Boom load-lifting crane overload protection method (versions)

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to load-lifting and transportation equipment and it can be used in protection systems of load-lifting cranes. According to proposed method, tolerable loads are determined and memorized in form of function of spatial position of boom, measuring current value of load in process of operation of crane, comparing it with tolerable load and generating warning signal or signal to crane mechanisms aimed at limiting or preventing overload. In process of lifting and/or shifting of load, change of linear or angular position of crane part is revealed additionally whose change is not allowed in current stage of load lifting and/or shifting process. Depending on value of said change of position, additionally warning information signals or crane mechanism control signals are formed aimed either to prevent further increase in said change or to return said part of crane, for instance, boom, into initial position. Protection of crane from overload is implemented with due account both of absolute value and change of value of angle of tilting of crane component part from horizontal or vertical position in process of lifting and/or shifting of load.

EFFECT: improved safety of crane in operation.

21 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used in systems for the protection and management of jib cranes.

There is a method of protection of crane overload by setting the allowable load values for different angular positions of his jib (tilt and azimuth angle), control in the process, tap the current values of these parameters, comparing the current value of the load are valid for the current boom and generation of warning signals and control signals actuators crane depending on the results of this comparison [1].

This method does not take into account the dependence of the permissible load values from the angle of the turntable of the crane, which reduces the effectiveness of the protection valve overload.

The closest to the invention is a method of protection of crane overload, including a preliminary definition and memorization of the magnitude of loads that are valid for different spatial positions of its arrows, the dimension in the process, tap the current load and the current spatial position of the boom, the comparison of the current load of the crane with its valid value for the current spatial position of the boom and the subsequent disabling of crane machinery or formed the E. of the information signal depending on the results of this comparison, as well as measuring the deviation of the tilt driving device, rotary part, a rotary platform or tower crane from the horizontal or vertical position, and then adjusting the value of the carrying capacity of the crane depending on the magnitude of this deviation[2, 3, 4, 5].

The disadvantage of this method is the lack of control positions of the structural elements of the crane during lifting and moving goods under load. After measuring the deviation of the spatial position of the driving device, rotary part, a rotary platform or tower crane from the horizontal or vertical position does not vary due to whether this deviation by ahorizontal crane in preparation for work or arose when lifting and moving cargo.

The lack of detection of the causes of this deviation leads to a decrease in the safety of the crane. For example : if the crane is mounted on bearings on a solid Foundation with some deviation from the horizontal position, this ahorizontal can be accounted for by adjusting the maximum allowable load on the faucet and does not have a significant impact on the security of his work. However, if the same magnitude of deviation from gorizontalnom the situation arose when lifting or moving cargo, this may be caused by defects in structures of the crane or punching the ground under his outriggers when working on soft ground, including when turning the faucet to the side SAG support. Therefore, ahorizontal driving device or rotary part, arisen at the moment of lift or move the load, is the load-lifting crane is significantly more dangerous than the similar largest ahorizontal crane on the supports before beginning his work. Accordingly, no account of this factor leads to a decrease in the efficiency of the protection valve overload.

In addition, in a known way in the process of lifting and moving cargo is not controlled by the movement of the constructive elements of the crane, which is not foreseen at this stage lift or move the load. For example, when lifting from the ground, increasing efforts cargo winch, an uncontrollable inclination of the boom caused by the finite stiffness of the structural components of the crane. Finally, after separation of cargo from the earth, the magnitude of the departure exceeds the value of departure that existed at the beginning of the lift. This leads to increased freight moment, not provided for control actions of the operator. In the process of lifting and moving cargo is also possible nepridumat the Enen moving rail crane on crane road, cargo truck tower crane on the boom, etc. the Lack of control of these movements and appropriate measures to counter these movements reduces the safe operation of the crane.

Another disadvantage of this method is the complexity of the technical implementation of the protection system and its limited functionality. This is due to the fact that in the known method for measuring the angular position of any part of the crane, for example, the driving device or rotary part of the valve, sensors are used-inclinometers located on those parts of the crane. Therefore, the extension of protective functions requires a sophisticated protection system - increasing the number of used sensors-inclinometers, placing them on separate elements of the construction crane is not always possible for technical and economic reasons.

The technical result, which directed the proposed invention, is to improve the safety of crane and expand the functionality of the security system of the crane due to:

function overload protection taking into account the current spatial position of the component parts of the valve, and this position during lifting and moving of goods;

- implementation of counter-spatial change is to introduce those elements of the construction crane, moved at this stage of the lifting or moving of goods not provided by control actions of the operator.

