Method for preparing chemosorption material
FIELD: chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology for preparing chemosorption materials possessing high protective properties with respect to ammonia vapors that can be used for using in filtering protective devices. Method involves impregnation of nonwoven activated fabric made of hydrocellulose fibers in an aqueous solution containing zinc chloride and nickel chloride. Also, this solution contains 1,2,3-propanetriol (glycerol) as a modifying agent taken in the amount 0.5-1.0% of the total amount of the prepared solution.
EFFECT: improved preparing method.
1 tbl, 1 ex
The invention relates to a technology for chemisorption materials and can be used in the chemical industry, namely in the production of materials used in filtration devices remedies, technical devices of environmental engineering.
Known adsorbing material according to patent US 429410 (publ. 27.10.81)containing non-woven material coated on its surface a layer of a powder material. The fixing of the particles of the adsorbent is performed using thermoplastic polyolefin fibers contained in the nonwoven material due to their slight melting when heated.
The disadvantage of this absorbent material obtained by the method described in the description of the patent US 429410 is its rigidity, when the technological processing of this material sorbent partially is painted, which creates certain difficulties in the design of means of individual protection of respiratory organs.
A method of obtaining chemisorption material, which consists in the processing of the carboxyl-containing chemical sorbent in the Na-form first of 0.5-1.0%acid solution with a ratio of mass chemisorption material to the volume of the acid solution is 1:30, for 0.5-1.0 HR for translation in H-form, and then of 0.5-1.0%solution of potassium hydroxide with the same ratio of components in the tech is the same time for the conversion of chemical sorbent in the form of flushing softened water after each stage.
The disadvantage of chemisorption material obtained by this method is the low reactivity of the ammonia.
A method of obtaining chemisorption material VION an-1, described in the book Mpora "Chemisorptive fiber", Moscow, Chemistry, 1981, str-131, 181, including hydrazidine polyacrylonitrile fibers. The fiber obtained in this way in the protonated form, is used for chemisorption of ammonia, but the fibers obtained by this method cannot be used in filtration devices remedies, including for the manufacture of filter products in a certain form.
The invention solves the problem of creating workable way of getting chemisorption materials intended for use in a filtering device protection, technical devices of environmental engineering.
To achieve the technical result in the production method of chemisorption material for absorption of ammonia vapors, consisting in impregnating a non-woven absorbent fibers, followed by drying of the material, produce impregnation of non-woven activated paintings from hydrocellulose fibers, which is carried out in aqueous solution mixtures of zinc chloride and Nickel chloride in the following ratio of components:
Zinc chloride - 75-10 leaky cable,0 wt.%
Chloride Nickel - 8.0 to 12.0 wt.%, and in a salt solution is injected modifier 1,2,3-propanetriol (glycerol) in an amount of 0.5-1.0% of the total amount of the prepared solution.
Distinctive features of the proposed method from the specified visiitng closest to him, is what produces the impregnation of non-woven activated paintings from hydrocellulose fibers, which is carried out in aqueous solution mixtures of zinc chloride and Nickel chloride in the following ratio of components:
Zinc chloride - 7.5 to 10.0 wt.%
Chloride Nickel - 8.0 to 12.0 wt.%, and in a salt solution is injected modifier 1,2,3-propantriol in quantities of 0.5-1.0% of the total amount of the prepared solution.
Due to the presence of these characteristics, the proposed method obtained chemisorption material with high barrier properties for pairs of ammonia, this material has a high elastic properties, which is necessary for the production of materials used in filtration devices remedies.
Example. As the basis is taken activated nonwoven material with a surface density of 170 g/cm3and total porosity 1.6 cm3/year
For impregnation of the material prepared aqueous solution of ZnCl salts2(8.5%) and NiCl2(8,5%), dissolve 8.5 g ZnCl2and 8.5 g NiCl2in 83 ml of water at a temperature of 60° C. Then, the prepared solution contribute 0.5 ml of glycerol (modifier 1,2,3-propantriol). The solution is thoroughly mixed, and then immerse the workpiece material. The material is kept in an impregnating solution for 20 min, then removed from solution and allowed to Mature on the mesh substrate for 40-60 min, and then placed in a drying chamber and dried with heated air at a temperature of 70-90°C for 1.5 to 2.0 hours.
