Method for producing synthetic gas

FIELD: method for producing synthetic gas, which may be used in oil chemistry for producing motor fuels.

SUBSTANCE: method includes processing of biogas under temperature of 1420-1800°C and following cooling of resulting synthetic gas. Thermal processing of biogas is performed in liquid heat carrier with ratio of volume of liquid heat carrier to volume of barbotaged gas, equal to 10-100 during 0,3-2 seconds, or in boiling layer of solid particles, where the speed of biogas is selected to be greater than minimal speed of fluidization.

EFFECT: increased purity of produced synthetic gas.

8 cl, 6 ex

 

The invention relates to methods of producing synthesis gas and can be used in the petrochemical industry for the production of motor fuels by GTL technology.

The known method for production of synthesis gas for production of basic organic synthesis and synthetic fuels [EN 2062750, SW 3/16, SW 1/02, 1996.06.27], including the conversion of carbon-containing gases in the presence of water vapor with a supply of energy to sustain the process. As a source of carbon-containing gases using carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas, which is continuously passed through vasoselective membrane for separation of carbon dioxide, followed by desorption of carbon dioxide in the environment of water vapor. The obtained gas-vapor mixture is adjusted to a molar ratio of water to carbon dioxide, equal to 1.0 and 2.3, by condensation of water vapor at constant pressure and temperature and is subjected to conversion by electrochemical cathodic recovery when 1120-1220 To obtain a synthesis gas mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide with a composition of N2:WITH from 1.0 to 2.3 at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. The resulting synthesis gas is cooled and sent to the consumer.

The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of the equipment required for its implementation, and high energy consumption for the production of synthesis gas.

A known method of production is as synthesis gas, containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide [EN 2258029, SW 3/38, SC 1/20, 2003.04.10], which includes the following stages: removal of hydrogen sulfide from natural gas containing hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, through the passage of gas through the device for removal of hydrogen sulfide, adding carbon dioxide and steam in natural gas, where removed hydrogen sulfide, to obtain a mixed gas, the introduction of the mixed gas in the reaction tube reforming units for implementation of the steam reforming reaction in a mixed gas.

The disadvantage of this method is the need for a device for cleaning a source gas from sulfur compounds. In this way the gas is directed to produce synthesis gas, additional heat and carbon dioxide, partially separated from the synthesis gas which has passed the installation of the reformer, which complicates and increases the cost of installation and the way in General.

A method of obtaining synthesis gas [EN 2201392, SW 3/38, 2003.03.27], in which carbon-containing organic compound is reacted with steam and carbon dioxide in the presence of a catalyst. The amount of steam is 2 mol or less per mole of carbon of the specified carbon-containing organic compound and 0.1-10 mol per mol of carbon dioxide, while this interaction is carried out at a temperature of 600-1000� C, a pressure of 5-40 kg/cm2and average hourly space velocity of gas 1000-10000 h-1.

The disadvantage of this method is the use of a catalyst, which, although it reduces the required heating temperature, but is in need of regeneration, which complicates and increases the cost method for production of synthesis gas.

Closest to the proposed method is a method of generating synthesis gas described in the invention according to patent RU 2242497, C10G 9/36, 2004.12.20 selected for the prototype, including heat treatment of the initial mixture containing one or more hydrocarbons and molecular oxygen and/or connection with one or more of the elements oxygen, heated up to 1400°, carrying out the reaction in the reactor and cooling.

The disadvantage of this method is to heat to a temperature of only 1400°that increases the reaction time, and the resulting synthesis gas is composed of partially unreacted carbon dioxide, which is captured again and sent to the reformer installation, which complicates and increases the cost of implementing the method of installation and the way in General.

The problem solved by the claimed invention, the improved method of producing synthesis gas.

The technical result from the use of the invention is to simplify the process for production of synthesis gas from a mixture containing the th one or more hydrocarbons, and connection with one or more of the elements oxygen, as well as increasing the purity of the synthesis gas.