Another technical result of the invention is to simplify and expand the functionality of the system protection valve overload by determining the spatial position of individual components of the lifting crane using inclinometers located on other parts of this crane, with implementation of appropriate protective functions.

In the first variant of the proposed method of protecting the boom crane overload by pre-determining the magnitude of loads that are valid for different spatial positions of its arrows or hauling, storing, measuring in the process of faucet direct or indirect method operating parameters of the crane, characterizing the current load and the current spatial position of the boom or lifting of the body of the faucet, compare the current load with the stored permissible load of the crane for the current spatial position of its boom or lifting body and the subsequent formation of a warning information signal or control signal crane mechanisms aimed at limiting or preventing lane the load, depending on the result of this comparison, for solving technical problems in the process of lifting and/or moving cargo additionally reveal the change of the linear or angular position, at least one part of the crane, changing the position of which is not provided in the current stage of the process of lifting and/or moving of cargo. Further, depending on the value of this position, optionally form a warning informational signals or control signals crane mechanisms aimed at preventing this change of position and/or blocking movements of the crane.

This can be detected changes as the angular position of the driving device, rotary part, a rotary platform, tower, boom or jib crane from the horizontal or vertical position, and the linear position of the driving device or the cargo truck crane, in particular the moving rail of the crane on the crane track or trolley on the boom. If necessary, these changes are compared with predefined and stored maximum values of these changes, which are determined by calculation in the design of the crane and in the General case depends on the load and the spatial position of his arrows. Depending on the financial p the tats of this comparison are generated warning information signals or signal blocking movements of the crane.

In particular, in the process lifting the hoist detects a change in angular position of the boom or jib, and after comparing this change with a valid value generates a warning information signal on the inadmissibility of lifting or signal blocking this growth.

To obtain the technical result, the detection of changes in the spatial position of any part of the crane, implemented or blocking movements of the crane, causing the change or the formation of the control signal for the actuator of the crane, aimed at returning the component part to its original position. For example, during lifting of the hoist can be observed change in angular position of the boom or jib with the subsequent drive control of the lifting boom or jib of conditions prevent changes to this provision.

In the second variant of the proposed method of protecting the boom crane that use similar operations to detect and prevent overloading of the crane, this technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the process of lifting and/or moving cargo additionally reveal the change in the value of the angle of the driving device, or rotary, or rotary platform or tower crane from Hori is tal or vertical position. Next, the detected value of the change in angle is compared with a preset and memorized the allowable magnitude of this change and, depending on the results of this comparison, additionally generate a warning information signal or the control signal crane mechanisms aimed at preventing lifting and/or moving the load.

In both cases, the proposed protection method using a computing device may optionally be changing the values of the permissible load of the crane and/or the maximum allowable speed of the boom or the load. This change is dependent on the deflection angle of the driving device, or rotary, or rotary platform or tower crane from the horizontal or vertical position. Thus, in particular, used a mathematical model of the crane, the parameters of which pre-determine and store in non-volatile memory of the computing device. The maximum values of these parameters can be determined by calculation in the design of the crane. These values in General are functions of the load and/or the spatial position of the boom of the crane.

In the third version of the proposed protection method of the crane, also uses similar is cnie operations to detect and prevent overloading of the crane, this technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the process of slewing additionally reveal the change in angular position of its rotary platform from the horizontal. Next, using this change, using the computing device determines the deviation of the driving device or rotary part of the valve from the horizontal position. Depending on the magnitude of this deviation, using a computing device, carry out the determination and change of the allowable load of the crane and/or change the maximum speed of the boom and/or compare the current value of this deviation from the preset and memorized the maximum admissible value of this deviation. The results of this comparison form warning information signal or the control signal crane mechanisms aimed at blocking rotation and/or for blocking movement of the boom of the crane in the direction of increasing its cargo of time.

The calculation of the deviation of the driving device or rotary part of the valve from the horizontal position and/or necessary changes to the allowable load is performed using the output signals of measuring the azimuth angle and measuring the angular position of the surface to which the company platform crane inclinometer and, if necessary, the output signals of the sensor azimuth angle. Measuring the angular position of the turntable of the crane can be placed in the cab of the crane, in particular in the case of the computing device with the orientation of the axis of sensitivity parallel to the plane of movement of the boom of the crane.

Determining deviations of the driving device or rotary part of the valve from the horizontal position can be carried out before operation of the crane is in the process of turning the crane at full turn.

