http://www.iridium.com/

5. Gorbulin V.I. to optimize the deployment of space systems. - SPb, the Ministry of defense, 2003.

6. Monzingo R.A., Miller, M.S. Adaptive antenna arrays. Introduction to theory: TRANS. from English. - M.: Radio and communication, 1986.

7. Mesnac S., Popov BTW, Adaptive antennas. - SPb.: The Ministry of defense, 1996.

8. Handbook on satellite communications and broadcasting, Ed. Leakator. - M.: Radio and communication, 2000.

1. The mobile satellite communication system and maintenance transport corridors, consisting of a ground segment, which includes mobile subscriber voice terminal, the mobile subscriber terminal of data transmission, dispatch center, gateway station, as well as the space segment, consisting of the orbital constellation of spacecraft communication, characterized in that the elliptical orbit of the spacecraft communication has the inclination about 63,4°, the height of the peak 4850 km, the altitude of the perigee of 600 km, the orbital period of 2.4 hours and orbital grouping consists of eight units, located in two planes on four devices in each, spaced in longitude of the ascending node, spacecraft systems have managed a phased antenna array capable of forming multi-beam radiation pattern of the individual position control of each beam, and the beam pattern can perennialists and track a specific region with preservation of a given area of service, and one of the beams pattern constantly directed to the service area with a gateway station, the output of which is connected with the control center.

2. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the controllable phased array antenna includes a multi-beam phased array airborne early warning lattice transmission, multibeam phased array airborne early warning bars of reception, the control inputs of which are connected to the outputs of block angular orientation and stabilization of the rays of the beam in space, consisting of a navigation receiver, on-Board computer and interface blocks, and the output of the navigation receiver is connected to the input side of the calculator, first you the od which through the first interface unit connected with the control input of the multibeam phased array transmission, and his second output via a second interface unit connected with the control input of the multibeam phased array receive.

3. The system according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the spacecraft communication is made in the form of a cone, the top of which extends the telescopic rod gravity damper at the end of which has equivalent mass to the outer side of the lateral surface of the cone and along the perimeter of the Foundation hosted disclosed double-sided solar panels, and on the outer surface of the base of the cone is placed emitters phased antenna array.



 

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EFFECT: provision for transferring shareable information to group of users located within relatively small geographical area.

41 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: signal power evaluation.

SUBSTANCE: signal is compared with plurality of bands and separated into plurality of bands. Each band is assigned definite output value. Output values approximate square of output signal value proceeding from known characteristics of input signal. Low-pass filter is used for averaging plurality of output values.

EFFECT: eliminated satellite overloading and violation of flow density limits.

21 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: game systems with robots.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system has game section installed in space equipment, game robots disposed within game section, control signal, device for transmitting control signal received from the Earth to game robots, video shooting camera for shooting game section whose photo is used as section image; game signal transmitter transferring game image to the Earth as game signal; control signal transmitter disposed on the Earth and used to transmit control signal applied by game robot operators to control signal transmitter; game signal receiver disposed on the Earth and used to receive game signal from game signal transmitter; broadcast equipment for broadcasting game signal received by game signal receiver.

EFFECT: investigations of environment properties.

9 cl, 1 dwg

Airborne repeater // 2251214

FIELD: communications engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed repeater that can be used in satellite communication systems operating in ultrahigh-frequency band has antenna-feeder assembly, receive and transmit filter unit, up and down frequency converters, power amplifiers, transmission channel multiplex switch, reference generator, signal regeneration device, simulation protective unit, control device, and cross-connection circuit.

EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities of airborne repeater.

7 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: radio communications.

SUBSTANCE: method includes registering spectrum grams Fi of radio signals in i-numbered points of flight trajectory in frequencies band, including frequency signals with several transmitters in each one, with onboard computer and position measuring means. Spectrum gram of total power of transmitter signal of each j-numbered frequency channel is separated from Fi and powers Mij of these total signals are determined.

EFFECT: higher safety.

3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: communications.

SUBSTANCE: system has satellites, set on circular stationary orbit with antennae mounted on them as well as relay stations, and their ground-based stations. Including central communications control system, satellites control station and subscriber stations, relay station is made in form of serially connected low-noise amplifiers, connected to each receiving narrow-direction antenna, remotely controlled downward converters, amount of which matches number of frequencies bands, and which are separated exclusively for frequencies band zones, intermediate frequency accelerators and remotely controlled upward converters.

EFFECT: not only stationary communications subscribers can access broadband channels, but also mobile subscribers.

2 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: system consists of systems for controlling functional systems with sensors, onboard and speech registers, video cameras and mating blocks. Functional systems structure includes terminal of common use active mobile phone network. On one side aforementioned terminal is connected to functional systems sensors, recording inputs of onboard and speech registers and video cameras. On other side terminal through antenna is connected to a group of satellites and mating stations of common use regional phone network. Mating stations are made with possible transfer through automatic phone station of information from functional systems sensors, onboard and speech registers and video cameras to working terminals for secondary processing at ground control station.

EFFECT: higher personnel and equipment safety, lower costs, higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: satellite communication systems.

SUBSTANCE: satellite for forming antenna direction diagram on basis of position in communication system having multiple client stations and multiple communication satellites, has main onboard antenna, antenna subsystem, transmitter/receiver for ground communication lines, transmitter/receiver of crossing communication lines and control device.

EFFECT: increased system capacity, higher power efficiency and effectiveness of repeated use of channels.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: radio communication systems, possible use for determining informative parameters and characteristics of radio-signals of transmitters of ground-based stationary radio-electronic devices.

SUBSTANCE: onboard the laboratory plane functionally connected are automated control system, device for determining current position, device for registering in input-numbered points of flight trajectory of spectrum graphs Fi of radio signals in frequency band, including frequency channels, onboard computer with database, memorizing device and three processors.

EFFECT: possible determining of parameters under conditions of unintentional interference.

3 dwg, 1 tbl

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