This technical result is achieved in that in a method of producing synthesis gas comprising a high-temperature heat treatment of the initial mixture containing one or more hydrocarbons and a connection to one or more of the elements oxygen, and cooling, as the original mix use biogas and high-temperature heat treatment of the mixture is carried out at a temperature 1420-1800°C. as biogas is used mainly gaseous products of fermentation of organic waste from agriculture, or timber, food, or utilities.

The initial mixture contains mainly metadatabase gas and carbon dioxide. High-temperature heat treatment of the initial mixture is performed mainly in a liquid carrier or in a fluidized bed of solid particles. When performing high-temperature heat treatment of the mixture in the liquid carrier, the ratio of the volume of the liquid coolant to the volume Bartiromo gas is chosen mainly equal to 10-100, and the contact time of the raw material with liquid coolant limit the time of the ascent of gas bubbles and choose mainly the level of 0.3-2 C. When carrying out high-temperature heat treatment of the mixture in a fluidized bed of solid particles feed rate of the mixture is chosen mainly to the greater of the minimum velocity of fluidization.

The method is as follows.

The supply of raw materials of biogas is carried out in the mode of bubbling in the lower part of the vessel containing the liquid coolant, which is used as the molten inorganic salts or metal, or alloy, for example, copper, iron, aluminum or Nickel. The ratio of the volume of the melt to the volume Bartiromo gas is chosen at the level of 20-100. The contact time of the raw material melt limit the time of the ascent of gas bubbles and choose a level of 0.3-2 C. it Was shown that during this time raw time to warm up to melt temperature and to fully react. The temperature of the melt is maintained within the range 1420-1800°using an external energy source, such as an inductor industrial or high frequency. The resulting synthesis gas is removed from the zone above the surface of the melt and cooled by any known method, for example, using boiler steam generator.

Biogas is formed in the methane fermentation of various organic wastes from agriculture, timber and food industries, public utilities and others; consists of ETANA (30-75%) and carbon dioxide (see "Encyclopedia of Cyril and Methodius"). In recent years, the use of biogas in the world is constantly growing. It is used as fuel in boilers or heaters for steam or hot water (see, for example, Turov I.S. Processing of sewage sludge. - M. 1988. - 256 S.). In our country the use of biogas is very limited. Basically it is discharged into the atmosphere.

Example 1.

In the device, filled with a melt of copper, serves biogas, which is the gaseous product of anaerobic fermentation of organic waste and utilities, containing a mixture of metastorage and carbon dioxide in the ratio of 65 volume fraction of methane and 35 volume fractions of carbon dioxide. The ratio of the volume of the melt to the volume Bartiromo gas select 50. The melt temperature is maintained at the level 1600°using an external inductor frequency. The contact time of the raw material melt limit the time of the ascent of gas bubbles and choose 1,2 C. it Was shown that during this time raw time to warm up to melt temperature and to fully react. The resulting synthesis gas contains 70 volume fractions of carbon monoxide and 130 volume fraction of hydrogen. That is, the ratio f=H2/CO is 1.8.

Example 2.

In the device, filled with a melt of copper, serves biogas, t is decomposing gaseous product of anaerobic fermentation of organic waste and utilities, containing a mixture of metastorage and carbon dioxide in a ratio of 3 volume fraction of methane and 2 volume fraction of carbon dioxide, and optionally enter 1 volume fraction of water vapor. The ratio of the volume of the melt to the volume Bartiromo gas is chosen at level 45. The melt temperature is maintained at the level 1700°using an external inductor frequency. The contact time of the raw material melt limit the time of the ascent of gas bubbles and choose at level 1 C. it Was shown that during this time raw time to warm up to melt temperature and to fully react. The resulting synthesis gas contains 5 volume fractions of carbon monoxide and 7 of volume fractions of hydrogen. That is, the ratio f=H2/CO is 1.4.

Example 3.