Measurement of angular positions (angles) of the composite parts of the crane in all variants of the proposed method is mainly relative to the Earth's gravitational field. To measure these angles are used inclinometers-accelerometers placed on the respective component parts of the crane.

The prior art is unknown, the use of the distinctive features of the proposed method in security systems, jib cranes overload.

Their implementation allows to detect and warn of a potential emergency situations when performing lifting operations by monitoring changes in the spatial position of individual parts of the crane under load directly the process of lifting and moving cargo with the implementation of appropriate protective functions, and by resisting the change of the spatial position of those elements of the construction crane, which at this stage of the lifting or moving of goods not provided by control actions of the operator.

In addition, the spatial location of individual structures (parts) of the crane in the proposed method is determined by indirect methods using sensors-inclinometers located on other faucet designs, and computing devices using in its work, the mathematical model of the crane. This allows to simplify the system security by reducing the number of sensors used and extend its functionality to implement the protection of crane overload using data on the spatial position of those parts of the crane, direct measurement which it is technically or economically impractical.

Therefore, the achievement of these technical results is a direct causal link to the distinctive features of the claimed invention.

In the drawing, as the example shows a functional diagram of the system (device) security that implements the proposed method of protection boom crane overload.

System protection (or security) of the lifting crane is holding the computing device 1, also known as electronic control unit, a display unit, a data processing unit, a digital calculator, etc. and sensors settings crane 2. Computing device 1 is made on the basis of the microcontroller 3, is connected to the controls (buttons, keys) 4, indicators (led, character LCD, etc.) 5, non-volatile storage device 6, is made, in particular, in the form of chip Flash memory, and device input/output information 7.

The storage device 6 is arranged to store the data necessary to implement security features load-lifting crane, as well as built-in data logger parameters of its work. To increase the information content of the registration parameters and easily identify any of the time intervals in the system can be set real-time clock connected to the microcontroller 3 (not shown).

Output device 8 includes power switches, made in the form of electromagnetic relays or power integrated circuits. Its inputs connected to the device input/output information 7, or directly to the microcontroller 3 using separate wires or multiplex communication channel, and outputs to the actuators 9 crane, which can use what I electromagnetic contactors or solenoid valves, included in the hydraulic system of the crane. Output device 8 can also be combined with the device input/output information 7. If the security system has a common multiplex communication channel, the output device 8 can be made on the basis of the microcontroller and connected to the multiplex communication channel is analogous to the connection of 2 sensors. Individual sensors, for example sensors of the provisions of the management bodies of the crane, can be connected directly to the output device 8.

The sensor 2 includes a load sensor load-lifting crane 10 - force sensor in the cargo or strelba rope or pressure sensors in the hydraulic cylinder of lifting, the gauge length of the boom 11 is made in the form of a cable drum with a potentiometric sensor of the angle of rotation, the sensor boom angle 12, the sensor azimuth angle 13, made in the form of a potentiometer, and the sensor of the angle of the turntable of the crane 14. Individual sensors are shown in the drawing, may be missing.

The security system may also contain additional sensors the spatial position of individual parts of the valve 15, which include tilt sensors rotary part (drive device), the jib tower crane from the horizontal or vertical position, the sensors lineing the movement of the driving device on the gantry rails or trolley crane on his arm, etc.

To measure the angular positions of the various parts of the crane relative to the horizontal position or the gravitational vertical (the direction of the gravitational field of the Earth) in the sensors 12, 14 and 15 are used, mainly, MEMS inclinometers-accelerometers.

Security can also use the limit switch hoist lifting body proximity sensor to transmission lines, discrete sensors organ movements of the crane, the travel sensor cargo winches, etc. a Specific set of sensors depends on the design of hoisting crane and options for the implementation of the proposed method.

Each of the sensors 2 (10...15) can be performed either with analog or digital output. In the first case, each sensor includes a transducer (strain gauge bridge, accelerometer, potentiometer, etc.), the output of which is directly or through located in the sensor amplifier/inverter by means of a separate wire connected to the appropriate input device input/output information 7. If the sensor is digital - multiplexed communication channel, it is in General contains connected in series primary transducer, amplifier/Converter, the microcontroller of the sensor and the transceiver or drive the R multiplex communication channel.

Accordingly, the device input/output information 7 system protection with analog sensors contains an analog-to-digital Converter, and system with digital sensors transceiver or controller multiplex communication channel, in particular the serial interface type CAN (Control Area Network), LIN (Local Interconnection Network), etc.

The security system works as follows.