Received chemisorption material have pairs of ammonia under the following dynamic conditions: initial concentration of ammonia 0.2 mg/l (10 MPC), the volumetric rate of 30 l/min, the relative humidity of the gas flow is 50%, the temperature of 18-22°C. the working surface of the material is 180 cm2. Under these conditions, the control time of the protective action must not be less than 30 minutes
The resulting material had the time of protective action 58±2 min of 4 tests.
The table presents the test results of different variants of the material obtained by the claimed method. Time of protective action for NH3(min) under the above conditions.
|Material type||The ratio of the components ZnCl2/NiCl2the solution in water|
|7,5/8,0||7,5/12,0td align="center"> 8,0/10,0||10,0/12,0|
|1. Material with a density of 200 g/m3and vΣ=1.2 cm3/g, 0.5% glycerol||30±2||48±2||50±2||60±2|
|2. Material with a density of 150 g/m3and vΣ=1.8 cm3/g; 1.0% glycerol||32±2||56±2||62±2||78±2|
Time of protective action is given the average of 4 trials each. In this case, all the materials had good elasticity and can be applied in products of various designs. When the mixing ratio of zinc chloride less than 7.5 wt.% and of Nickel chloride less than 8.0 wt.% time of protective action of the material is less than 25 minutes, which is insufficient for effective protection. When the mixing ratio of zinc chloride over 10 wt.% and of Nickel chloride greater than 12.0 wt.% the material loses its elasticity is good and constructive.
The proposed method obtained chemisorption material with high barrier properties for pairs of ammonia and high elastic properties, which is necessary for the production of materials used in filtration devices remedies.
The method of obtaining chemisorption material for absorption of ammonia vapors, consisting in impregnating there is anago activated fibers, followed by drying of the material, characterized in that produce impregnation of non-woven activated paintings from hydrocellulose fibers, which is carried out in aqueous solution mixtures of zinc chloride and Nickel chloride in the following ratio, wt.%:
and in a salt solution is injected modifier 1,2,3-propantriol in quantities of 0.5-1.0% of the total amount of the prepared solution.
FIELD: ION-EXCHANGE MATERIALS.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a process of preparing gel-like cationites for use in treatment and purification processes. Gel-like cationites are prepared by inoculating-incoming process wherein (a) aqueous suspension of microcapsulated cross-linked styrene polymer in the form of granules and containing cross-linking agent is provided as inoculating polymer; (b) inoculating polymer is left to swell in monomer mixture composed of vinyl monomer, cross-linking agent, and radical initiator, namely peracid aliphatic ester; (c) monomer mixture is polymerized in inoculating polymer; and (d)resulting copolymer is functionalized via sulfatization. Process is characterized by that, in step (a), content of cross-linking agent in cross-linked styrene copolymer amounts to 3.5-7 wt % and inoculum-to-income ratio in step (b) amounts to 1:(0.25-1.5).
EFFECT: enabled preparation of gel-like cationites having high osmotic and mechanic stabilities as well as improved oxidation resistance.
7 cl, 9 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: chemical technology, resins.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparing polyhalide strong-basic anion-exchange resins of gel and macroporous structure designated for disinfection of water in closed ecological objects, domestic drinking water and water from non-checked sources. Polyhalide anion-exchange resins is prepared from strong-basic quaternary ammonium anion-exchange resins in chloride form by their iodination with J2 solution in KJ at stirring, thermostatic control and washing out. Iodination is carried out with triiodide solution on conditioned strong-basic anion-exchange resins in chloride form in the content of strong-basic groups 80%, not less, in the mole ratio anion-exchange resin : triiodide = 1.0:(1.1-1.5). Ready product is kept at 20-55°C additionally. Invention provides preparing polyhalide anion-exchange resins characterizing by high resource in water disinfection and in simultaneous reducing iodine release in disinfecting water in retention of high disinfecting indices.
EFFECT: improved preparing method.