In the device, filled with a melt of copper, serves biogas, which is the gaseous product of anaerobic fermentation of organic waste and utilities, containing a mixture of metastorage and carbon dioxide in the ratio: 1 volume ratio of methane and 1 volume ratio of carbon dioxide. The ratio of the volume of the melt to the volume Bartiromo gas is chosen at level 55. The melt temperature is maintained at the level 1700°using an external inductor high frequency. The contact time of the raw material melt limit the time of the ascent of gas bubbles and choose the level 1 C. It was shown that during this time raw time to warm up to melt temperature and to fully react. The resulting synthesis gas contains 1 volume fraction of carbon monoxide and 1 volume fraction of hydrogen. That is, the ratio f=H2/CO is 1.

Example 4.

In the fluidized bed reactor filled with solid particles of a material with a high melting point, such as silicon carbide or disilicide molybdenum, about 1 mm serves biogas, which is the gaseous product of anaerobic fermentation of organic waste and utilities, and containing a mixture of metastorage and carbon dioxide in the ratio of 65 volume fraction of methane and 35 volume fractions of carbon dioxide. The temperature of the fluidized bed is maintained at the level 1700°C. the feed Rate of the mixture to choose the greater of the minimum velocity of fluidization, designed by one of the existing methods, and is equal to 2 m/s the resulting synthesis gas contains 70 volume fractions of mono-oxide carbon and 130 volume fraction of hydrogen. That is, the ratio f=H2/CO equal to 1.8.

Example 5.

In the fluidized bed reactor filled with solid particles of a material with a high melting point, such as silicon carbide or disilicide molybdenum, size 1 mm serves pre-mixed mixture of biogas, awsomehouseparty product methane fermentation of organic waste and utilities, containing: 3 volume fraction of methane, 2 volume fraction of carbon dioxide and 1 volume fraction of water vapor. The temperature of the fluidized bed is maintained at the level of the 1800°C. the feed Rate of the mixture to choose the greater of the minimum velocity of fluidization, designed by one of the existing methods, and is equal to 2 m/s the resulting synthesis gas contains 5 volume fractions of carbon monoxide and 7 of volume fractions of hydrogen. That is, the ratio f=H2/CO equal to 1.4.

Example 6.

In the fluidized bed reactor filled with solid particles of a material with a high melting point, such as silicon carbide or disilicide molybdenum size of 1 mm serves biogas, which gazoobraznym product methane fermentation of organic waste and utilities, and containing a mixture of metastorage and carbon dioxide in a ratio of 1 volume fraction of methane and 1 volume fraction of carbon dioxide. The temperature of the fluidized bed is maintained at the level 1700°C. the feed Rate of the mixture to choose the greater of the minimum velocity of fluidization, designed by one of the existing methods and is equal to 2 m/s the resulting synthesis gas contains 1 volume fraction of carbon monoxide and 1 volume fraction of hydrogen. That is, the ratio f=H2/CO is 1.

Experimentally it was shown that beyond those specified the temperature within the formed synthesis gas contains a high content of impurities in the gas phase, such as methane, acetylene and its homologues. Theoretically it was found confirmation of this fact. The specified temperature range corresponds to the minimum number of gas impurities in a heterogeneous equilibrium calculated by minimizing the Gibbs function of components: hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, acetylene, ethylene, ethane, propane, methylacetylene, allene, propylene, propane, diacetylene, vinylacetylene, benzene, particulate carbon (amorphous modification - soot).

Thus, compared with the prototype of the claimed method for production of synthesis gas allows using biogas to obtain raw materials for the production of liquid motor fuels.

This method is easier to implement due to the fact that there is no need to return unreacted portions of the original mixture (recycling), as in the present method, all of the mixture has time to react. Resulting in the implementation of this method, the synthesis gas has a high purity (contains fewer impurities) due to the higher reaction temperature.

In addition, the proposed method allows utilisation of biogas, which is often not used and discharged into the atmosphere, thereby reducing the environmental pollution.

1. Method for production of synthesis gas, comprising a high-temperature heat treatment and the initial mixture, containing one or more hydrocarbons and a connection to one or more of the elements oxygen, and cooling, characterized in that as the original mix use biogas and high-temperature heat treatment of the mixture is carried out at a temperature 1420-1800°C.