Before you begin lifting crane the crane operator using controls 4 located on the manner prescribed in the crane cabin computing device (electronic unit) 1, provides input into the microcontroller 3 parameters that define the modes of operation of the crane - position retractable poles, number of hoist winch part of the polyspast, availability, length, and angle of inclination of the jib, etc. if this faucet designs enter these parameters is necessary. The entered parameters are saved in nonvolatile memory 6 or the memory (EEPROM) of the microcontroller 3.

Area valid values position lifting (boom) equipment crane is entered when the job crane parameters coordinate protection and stored in the memory of the microcontroller 3.

Managing a crane is a crane operator by moving the controls (knobs, levers and the like), for example, the hydraulic the ski distributors of crane in relevant areas. For the implementation of any motion of the crane is necessary as having control of the operator, and no blocking of the movement from the respective actuators 9.

When there is no overload of the crane truck moment and when his arrows in the zone of permissible regulations coordinate the protection of the microcontroller 3 generates the control signals by the output device 8 and, accordingly, the actuating device 9, to permit movement of the crane.

Using sensors 2 are implemented channels measuring operating parameters of the crane, characterizing its load and the lifting position (boom) equipment. The microcontroller 3 computing device 1 has been determined at the design security, and pre-recorded in its memory or storage device 6, and through the device input/output information 7 on the multiplex communication channel, or on separate lines receives from the sensors 2 values of parameters crane.

After receiving information from the sensors 2, the microcontroller 3 by a known functional dependency determines the current load of the crane and lifting his position (boom) equipment. If necessary, to determine the current load KRA is a and/or the current position of his arrows or hauling, the microcontroller 3 we carry out the necessary conversion of the output signals of the sensors 2. This takes place when the current load of the crane and/or the position of the boom or lifting of the body are measured indirectly, for example when determining the load on the boom hydraulic crane on the pressure rod and piston cavities lift cylinder boom.

Allowable loading regimes in the form of cargo characteristics of the crane is stored in the microprocessor memory or storage device 6.

Next, the microcontroller 3 computing device 1 compares the current load (weight lifted cargo or freight moment) crane with a maximum load value, and comparing the actual position of lifting equipment with valid area provisions specified in the introduction coordinate protection and, depending on the results of these comparisons, turns on the output device 8 control signals for the actuators 9. It establishes the necessary characteristics of disconnected movements of the crane and provides automatic protection against overload and collision boom system with obstacles (coordinate protection).

In the absence of the crane actuators 9, to limit the parameters of a slave whom you tap when they are going beyond the limit, the microcontroller 3 indicators 5 forms a light and/or sound signals, warning the driver of the dangerous modes of operation of the crane. Next, the crane operator, based on these signals, the effect on the organs of the control valve, resulting in values of monitored parameters within acceptable limits.

In the process of lifting and moving cargo microcontroller 3 sensors 12...15 advanced controls linear and angular position of those parts of the crane, the guidelines are not provided in the current stage of the process of lifting and moving cargo. Further, by calculating the difference of the measurement results of the current position of any part of the crane and its position before lifting and moving cargo, the microcontroller 3 calculates the amount of change of the spatial position of the composite part during lifting and moving cargo.

An example of such changes is not provided control actions of the operator, is the change of inclination of the boom or jib when lifting of the hoist, including when lifting from the ground. In this mode, despite the absence of control signals by the lifting/lowering of the boom or jib, due to the finite stiffness of the structural elements of the valve under the influence of an increasing load is opus is the W boom or jib with a corresponding increase of departure. Another example is the moving rail of the crane on the crane track or trolley tower crane on the arrow in the absence of control signals that move.

Another example of this change is to increase the slope of the turntable or rotary part of the crane when lifting or turning of the crane with the load. The typical reason for this change is the bursting of the soil under the outriggers of the crane when working on soft ground. In this case, despite the fact that before you begin crane his clumsy part can be installed horizontally with a sufficient degree of accuracy, while lifting increases the pressure on the bearings, resulting in subsidence of the ground and cause a tilt of the crane. When the rotation of the crane with a load in the direction of low bearing load on this support increases, which increases its sagging. The consequence is the increase of departure and the risk of tipping of the crane.

In these cases, the attention of the operator involved in the control of implementation of the basic movements of the crane, which further increases the danger of these unexpected movement.

To prevent them, in the process of lifting and/or moving cargo, in case of a move, with the help of the microcontroller 3 and Indyk is tori 5 additional information signal is formed, warning the driver of a dangerous situation or the need to prevent these movements - stop valve in manual mode, turn on any of the drives, which compensates for these movements, etc.

