Method and apparatus for producing synthesis gas

FIELD: method and torch for producing synthesis gas at decomposition of liquid hydrocarbons such as oil and natural gas at elevated temperatures without usage of catalyst by CO and hydrogen.

SUBSTANCE: method is realized by partial oxidation of liquid and solid combustible materials at presence of oxygen and oxygen containing gases. Fuel, oxygen-containing gas and atomizing fluid are fed to torch separately. Atomizing fluid is expanded just in front of inlet opening for fuel by means of one or several nozzles providing speed of atomizing fluid in range 20 - 300 m/s. Relation of diameter of outlet opening of nozzle for liquid fuel to diameter of opening of nozzle for atomizing fluid is in range 1/1.1 - 1/5.

EFFECT: possibility for simplifying process.

2 dwg, 2 ex

 

The invention concerns a method and a suitable burner to produce synthesis gas, with liquid hydrocarbons, such as oil or liquid by-products of chemical production, as well as gaseous hydrocarbons such as natural gas or fuel gas, at high temperatures decompose without the use of the catalyst for carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2).

This method is known as "multi-purpose gasification" (method MPG) and is implemented through the reactor section of the heat recovery, gas purification and washing plants for CO2and H2S. the Core of this technology is the burner, which are mixed and fed into the reactor of the original substance.

In the patent Austria at-In-369345 and European patent application EP-IN-0127273 described the principle of operation of the burner. Liquid fuel using high-pressure steam is sprayed in a special nozzle. Supplied with atomizing steam water participates in the reaction in the reactor MPG and is partially converted into hydrogen. When the non-catalytic decomposition of natural gas required water vapor to prevent damage to the burner as a result of overheating. At current natural gas ratio of carbon and hydrogen in the final product can be obtained only limited correlation WITH/N2. When using leading the CSO pair this ratio deteriorates even more. This is particularly disadvantageous in the case, if you want the synthesis gas with a high proportion of carbon monoxide or if the valuable gas itself is carbon monoxide.

In European patent application EP-IN-0380988 proposed burner adapted to supply liquid fuel to the reactor, in which the atomization of fuel is carried out using water vapor or, alternatively, carbon dioxide (CO2).

The disadvantage of this burner is required high excess pressure of from 100 to 250% critical compression, which couples and CO2must be submitted to the burner. In the case of use as a spray environment CO2this requires high energy and hardware costs for compression of CO2.

The basis of the invention lies task is to create an improved method for production of synthesis gas in which the fuel spray is required not only couples, but also other suitable gaseous medium type, carbon dioxide, natural gas, combustible gas, or mixtures thereof, and in which the atomization of fuel in the reaction chamber can occur cheaply and with little hardware overhead.

This task in accordance with the invention is solved due to the fact that for the production of synthesis gas by partial oxidation of liquid or gaseous combustible material in the presence of oxygen is whether oxygen-containing fuel gases containing oxygen gas and the spray medium is fed to the burner apart and spray environment extends directly in front of the entrance hole for the fuel using one or more nozzles, when this differential pressure expansion of the atomizing medium is only from 2% to 50% of the pressure in the reactor.

As a result of such low of the desired excess pressure for the expansion of the atomizing medium when it enters the burner achieved a significant reduction of costs for preparing the spray environment. If you use spray pairs, there is no need to select it from a separate network or boiler with a correspondingly high degree of pressure, as the gas environment may directly or after a minor overheating be used in pairs, or otherwise generated in the recovery boiler gasification reactor.

If the spray medium is carbon dioxide, it is possible to dispense external preparations of carbon dioxide, if it can be selected from the raw synthesis gas in the subsequent scrubber and fed again into the burner. It is particularly advantageous is required in the burner slight excess pressure of the atomizing medium. Required compressor for compressing separated in the scrubber carbon dioxide to the required in the burner pressure can have a small number of steps and requires less energy costs for the operation of the actuator. It's also better to slightly over-heating carbon dioxide plumage which it is supplied to the burner.

As the spray environment other suitable gaseous medium generated during the process or present in the installation, for example:

- the tail gas from the adsorption process with variable pressure (from the installation DWA) or membrane plants for hydrogen production,

- the tail gas from a plant for producing carbon monoxide (Cold Box)

gases that are byproducts of other processes, which are collected in the network combustible gas and to be burnt,

- natural gas.