2. Method for production of synthesis gas according to claim 1, characterized in that the quality of biogas using gaseous products of fermentation of organic waste from agriculture or timber or food industry or utilities.

3. Method for production of synthesis gas according to claim 1, characterized in that the starting mixture contains metadatabase gas and carbon dioxide.

4. Method for production of synthesis gas according to claim 1, characterized in that the high-temperature heat treatment of the initial mixture is performed in a liquid carrier.

5. Method for production of synthesis gas according to claim 1, characterized in that the high-temperature heat treatment of the initial mixture is performed in the liquid coolant when the ratio of the volume of the liquid coolant to the volume Bartiromo gas equal to 10-100.

6. Method for production of synthesis gas according to claim 1, characterized in that the high-temperature heat treatment of the initial mixture is performed in a liquid carrier, and the contact time of the raw material with liquid coolant limit the time in which plate gas bubbles and choose a level of 0.3-2 C.

7. Method for production of synthesis gas according to claim 1, characterized in that the high-temperature heat treatment of the mixture is carried out in a fluidized bed of solid particles.

8. Method for production of synthesis gas according to claim 1, characterized in that the high-temperature heat treatment of the mixture is carried out in a fluidized bed of solid particles, while the feed rate of the mixture to choose the greater of the minimum velocity of fluidization.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: alternative fuels.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalysts and process of steam conversion of hydrocarbons to produce synthesis gas. Proposed catalyst for steam conversion of hydrocarbons contains nickel oxide (4.0-9.2%) and magnesium oxide (4.0-6.5%) supported by porous metallic nickel (balancing amount). Carrier has specific surface area 0.10-0.20 m2/g, total pore volume 0.07-0.12 cm3/g, predominant pore radius 1-30 μm, and porosity at least 40%. Described are also catalyst preparation method and generation of synthesis gas via steam conversion of hydrocarbons.

EFFECT: increased heat conductivity of catalyst resulting in stable activity in synthesis gas generation process.

8 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: production of synthesis-gas.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is carried out at temperature of 750-900 C due to external heating of tubular furnace reaction tubes filled with catalyst; mixture of natural gas and superheated steam is fed to reaction tubes. External heating of reaction tubes filled with catalyst is first performed by burning the natural gas in air; after attaining the required mode of operation, external heating is carried out by burning the synthesis-gas fed from tubular furnace outlet to reaction tube external heating chamber. Device proposed for realization of this method includes tubular furnace with reaction tubes filled with catalyst, chamber for mixing the natural gas with superheated steam and external heating chamber for heating the reaction tubes filled with catalyst for maintenance of conversion process; heating chamber is provided with air inlet. Device is also provided with gas change-over point whose one inlet is used for delivery of natural gas fed to chamber of external heating tubular furnace reaction tubes during starting the mode of steam conversion process; other inlet of gas change-over point is used for delivery of synthesis-gas from tubular furnace outlet through distributing synthesis-gas delivery point. Device is also provided with regulator for control of delivery of synthesis-gas to reaction tube external heating chamber required for combustion.

EFFECT: enhanced economical efficiency of process.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: steam catalytic conversion of natural gas into synthesis-gas with the use of thermal and kinetic energy of synthesis-gas.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes external heating of reaction tubes of tubular furnace filled with nickel catalyst on aluminum oxide substrate by passing mixture of natural gas and superheated steam through them. External heating of reaction tubes filled with catalyst is performed by burning the natural gas in air at exhaust of flue gases from heating zone. After tubular furnace, the synthesis-gas is directed to gas turbine for utilization of thermal and kinetic energy; gas turbine rotates electric generator; then, synthesis-gas is directed to synthesis-gas burner of electric power and heat supply system; flue gases from external heating zone are directed to heat exchangers for preheating the natural gas and steam before supplying them to reaction tubes of tubular furnace. Device proposed for realization of this method includes sulfur cleaning unit, tubular furnace with reaction tubes filled with nickel catalyst on aluminum oxide substrate with inlet for gas mixture of natural gas and superheated steam; device also includes external heating zone for reaction tubes with flue gas outlet and gas burner for external heating of reaction tubes of tubular furnace with inlet for natural gas and air. For utilization of thermal and kinetic energy of synthesis-gas, device is provided with gas turbine and electric generator at tubular furnace outlet and synthesis-gas burner of electric power and heat supply system; device is also provided with heat exchangers for preheating the natural gas and steam before supplying them to tubular furnace.