The maximum values of these displacements can be predefined, for example, by calculation when designing a crane presented as a function of load and/or the spatial position of his arms, and recorded in non-volatile memory of the microcontroller 3 or in the storage device 6. In this case, the microcontroller 3 during lifting and/or moving cargo compares the detected value of the linear or angular position of any part of the crane with its valid value and depending on the results of this comparison generates a warning information signal. If necessary, automatically blocking movements of the crane. To do this, after this comparison of the actual and allowable values of any move is off actuators 9.

For example, if in the process of lifting the hoist microcontroller 3 detects an unacceptably large change in angular position of the boom or jib, this indicates subsidence of the ground under the crane supports about the defects of metal or other deviations from the normal modes of operation of the crane. In this case generates a warning information signal on the inadmissibility of lifting or signal blocking this growth.

In justified cases, the detection of unexpected changes to the linear or angular position of any part of the crane, can be manual or automatic generation of the control signal drive this part of the crane, aimed at returning it to the original position.

For example, if in the process of lifting the hoist microcontroller 3 detects the change in angular position of the boom or jib, it may force the inclusion of the lifting drive of the boom or jib of the conditions of compensation of this position, i.e. the provision of automatic stabilization of departure when you increase the load on the crane during lifting of the load.

In addition, improving the safety of operation of the crane when there are movements of its component parts, not provided for control actions of the operator, can be achieved by reducing the maximum permissible load of the crane and/or the maximum allowable speed of his arrows, depending on the magnitude of the detected displacement. The degree of this reduction depends on the design of the crane and is determined by the microcontroller 3 using the mathematical model of the crane, a pair of the parameters which pre-determine and store in non-volatile memory of the microcontroller 3 or in the storage device 6.

To simplify the implementation of system protection and expansion of its functionalities, the microcontroller 3 of the computing device 1 may be provided for calculating the spatial position of any component parts of the crane with the use of sensors on other parts of the crane, with the subsequent implementation of these protection functions of the crane based on preventing unintended or unacceptable large changes in the spatial position of these parts. These calculations are carried out using a mathematical model of the crane according to the program stored in the program memory of the microcontroller 3 or in the storage device 6.

For example, from geometric considerations it is evident that the angle of the rotating part of the crane β relative to the horizontal plane is a function of the azimuth angle γ and angle of the driving device or the non-platform crane ϕ relative to the horizontal plane

β=Δ+ϕsin(γ),

where Δ the difference between the angles of inclination of the rotating and non-parts of the crane caused, in particular, the presence of gaps between them.

So if in the process of turning the faucet microcontroller 3 using the sensor 14 monitors the change in angular position of its turntables β on the horizon is a high position, then using the above formula can be calculated deviation of the driving device or toggling of the faucet ϕ from the horizontal position. Further, depending on the magnitude of this deviation ϕusing microcontroller 3 is the determination and change of the allowable load of the crane and/or change the maximum speed of the boom. With the help of the microcontroller 3 can also compare the current value of this deviation from the preset and memorized the maximum admissible value with subsequent formation of a warning information signal or signal blocking rotation of the valve or movement of the boom of the crane in the direction of increasing its cargo of time.

Explain the meaning of these calculations.

Assume that the axis of the sensor sensitivity angle of the turntable 14 is installed parallel to the plane of movement of the boom of the crane. In this case, if before lifting and moving cargo toggling part of the crane has a tilt in the plane perpendicular to this axis sensitivity, the sensor 14 can detect the tilt of the rotary part of the valve, even if the slope is unacceptably large amount. However, after turning the faucet on a relatively small angle, the microcontroller 3, controlling Hara is Ter of change of the output signal of the sensor 14, calculates the amplitude of the sinusoidal dependence and, accordingly, the angle of ϕ rotary part of the valve. If this angle is unacceptable, timely detection directly in the process of working crane provides increase of its safety. To further improve the safety of crane the value of this angle can be used by the microcontroller 3 of the computing device 1 to specify the value of the carrying capacity of the lifting crane.

To simplify calculations, before the crane can be a complete turn crane without load. In this case, the deviation of the running device or rotary part of the valve from the horizontal position can be defined as half of the change of the output signal of the sensor of angular position of the turntable of the crane 14 from minimum to maximum: ϕ=(βmaxmin)/2.