These gases can individually, in a mixture or after enrichment steam fed to the burner as the atomizing medium.

To obtain effective sputtering rate of the gaseous atomizing medium at the outlet of the nozzle should be between 20 to 300 m/S. Mostly work with the speed of the atomizing medium at the outlet of the nozzle in the range from 40 m/s to 200 m/s variable output speed depends, among other things, on the ratio of the diameters of the nozzle, as will be discussed later. High output speed is provided by the structure which is the object of the present invention the burner, in which the diameter of the outlet nozzle for the liquid fuel is in a certain relation to the hole diameter of the nozzle for the spray environment. The ratio of the diameters of the pillar is t from 1/1,1 to 1.5, mainly from 1/1,3 to 1/3. Due to this design the cavity of the nozzle provides the speed required for mixing environments. Because of this high output speed can, as experience shows, to work with less significant extension.

Performance capabilities of the technology are illustrated by the drawings.

Figure 1 presents the technological scheme of production of carbon monoxide. In the reactor (1) is not illustrated in this case the burner. In the reactor (1) via the pipeline (2) is supplied with liquid fuel or gas. Pipeline (3) is required for the combustion of oxygen. Another pipeline (4) is designed to supply the spray environment necessary for spraying and cooling. This can be done, for example, by means not illustrated here the gas tank. In the reactor environment is subjected to gasification at a temperature of from 1000 to 1500°and a pressure of from 1 to 100 bar. The gasification gases are formed WITH N2and CO2. The gases are cooled and cleaned from dust (5) and enter then into the scrubber (6). The final gaseous products (CO and H2pipeline (7) served on the plot further processing. If the fuel contains sulfur, it is separated in the scrubber in the form of H2's and served in the usual way through the pipeline (8) in the Claus plant, while separated from the synthesis gas number of the first carbon dioxide by pipeline (9) first enters the compressor (10), and then by pipeline (4) back into the reactor.

Figure 2 presents a schematic diagram of the burner MPG. Liquid fuel through the nozzle (11) is fed into the pre-mixing chamber (12) and extends it. Spray medium is supplied through the annular chamber (15) and with high velocity into the chamber pre-mixing of the nozzle (13). Pulse stream spray environment provides additional atomization of the fuel flow into small droplets. Oxygen-containing gas is supplied via the annular chamber (21) and comes into contact with a mixture of fuel and atomizing medium at the mouth of the burner, just before entering the reactor chamber (20), which is not shown. The design depends on the characteristics of the liquid fuel and atomizing medium and their quantitative ratio. Axial length (A) mixing chamber (12)measured from the outlet for liquid fuel (11a) before entering the reaction chamber ranges from 10 to 300 mm, mainly from 20 to 200 mm, cone Angle (x) of the mixing chamber, measured parallel to the axis line (25)is from 2 to 20°usually from 5 to 15°. The maximum internal diameter of the mixing chamber (12) is located at the inlet and is from 10 to 150 mm, mainly from 20 to 90 mm are Crucial for fine races is ylenia liquid fuels and intensive mixing with the spray medium is the ratio of diameter (d) of the outlet nozzle (11) for liquid fuel to the diameter (D) of the hole of the nozzle (13) for the spray environment. The diameter ratio of d/D is from 1/1,1 to 1/5, mostly from 1/1 .3 to 1/3. The extension spray through nozzle (13) should be adjusted so that the output speed of the spray environment ranged from 20 to 300 m/s, typically from 40 to 200 m/S.

Example 1

When spraying heavy VAT residue at a pressure of 60 bar as the atomizing medium is used WITH the2. For comparison, commonly used for spraying water vapor is replaced by an equal weight of CO2. This significantly improves the process of obtaining and reduces specific fuel consumption. The differences presented in table 1.

Table 1
Steam atomizationSpraying with CO2Change (%)
The ratio of CO/H2in the synthesis gas1.101.80+64.0
Fuel consumption in kg VAT residue/0.550.45-18.2
kg
The consumption of oxygen
kg O2/kg0.570.46-19.3

There has been a marked reduction is their production costs for obtaining, as consumed 18% less fuel and 19% less oxygen. A significantly higher ratio of CO/H2facilitates the extraction of pure CO in the system for producing carbon monoxide (Cold Box) and in the membrane installation.