1 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: catalysts for waste water and emission gas treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of removing organic and inorganic components from waste waters and emission gases via liquid-phase oxidation, in particular, to preparing textile-supported polymer catalyst consisting of polyacrylonitrile monothreads and complex threads. Knitted cloth is treated with modifying solution at 106 to 150°C for 10 to 30 min when ratio of amounts of polyacrylonitrile units to amount of chlorine-containing hydrazine salt equal to 20-30 and the same to chlorine-containing hydroxylamine salt 10-15, pH of solution being 6-9. After that, cloth is treated with transition metal salts for 1.0-2.0 h until content of metal on catalyst achieves 0.81-1.2 mmol/g. Treatment is followed by washing with desalted water.
EFFECT: simplified catalyst preparation technology and intensified preparation process.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 30 ex
FIELD: waste water and gas emission treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for preparing catalytic materials to clean waste waters and gas emissions via removal of organic and inorganic components by liquid-phase oxidation process. Method comprises consecutive treatment of knitted cloth with hot alkali solution containing 14-42 g/L hydroxylamine chloride and an aqueous solution of variable-valence metal salts. In the first stage, treatment is carried out with modifying hydroxylamine chloride and ethylenediamine-containing solution wherein molar ratio of polyacrylonitrile unit number to ethylenediamine ranges from 2 to 10 and solution pH is 6-9. Treatment temperature is 95-105°C and treatment time 1-1.6 h. In the second stage, treatment with aqueous solution of variable-valence metal salts is carried out for 0.5 to 2 h.
EFFECT: simplified manufacture technology, reduced expenses on reagents, and reduced process time without loss in the firmness of fixation of variable-valence metal salts on cloth.
2 tbl, 21 ex
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacture of ion-exchange fibers with special properties, which can be used as sorbent or as a sorbent constituent for cleaning liquid media, largely natural and waste waters. Method consists in performing alkali hydrolysis of polyacrylonitrile fiber in presence of hydrazine at elevated temperature completed by treatment of fiber with active agent causing degradation of chromophore groups of fiber. Alternatively, ion-exchange fiber is manufactured via alkali hydrolysis of polyacrylonitrile fiber in presence of hydrazine at elevated temperature, hydrolysis reaction being effected in concentrated solution of salt of alkali metal with weak acid followed by treatment of fiber with active agent as above.
EFFECT: improved characteristics of fiber at lower consumption of reagents and stabilized manufacturing process to provide ion-exchange fiber with desired number of chelating sorption groups due to appropriate balance of acid and basic groups resulting from hydrolysis.
18 cl, 5 tbl, 16 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology for preparing sorbents with fibrous structure by using waste of industrial manufacture. Method involves treatment of fibrous matrix from waste of tanning leather chips with polyelectolyte an aqueous solution obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of polyacrylonitrile or copolymer based on thereof. Prepared sorbent shows the improved capacity for extraction of different components from different aqueous media.
EFFECT: improved preparing method, improved and valuable properties of sorbent.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: sanitary and hygienic facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of manufacturing chemisorption materials for use in municipal hygiene sphere. Method consists in treatment of chemisorption carboxyl-containing material in Na form with 0.5-1.0% aqueous acid solution, e.g. hydrochloric acid solution, at modulus (ratio of weight of chemisorption material to acid solution volume) 1:30 and treatment time 0.5-1.0 h to transfer material into H-form. Chemisorbent is then washed with softened water to pH 5-6, after which material in H-form is treated for 0.5-1.0 h with 0.5-1.0% potassium hydroxide solution, modulus 1:30. At the expiration of treatment time, material is washed with softened water to pH 5.0-6.5. Presence of three-dimensional lattice, both during treatment time of chemisorption material in the form of fibers or nonwoven material and upon use of products from this material, prevents dissolution of polymer in water or in aqueous solution of acid or potassium hydroxide. Owing to filtration, chemisorbent entraps in water heavy metal ions contained therein and water is saturated with potassium ions so that chemisorption material acquires at least 4 mmol/g of carboxyl groups in K-form.
EFFECT: optimized manufacture conditions.