From the above it follows that implementation of the proposed technical solution provides increased safety of operation of the crane due to the implementation of the protection functions against overload with regard to the positions of the component parts of the crane during lifting and moving goods, including those parts of the crane, which at this stage of the ascent is whether the movement of the load is not provided control actions of the operator. Additionally it provides simplify and expand the functionality of the protection system valve by determining the spatial position of its individual components using inclinometers located on other parts of the crane, with the implementation of appropriate protective functions.

Sources of information

1. SU 1654256 A1, IPC 5 VS 23/90, 07.06.1991.

2. Sushinsky, VA,Mash D.M., Shishkov N.A. safety Devices cranes. Honor 1. - M.: Centre for training and information technology, 1996, section 2, p.1.

3. US 5251768, IPC 7 VS 13/06, 23/84, 13/04 was investigated, 23/00, 12.10.1993.

4. SU 1533990 A1, IPC 5 VS 15/00, 17.01.1990.

5. SU 1791345 A1, IPC 5 VS 13/22, 24.03.1998.

1. The way to protect the boom crane overload by pre-determining the magnitude of loads that are valid for different spatial positions of its arrows or hauling, storing, measuring in the process of faucet direct or indirect method operating parameters of the crane, characterizing the current load and the current spatial position of the boom or lifting of the body of the faucet, compare the current load with the stored permissible load of the crane for the current spatial position of its boom or lifting body and the subsequent formation of a warning information signal or signal the Board, at least one crane mechanism aimed at limiting or preventing overload, depending on the result of this comparison, characterized in that in the process of lifting and/or moving cargo additionally reveal the change of the linear or angular position, at least one part of the crane, the change of position which does not provide control of the crane in the current stage of the process of lifting and/or moving cargo, and, depending on the value of this position, optionally form a warning information signal or the control signal, at least one crane mechanism aimed at preventing this changing the position and/or blocking movements of the crane.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that to detect a specified change in angular position of the driving device, or rotary, or rotary platform or tower or boom or jib crane from the horizontal or vertical position.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that to detect a specified change in linear position of the driving device or the cargo truck crane, in particular the moving rail of the crane on the crane track or trolley on the boom.

4. The method according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the detected value of the linear Il the angular position is compared with a previously determined and stored allowable magnitude of this change, and the specified warning information signal or the control signal crane mechanisms aimed at blocking his movements, form, depending on the results of this comparison.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the maximum value of the linear or angular position, at least one part of the crane is determined by calculation in the design of crane and remember as a function of load and/or the spatial position of his arrows.

6. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that in the process of lifting the hoist to detect changes in the angular position of the boom or jib, and after the specified compare this change with a valid value form warning information signal on the inadmissibility of lifting or control signal crane mechanisms aimed at blocking the lift.

7. The method according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the control signal crane mechanisms aimed at preventing alteration of linear or angular position, at least one part of the crane, is formed in the form of a signal of the drive control of this part of the crane, aimed at blocking the movement of this component part and/or on its movement to its original position.

8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that h is in the process of lifting the hoist to detect changes in the angular position of the boom or jib, then perform the drive control of the lifting boom or jib of conditions prevent changes to this provision.

9. The method according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the computing device additionally carry out changes to the value of the permissible load of the crane and/or the maximum allowable speed of his arrows, depending on the magnitude of the detected change of the linear or angular position, at least one part of the crane.

10. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the said change in the value of the permissible load of the crane and/or the maximum allowable speed of his arrows is performed with the use of a mathematical model of the crane, the parameters of which pre-determine and store in non-volatile memory of the computing device.

11. The method according to one of claims 1, 2, 6 and 8, characterized in that the measurement of the change of angular position is performed with the use of the Earth's gravitational field by means of the inclinometer placed on the appropriate part of the crane.

12. The way to protect the boom crane overload by pre-determining the magnitude of loads that are valid for different spatial positions of its arrows or hauling, storing, op is adelene deflection angle of the driving device, or rotary, or rotary platform or tower crane from the horizontal or vertical position and dimension in the process of faucet direct or indirect method operating parameters of the crane, characterizing the current load and the current spatial position of the boom or lifting of the body of the faucet, compare the current load with the stored permissible load of the crane for the current spatial position of its boom or lifting body and the subsequent formation of a warning information signal or control signal, at least one crane mechanism aimed at blocking lifting and/or moving of cargo, depending on the result of this comparison, characterized in that in the process of lifting and/or moving cargo additionally reveal the change in the value of the specified angle, compare this value changes with preset and memorized the allowable magnitude of this change, and the specified warning information signal or the control signal, at least one crane mechanism aimed at blocking lifting and/or moving cargo, form of conditions limit or avoid as overloading and exceeding the permissible change value of the specified angle.