EFFECT: improved ecological parameters; enhanced power efficiency of process.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: processing of hydrocarbon raw materials; oxidizing conversion of hydrocarbon gases into synthesis-gas.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is carried out in flow-through two-chamber reactor in turbulent mode at combustion of mixture of hydrocarbon raw material and oxidizer. Superheated water steam is additionally introduced into said mixture in the amount of 5-20 mass-% relative to mass of carbon fed in form of hydrocarbon raw material. Three-component mixture is ignited in combustion chamber by jet of hot gas fed from external source where pressure exceeds pressure in first chamber during ignition. Combustion products from first chamber of reactor are directed to second chamber via nozzle at critical difference in pressure and combustion process is continued till content of oxygen in combustion products does not exceed 0.3 vol-%. Process is carried out in combustion reactor which is made in form of two coaxial cylindrical chambers with cooled nozzle located in between them; section of this nozzle ensures required pressure differential between chambers. Injector unit mounted at inlet of first chamber is used for delivery of working mixture components. Turbulator is mounted in first chamber. Lateral surface of first chamber has one or several holes for introducing the jet of hot gas from external source whose pressure exceeds pressure of first chamber and volume of second chamber exceeds that of first chamber. Proposed method makes it possible to produce synthesis-gas at H2/CO ratio approximately equal to 2.0; residual content of oxygen does not exceed 0.3 vol-% and content of carbon black does not exceed trace amount.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

9 cl, 2 dwg, 11 ex

FIELD: carbon monoxide conversion catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of preparing catalysts for middle-temperature conversion of carbon monoxide, which can be used in industry when producing nitrogen-hydrogen mix for ammonia synthesis. Preparation of catalyst for middle-temperature conversion of carbon monoxide with water steam, comprising precipitation of iron hydroxide from iron nitrate solution with ammonia-containing solvent, washing of iron hydroxide with water to remove nitrate ions, mixing with calcium and copper ions, mechanical activation of components, molding, drying, and calcination of granules, is characterized by that, in the component mixing step, lanthanum oxide is supplementary added, in which case molar ratio of components is as follows: Fe2O3/CaO/CuO/La2O3 = 1:(0.8-0.9):(0.045-0.08):(0.005-0.01).

EFFECT: increased catalytic activity and more than thrice reduced content of by-products in condensate.

1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: alternative fuels.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to autothermal conversion of hydrocarbon fuel to produce synthesis gas, which can be used in chemical production, for burning at catalytic heat plants, and in hydrogen power engineering. Proposed catalyst contains, as active components, cobalt oxide, manganese oxide, and barium oxide, and, as carrier, refractory reinforced metalporous carrier. Catalyst is prepared by impregnation of carrier with barium and manganese salt solution at Ba/Mn =5:4 followed by drying, calcination, impregnation with cobalt salt solution, drying, and calcination. Invention further describes generation of synthesis gas via autothermal conversion of hydrocarbon fuel performed utilizing above-described catalyst.

EFFECT: enabled catalyst exhibiting high heat conductivity, high activity in production of synthesis gas, and resistance to coking and deactivation with sulfur compounds present in diesel fuel and gasoline.