FIELD: medicine, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparing sorbents of medicinal designation. Activated carbon is treated with methyltoluenesulfonate-N-cyclohexyl-N1-(2-morpholinyl-4-ethyl)carbodiimide in the presence of melanin followed by incubation of modified carbon in the presence of glutathione. Invention provides enhancing anti-radical activity of hemosorbent.
EFFECT: improved preparing method.
1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention provides material containing alumina particles having diameter 8-13 nm, length 150-200 nm, and specific surface 350-600 m2/g, prepared via hydrolysis of ultrafine alumina powder, which particles are characterized by that oxides and hydroxides of transition metals, selected from iron, manganese, titanium, zirconium, and mixture thereof, are attached to their surfaces. A method is described wherein nano-sized nonspherical alumina is prepared via hydrolysis of ultrafine alumina powder, after which solution of above-defined salt is added to resulting slurry of alumina particles, then mixture is supplemented by alkali solution, calcined, and fractioned.
EFFECT: increased sorption capacity and strength at lower hydrodynamic resistance.
10 cl, 5 ex
FIELD: medical and biological instrumentation industry; methods of modification of the hydrophobic surfaces.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of modification of hydrophobic surfaces and may be used for upgrading the hydrophobic surfaces used in the scanning probe microscopy, in the immune-enzyme analysis, at development of the biochips. The method of modification of hydrophobic surfaces includes deposition on the surface of the modifying monolayer of the complex composition molecules containing the functional group, the section forming the hydrogenous ties and the hydrophobic section. At that as the functional group the molecule contains, at least, one group sampled from the following row:NH2, СООН, СНО,ONH2, SH; as the section forming the hydrogen ties the molecule contains the fragments -NH(CH2)nCO- ,where п=1-5, and as the hydrophobic section the molecule contains the fragment -(СН2)n , where n=5-12, or the similar fragment with one or several insertions of the heteroatoms sampled from the row of O, S, NH. In particular, such molecules may have the following composition[Gly4-NHCH2]2C10H20. The invention allows to ensure the high quality evenness of the modified surfaces, reproducibility of their properties and reduction of the time interval of the modification.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the high quality evenness of the modified surfaces, reproducibility of their properties and reduction of the time interval of the modification.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: sorbents and water treatment.
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to ion-exchange sorbents based on naturally occurring zeolites modified with synthetic polymers and can be used in a variety of industry fields and when solving environmental problems associated with purification of natural water and waste waters to remove cesium and strontium radionuclids, heavy metals and ammonium, petroleum derivatives and other organics. Invention provides a method of preparing organomineral sorbent via polymerization of olefin on the surface of fine mineral particles under the influence of a catalytic system comprising metal-containing catalyst and alumoxane cocatalyst fixed on the surface of mineral particles as a result of interaction of organoaluminum compound of general formula AlRnX3-n, where R is C2-C4-alkyl, X is Cl or H, and n=2-3, with water of the fine mineral, which is notably natural zeolite with particle size below 60 μm and containing 9-15% water, above-said metal-containing catalyst being vanadium compound or zirconocene. Polymerization of olefin is conducted high-molecular weight polyolefin coating forms on the surface of zeolite in amount of 2-10% by weight. Resulting sorbent is characterized by high ion-exchange and sorption properties allowing employment thereof in carrying out sorption processes under dynamic conditions. Sorbent further possesses hardness and high chemical inertness allowing repetitive utilization thereof. Plasticity of polyolefin coating, in turn, allows manufacturing sorbent samples with desired shape and dimensions.
EFFECT: improved sorption capacity and other performance characteristics of sorbent.
7 cl, 2 tbl, 10 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; sanitary cleaning of gas ejection.
SUBSTANCE: chemical absorber can be used for dry rendering gas mixtures harmless. Chemical absorber has timber chips processed by mixture of hydroxide water solution and sulphur-containing salt of one or more alkali metal. Degree of oxidation of sulphur in sulphur-containing salt doesn't exceed +4. Content of alkali metal hydroxide in absorber equals to 10-40 mass percent; content of sulphur is absorber equals to 1,5-6,5 mass percent. Timber chips used in absorber have thickness less or equal to 1 mm, width of 2 mm and wider and length of 50 mm and longer. To prepare chemical absorber, timber chips are soaked in hydroxide and sulfite and/or thiosulphate of alkali metal solution, kept in till swelling, impregnated and are subject to drying.