13. Spasibo para.12, characterized in that the computing device additionally carry out changes to the value of the permissible load of the crane and/or the maximum allowable speed of the boom or load, depending on the deflection angle of the driving device, or rotary, or rotary platform or tower crane from the horizontal or vertical position.

14. The method according to item 13, wherein the specified change in the value of the permissible load of the crane is carried out using a mathematical model of the crane, the parameters of which pre-determine and store in non-volatile memory of the computing device.

15. The method according to item 12, characterized in that the dimension of the specified deflection angle is performed with the use of the Earth's gravitational field by means of the inclinometer placed on the appropriate part of the crane.

16. The method according to item 12, wherein the maximum value of change of angular position of the angle of the driving device, or rotary, or rotary platform or tower crane from the horizontal or vertical position determined by calculation in the design of crane and remember as a function of load and/or the spatial position of his arrows.

17. The method of protection is on the boom crane overload by pre-determining the magnitude of loads, valid for different spatial positions of its arrows or hauling, storing, measuring in the process of faucet direct or indirect method operating parameters of the crane, characterizing the current load and the current spatial position of the boom or lifting of the body of the faucet, compare the current load with the stored permissible load of the crane for the current spatial position of its boom or lifting body and the subsequent formation of a warning information signal or control signal, at least one crane mechanism aimed at limiting or preventing overload, depending on the result of this comparison, wherein during rotation of the crane advanced to detect changes the angular position of its rotary platform relative to the horizontal position, using this change, using the computing device determines the deviation of the driving device or rotary part of the valve from the horizontal position, after which, depending on the magnitude of this deviation, using a computing device, carry out the determination and change of the allowable load of the crane, and/or change the maximum speed of the arrows, and/or compare the current value of this deviation from the preset and memorized the maximum admissible value of this deviation and, depending on the results of this comparison, generate a warning information signal or the control signal, at least one crane mechanism aimed at blocking its rotation and/or for blocking movement of the boom of the crane in the direction of increasing its cargo of time.

18. The method according to 17, characterized in that the detection of changes in angular position of the turntable of the crane is carried out using the Earth's gravitational field by means of the inclinometer, and the calculation of the deviation of the driving device or rotary part of the valve from the horizontal position and/or necessary changes allowable load carried out by using the values of the output signals of the inclinometer and, if necessary, the output signals of measuring the azimuth angle.

19. The method according to p, wherein the inclinometer is placed in the crane cabin.

20. The method according to p, wherein the inclinometer is placed in the same housing with the computing device, and the axis of its sensitivity set parallel to the plane of movement of the boom of the crane.

21. The method according to 17 or 18, characterized in that before the crane carry a complete turnover of the crane, and then using the identified changes the angular position of the turntable crane is horizontal, determine the deviation of the driving device or rotary part of the valve from the horizontal position.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mechanical engineering; lifting and transportation machinery.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in automated protection and control systems of load-lifting cranes. Load-lifting machines drive is controlled by operator acting onto control member, transmission of shifting of said member to control member of drive made to shift any mechanism of load-lifting machine depending on movement of control member, and preliminary determination of tolerable value of at least one parameter characterizing load and/or spatial position of boom or load-gripping member of load-lifting machine, keeping the parameter value in memory, measuring said parameter by direct or indirect method in process of operating of load-lifting machine, comparing measured value with tolerable value and subsequently shaping drive control signal. Control signal is used to interlock shifting of drive control member and if, necessary, to reset member in neutral position. Interlocking of drive control member is done by mechanical blocking of transmission of control member shifting to drive control member or mechanical interlocking of displacement of said member.

EFFECT: increased reliability.

6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; tower cranes.

SUBSTANCE: method includes periodical continuous polling during which signals are obtained, recorded and memorized which correspond to values of load characteristic of crane, crane geometry and operation conditions, obtained signals are compared with values of characteristics introduced into crane control system before its operation, and after comparing of signals received at polling with tolerable values of characteristics, if they exceed tolerable characteristics, commands of crane operator are cancelled. Introduced additionally into crane control system are parameters of crane operation conditions, speed of wind, ambient temperature and crane condition parameters, load, vibration, temperature of crane drive mechanism lubricants, and voltage in electrical devices. Maximum tolerable values of said parameters are introduced into control system to limit operation of crane drives at which operation of crane should be stopped or can be executed at introduction of definite limitations into operation of crane drive as to speed, accelerations, combined or successive travel motions of drives, obtained signals concerning operation and state of crane are compared with tolerable values, and possibility and conditions of execution of operator's commands are determined, command is left without changes or definite limitations are applied to operation of crane by introducing corresponding corrections to operator's command or execution of command is prohibited according to preset program.