6 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: gas treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processes of removing carbon monoxide from gas mixtures containing, except hydrogen, carbon dioxide. This process is an important step for production of pure hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas, e.g. in ammonia synthesis. Catalyst for removing carbon monoxide from hydrogen-containing gas represents permeable composite material containing combination of phases of catalytically active group VIII metal or their alloy, oxide-type carrier, and metallic copper or copper metal containing alloy, composite-forming grain size being less than 0.5 mm and permeability of composite exceeding 10-14 m2. Catalyst preparation procedure as well as processes of removing carbon monoxide from hydrogen-containing gas using it are also described.

EFFECT: increased activity and selectivity of catalyst.

20 cl, 3 dwg, 8 ex

FIELD: electronic industry; petrochemical industry; other industries; plasma converters of the gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon raw and the fuels into the synthesis gas on the basis of microwave discharge.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the microwave plasma converters of the hydrocarbon raw and the fuels into the synthesis gas of the low-power, for usage, for example, in the capacity of the source of the hydrogen and the synthesis gas in the developments of the mobile and self-contained power plants on the basis of fuel cells. The invention allows to simplify and to make cheaper production of the plasma converter. The plasma converter for transformation of the gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon raw and the fuels into the synthesis gas on the basis of the microwave discharge includes the plasmatron of the microwave spark plug consisting of the magnetron and the cylindrical coaxial bundle of the transportation line of the microwave emission of the magnetron to the discharge zone, formed beyond the butt the of the inner conductor of the coaxial transportation line, and the reactor of mixing connected to the discharge zone of the plasmatron by means of the hole of communication made in butt of the outer conductor, in which wall there are the holes for feeding of the plasma-forming gas. The magnetron has the antenna output terminal of the microwave emission made in the form of the cylindrical ceramic component having the metallic end cap. The inner conductor of the coaxial transportation line is fixed on the indicated metallic end cap. The outer conductor is fixed on the magnetron. In the outer conductor opposite to the ceramic component of the antenna output terminal of the microwave emission there are at least two tangentially directed holes for feeding of the plasma-forming gas. The inner diameter of the outer conductor D is equal to (2.3÷2.6)d, where d - is the diameter of the inner conductor. At that the length of the inner conductor makes no less than λ/4where λ is the wavelength of the microwave emission of the magnetron.

EFFECT: the invention allows to simplify and to make cheaper production of the plasma converter.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: petrochemical processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of processing hydrocarbon gas to produce pure carbon and hydrogen products. To that end, hydrocarbon gas is first preheated and then decomposed when affected by microwave electromagnetic field to isolate and separate carbon and hydrogen. Preheating of hydrocarbon gas is effected using energy of microwave electromagnetic field in thermal zone of elongated flow reactor uniformly filled with gas-permeable conducting substance serving as initiator and selected from titanium, nickel, titanium nickelide, aluminum nickelide, and molybdenum. Decomposition of hydrocarbon gas is effected at thermal zone outlet at elevated (as compared to thermal zone) intensity of microwave electromagnetic field. Apparatus comprises flow reactor with separately located hydrocarbon gas inlet and carbon/hydrogen outlet, and microwave emission source connected to microwave wave guide. Flow reactor is disposed within rectangularly-shaped microwave wave guide, said flow reactor being constructed itself as elongated cylindrical chamber made from radio-transparent heat-resistant material, partially filled with above-indicated initiator, and provided with microwave electromagnetic field concentrator disposed immediately behind initiator.

EFFECT: increased yield of desired products.

9 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: alternate fuels.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of processing hydrocarbon stock in compression chemical reactor based on piston internal combustion engine, in particular to generation of synthesis gas via partial oxidation of hydrocarbons in rich hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Process comprises inflammation and deep oxidation of a part of hydrocarbon stock, expansion and cooling of process products when piston moves toward lower dead point, and withdrawal of products from reaction space when piston moves toward lower dead point. When piston moves toward lower dead point, volume of cylinder is filled with hydrocarbon-air mixture having air excess factor αo = 0.8-1.2 and mass mo of hydrocarbon CnHm therein. The mixture is subjected to inflammation and deep oxidation in the beginning of movement of piston to upper dead point. Later on, during further movement of piston to upper dead point, additional amount of hydrocarbon CnHm with mass md is injected to cylinder, said mass md being calculated in terms of equation md = δmo wherein δ = (αo-α)/α provided that 2n/((4n+m) = α < 3.2n/(4n+m). After that, non-catalytic carbonic-acid and steam conversion of raw material is performed resulting in generation of synthesis gas. When methane is converted, additional amount thereof md is calculated from 0.25 = α < 0.4.