Example 2

Installation is obtaining pure hydrogen by gasification of VAT residue oil production. For this purpose, the carbon monoxide contained in the incoming of the installation MPG gas raw, converted into hydrogen in the reactor shift FROM using water vapor and with the participation of the catalyst. Pure hydrogen is extracted from the gas by adsorption with pressure variation in installing DWA. The formation of the exhaust gas, N2(56%), CO (28%), and CO2(10%). Instead to divert the exhaust gas in the network combustible gas for later burning, it is compressed, mixed with steam and is used as the atomizing medium. When using flue gas as the atomizing medium supply of steam in the reactor can be reduced by 40%. Thanks to the return of the exhaust gas installation DWA in the reactor achieved the following improvements in hydrogen production (table 2):

Table 2
Tail gas
espeletiinae environment CouplesinstallationChange
DWA + couples(%)
The consumption of oxygen in m3N-O2/m3N0.280.25-10.1
H2
Fuel consumption0.30-14.4
in kg VAT residue /m3N-H20.36

Savings on VAT residue and the oxygen nucleus is greater than the flow rate of the compressed exhaust gas, resulting in the production costs of hydrogen are reduced by 3%.

1. The method for production of synthesis gas by partial oxidation of liquid or solid combustible materials in the presence of oxygen or oxygen-containing gases, and fuel, oxygen-containing gas and the spray medium is fed to the burner separately, with the spray medium expanded immediately before the inlet of the fuel through one or more nozzles, wherein using the nozzle or nozzles that provide(s) the speed of the atomizing medium is 20-300 m/S.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that use, the nozzle or nozzles that provide(s) the speed u is extreme environment equal to from 40 to 200 m/S.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the spray environment of the use of carbon dioxide which is withdrawn from the subsequent scrubber, compressed and recycled to the burner.

4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the carbon dioxide is fed to the burner directly or after a minor overheating.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the spray environment of the use of the tail gas from the installation DWA or membrane installation, or from a plant for producing carbon monoxide (Cold Box).

6. The method according to claim 5, wherein the tail gas before it enters the burner squeeze.

7. Burner for the production of synthesis gas by partial oxidation of liquid or solid combustible materials in the presence of oxygen or oxygen-containing gases, and fuel, oxygen-containing gas and the spray medium is fed to the burner apart and spray environment extends directly in front of the entrance hole for the fuel through one or more nozzles, the ratio of the diameter (d) of the outlet nozzle (11) for liquid fuel to the diameter (D) of the hole of the nozzle (13) for the atomizing medium is from 1/1,1 to 1/5.

8. Burner according to claim 7, characterized in that the ratio of diameter (d) of the outlet nozzle (11) for liquid fuel to the diameter (D) of the nozzle holes 13) for atomizing medium is from 1/1,3 to 1/3.

9. Burner according to claim 7, characterized in that the axial length of the mixing chamber, measured from the outlet to the fuel before entry into the reaction chamber ranges from 10 to 300 mm, mainly from 20 to 200 mm

10. Burner according to claim 7, characterized in that the cone angle of the mixing chamber is from 2 to 20°mainly from 5 to 15°.

11. Burner according to claim 7, characterized in that the maximum inner diameter of the mixing chamber at the inlet is from 10 to 150 mm, mainly from 20 to 90 mm



 

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SUBSTANCE: waste water from Fisher-Tropsh synthesis reactor is mixed with carbon for obtaining carbon-water suspension which is directed to gasifier and is subjected to reaction with water steam and oxygen at high temperature and pressure for obtaining synthesis-gas. Waste water may be returned to suspension preparation stage where carbon is ground and is mixed with process water and waste water for forming the suspension, after which this suspension is delivered to gasifier where it is subjected to reaction with water steam at high temperature and pressure for obtaining synthesis-gas. Method of obtaining the hydrocarbons is described when synthesis-gas is brought in contact with catalyst for synthesis of hydrocarbon for forming reaction products and waste water which is separated from reaction products and is returned to recycle for mixing with carbon and forming the suspension.

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9 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl

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