EFFECT: reduced cost.
8 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: chemical industry; sanitary cleaning of gas ejection.
SUBSTANCE: chemical absorber has base of timber chips processed by hydroxide water solution of one and more alkali metal till achieving alkali metal content in absorber up to 10-50 mass percent. Timber chips have thickness less or equal to 1 mm, width of 2 mm and wider and length of 50 mm and longer. To prepare chemical absorber, timber chips are soaked in solution, kept in till swelling, impregnated by alkali agent and are supposed to drying till achieving humidity of 10-15 mass percent. Absorber is capable of catching HF, SO2, CO2, HCl and other sore gases.
EFFECT: reduced cost.
5 cl, 3 ex, 4 tbl
FIELD: production of composite sorption materials on base of fibrous carbon material and natural bio-polymer-chitosan.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes electrochemical treatment of carbon fibrous material at cathode or anode polarization at interval of potentials of (+1.5) to (-1.5) V relative to comparison silver chloride electrode by 0.05-0.5% chitosan solution in diluted hydrochloric acid in presence of sodium chloride, holding it at preset potential for 20-180 min for forming chitosan film on surface of carbon fibrous material followed by washing the material with water and drying.
EFFECT: possibility of producing materials at varying properties due to performance of process in wider range of polarization potentials.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 15 ex
FIELD: water treatment and sorbents.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for treating drinking or industrial water with high levels of heavy metal ions and polar organics, in particular dyes. Method comprises treatment of naturally occurring aluminosilicate (zeolite, swollen vermiculite, or mixture thereof) with chitosan solution in dilute acetic acid at aluminosilicate-to-chitosan solution weight ratio 1:1 and final supernatant pH value 8-9. Resulting plastic mass is granulated by extrusion through specified-size dies, granules obtained are dried and then treated with solution of humin acids taken in amount ensuring full binding of chitosan amino groups. Thereafter, sorbent granules are separated from solution and polymer layer formed on the surface of granules is hardened.
EFFECT: achieved combination of high sorbent capacity and good sorbent workability parameters, namely high filterability and strength caused by hardened surface layer on granules.
7 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: liquid waste treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides complexion structure containing conducting or semiconducting substrate, to which organic polymer film is grafted containing monomer selected from 4-vinylpyridine and vinylbipyridine plus cross-linking agent, namely divinylbenzene. Preparation method includes step, in which above electrically neutral organic polymer is grafted, said polymer being able of complexion ions via electropolymerization while electric grafting is performed on conducting or semiconducting substrate in presence of above cross-linking agent.
EFFECT: enhanced waste treatment efficiency.
2 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: gas-treatment materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sorption engineering, particularly to process gas drying processes and to individual and collective respiratory apparatus protection systems. Proposed method comprises impregnation of silica gel with aqueous solution containing 380 g/L calcium chloride and 480 g/L lithium bromide at solution temperature 10-20°C and ratio of silica gel pore volume to solution volume 1:(0.9-1.0); stirring for 15-20 min; drying at 300-450°C for 0.8 h; screening and recovery of fraction with granule diameter 1.0-3.0 mm.
EFFECT: increased strength and workability of drier.
1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: gas and liquid drier containing moisture-absorbing substance contained in pores of a matrix with open pore system and connected to the surface of matrix is prepared by impregnating matrix with moisture-absorbing substance solution, to which alkali solution is added to pH as high as 10. Alkali solution can be selected from solutions of alkali and alkali-earth metal hydroxides and ammonia. Moisture-absorbing substance is a high-hygroscopic salt such as alkali-earth metal halides, sulfates, and nitrates. Open-pore system-containing matrix is selected from inorganic oxides, porous coals, naturally occurring sorbents, porous metals, and their mixtures.
EFFECT: increased dynamic water-adsorption capacity and avoided leakage of hygroscopic salt solution from matrix pores.
4 cl, 7 ex