EFFECT: increased yield of hydrogen in synthesis gas.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.

EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method includes searching for continental or oceanic rift generation zones, supported by abnormal mantle with output of substance branches to earth crust. Drilling of wells by turbodrills into mantle substance. After well enters mantle substance a reaction hollow is formed in it by putting together force and product wells or by expanding force and/or product wells. Water is pumped into force well and gas-like hydrogen is outputted to surface through product well forming during reaction of inter-metallic substances fro mantle substance to water. Water is fed in amount, adjusting output of hydrogen, while reaction surface of reaction hollow is periodically regenerated, for example, by high pressure water flow, supplied through jets in reaction hollow, on remotely controlled manipulators. Expansion of well may be performed via explosions of explosive substances charges, and it is possible to separate forming gaseous hydrogen and water steam by separator mounted therein.

EFFECT: higher effectiveness of hydrogen production.

9 cl

FIELD: alternative fuel production and catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to (i) generation of synthesis gas useful in large-scale chemical processes via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons in presence of oxygen-containing components and to (ii) catalysts used in this process. Catalyst represents composite including mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition element and/or precious element, carrier composed of alumina-based ceramic matrix, and a material consisting of coarse particles or aggregates of particles dispersed throughout the matrix. Catalyst has system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Catalyst preparation method and synthesis gas generation method utilizing indicated catalyst are as well described.

EFFECT: enabled preparation of cellular-structure catalyst with high specific surface area, which is effective at small contact times in reaction of selective catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons.

6 cl, 2 tbl, 16 ex

FIELD: autothermal catalytic reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream.

SUBSTANCE: method relates to method for reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream with water steam at elevated temperature to produce gas enriched with hydrogen and/or carbon oxide. Hydrocarbon stream is passed through water steam reforming catalyst bed wherein oxygen is fed through oxygen-permeable membrane followed by removing of finished product from this bed. Said catalyst bed contains in input region catalyst with reduced or without water steam reforming activity, but having hydrocarbon feed oxidation activity.

EFFECT: process with improved characteristics due to temperature controlling in reactor.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: alternate fuel manufacture catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of synthesis gas employed in large-scale chemical processes such as synthesis of ammonia, methanol, higher alcohols and aldehydes, in Fischer-Tropsch process, and the like, as reducing gas in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, metalworking, and on gas emission detoxification plants. Synthesis gas is obtained via catalytic conversion of mixture containing hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture and oxygen-containing component. Catalyst is a complex composite containing mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition and/or precious element. Catalyst comprises metal-based carrier representing either layered ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of above-mentioned oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5, or ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating and high-porosity oxide layer, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5 and ratio of metallic base thickness to that of high-porosity oxide layer from 1:10 to 1:5. Catalyst is prepared by applying active components onto carrier followed by drying and calcination.

EFFECT: increased heat resistance and efficiency of catalyst at short contact thereof with reaction mixture.

13 cl, 2 tbl, 17 ex

FIELD: electric power and chemical industries; methods of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a combined method of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel with use of the gas turbine and steam-gaseous installations and is dealt with the field of electric power and chemical industries. The method provides for the partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel in a stream of the compressed air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas turbine installation with its consequent additional compression, production of a synthesis gas, its cooling and ecological purification, feeding of the produced synthesis gas in a single-pass reactor of a synthesis of a liquid synthetic fuel with the partial transformation of the synthesis gas into a liquid fuel. The power gas left in the reactor of synthesis of liquid synthetic fuel is removed into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine installation. At that the degree of conversion of the synthesis gas is chosen from the condition of maintenance of the working medium temperature at the inlet of the gas turbine depending on the type of the gas-turbine installation used for production of the electric power, and the consequent additional compression of the air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas-turbine installation is realized with the help of the gas-expansion machine powered by a power gas heated at the expense of the synthesis gas cooling before the reactor of synthesis. The invention allows simultaneously produce electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.

EFFECT: the invention ensures simultaneous production of electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: petrochemical industry.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with petrochemical industry, in particular with a method of catalytic preliminary reforming of the hydrocarbon raw materials containing higher hydrocarbons. The method provides for the indicated hydrocarbon raw materials gating through a zone of a catalyst representing a fixed layer containing a noble metal on magnesia oxide (MgO) and-or spinel oxide (MgAl2O4) at presence of oxygen and water steam. The technical result is a decrease of a carbon share on the catalyst.

EFFECT: the invention allows to decrease a carbon share on the catalyst.

3 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: technology for production of methanol from syngas.

SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes mixing of hydrocarbon raw material with water steam to provide syngas by steam conversion of hydrocarbon raw material and subsequent methanol synthesis therefrom. Conversion of hydrocarbon raw material and methanol synthesis are carried out under the same pressure from 4.0 to 12.0 MPa. In one embodiment hydrocarbon raw material is mixed with water steam and carbon dioxide to provide syngas by steam/carbonic acid conversion of hydrocarbon raw material in radial-helical reactor followed by methanol synthesis therefrom under the same pressure (from 4.0 to 12.0 MPa). In each embodiment methanol synthesis is carried out in isothermal catalytic radial-helical reactor using fine-grained catalyst with grain size of 1-5 mm. Methanol synthesis is preferably carried out in two steps with or without syngas circulation followed by feeding gas from the first or second step into gasmain or power plant.

EFFECT: simplified method due to process optimization.

12 cl, 3 tbl, 3 dwg

FIELD: methods of production a synthesis gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the process of production of hydrogen and carbon oxide, which mixture is used to be called a synthesis gas, by a selective catalytic oxidation of the hydrocarbonaceous (organic) raw material in presence of the oxygen-containing gases. The method of production of the synthesis gas includes a contacting with a catalyst at a gas hourly volumetric speed equal to 10000-10000000 h-1, a mixture containing organic raw material and oxygen or an oxygen-containing gas in amounts ensuring the ratio of oxygen and carbon of no less than 0.3. At that the process is conducted at a linear speed of the gas mixture of no less than 2.2 · 10-11 · (T1 + 273)4 / (500-T2) nanometer / s, where: T1 - a maximum temperature of the catalyst, T2 - a temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting. The linear speed of the gas mixture is, preferably, in the interval of 0.2-7 m\s. The temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting is within the interval of 100-450°C. The maximum temperature of the catalyst is within the interval of 650-1500°C. The technical effect is a safe realization of the process.

EFFECT: the invention ensures a safe realization of the process.

10 cl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; oil refining industry and other industries; methods of production a synthesis gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the methods of production of a synthesis of gas and may be used in chemical, petrochemical, oil refining and other industries. The method of production of synthesis gas using a vapor or a vapor-carbon dioxide conversion of a hydrocarbonaceous raw material provides for purification of the hydrocarbonaceous raw material from sulfuric compounds, its commixing with steam or with steam and carbon dioxide with formation of a steam-gas mixture. The catalytic conversion of the steam-gas mixture is conducted in a reactor of a radially-spiral type, in which in the ring-shaped space filled with a nickel catalyst with a size of granules of 0.2-7 mm there are the hollow spiral-shaped walls forming the spiral-shaped channels having a constant cross section for conveyance of a stream of the steam-gaseous blend in an axial or in a radially-spiral direction. At that into the cavities of the walls feed a heat-transfer agent to supply a heat into the zone of reaction. The invention ensures intensification the process.

EFFECT: invention ensures intensification the process.

4 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex

Up!