EFFECT: improved safety of operation of tower crane.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; lifting and transportation machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in control and protection system of load-lifting cranes. Proposed system contains load pickups 1, boom tilting angle pickups 5, parameters indicator 6 and series-connected tolerable load setting unit 8, comparator 9 and actuating unit 10 whose output is connected to first input of parameters recorder 11, unit to record designed values of parameters 12, correction unit 3, load weight check unit 2, scaling unit 4, variable coefficients unit 14, change-over switch 15, boom deflection recording unit 13 and boom reach calculating unit 7.

EFFECT: improved safety of crane owing to increased accuracy of control of its parameters.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: lifting and transportation mechanical engineering, namely system for ensuring safety of operation of lifting equipment; possible use for preventing dangerous approach of jib type cranes with telescopic crane arms to power lines.

SUBSTANCE: device for detection of electric field of power line contains an antenna and antenna amplifier, where at least a part of antenna is made in form of flat capacitor mounted on rotary device of crane, and current-conductive plates of flat capacitor are connected to input of antenna amplifier. Positioning of antenna in form of flat capacitor not on the head of crane arm, but on rotary device, ensures safety of crane operation during installation of fly jib, and also results in increased comfort of operation, particularly, low length of communication line and exclusion of drum for winding cable, removing causes for cable tearing under conditions of real applications.

EFFECT: increased efficiency.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: hoisting and transportation machinery, particularly to control and protect hoisting machines against overload.

SUBSTANCE: system comprises the first control means group installed on support structure or on equipment parts not to be separated from structure. The first control means group includes digital data processing unit 2 having output connected to executive and signaling device 4, 5 units, the first data input-output unit 3 linked to digital data processing unit with two-directional data exchange channel, crane 6 parameter sensors and power supply unit 1. Power supply unit 1 has one clamp connected to load-lifting machine body and another clamp secured to power supply system bus. The second control means group is supported by movable structure or equipment to be demounted and includes crane parameter sensors 10. The first and the second control means groups are linked one to another through two-directional radioline. The first control means group is provided with the first receiving/transmitting radio station, independent power source 15 and switchboard 16.

EFFECT: increased safety system reliability, simplified assemblage and installation thereof on load-lifting machine.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to safety and control systems of load lifting cranes. Proposed method of supply of measuring and control component part of safety and control system arranged on boom or tackle block of load-lifting crane comes to use of self-contained supply source with automatic charging the source from generator - converter of mechanical energy of moving load or boom wire rope of load-lifting crane or block directing or supporting the wire, rope, into electric energy. According to invention, said component part of safety and control system of crane provides measuring of at least one operating parameter and control of loads, particularly, marker light and/or headlight. To charge self-contained supply source, in additional of wire rope motion energy, use can be made of energy of external mechanical actions, solar energy or heat energy of surrounding medium. Transmission of data between component parts of system can be provided by wireless data exchange channel.

EFFECT: facilitated maintenance, increased reliability, provision of serviceability of safety and control system of crane.

16 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; materials handling facilities.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in load-lifting crane control and protection system. Proposed protection system of load-lifting crane contains digital calculator 1, external memory 2, actuator unit 3 and crane parameter pickups 12 - 14. Digital calculator contains boom reach calculating unit 5, unit 6 to calculate load on load-lifting member, torque metering unit 7, three comparators 8, 9 and 10 and OR gate 11. Outputs of crane parameters pickups are connected to first input of digital calculator, and external memory is connected to second input. Corresponding input of actuator unit are connected to first and second outputs. Invention provides safe and effective operation of crane at small reaches owing to disconnection at overloads the motion which might lead to rise of load. Moreover, requirements to accuracy of calculation of load on hook at operation in zone of large reaches are reduced.

EFFECT: simplified production and reduced cost of operation and maintenance of protection system.

2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering: materials handling facilities.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in control and safety systems of boom-type load-lifting cranes. Proposed system contains main controller to outputs of which input of emergency signaling module, first control input of travel motion interlock module, dangerous voltage protection unit and maximum height pickup of load grip whose output is connected to information input of main controller. System contains boom head controller and pickup of load grip lowering mechanism, and travel motion interlock module is provided with second and third control inputs. Boom head controller is connected by two-way communication line with dangerous voltage protection unit and is connected with main controller by two-way or wireless data exchange channel. Connected to second and third control inputs of travel motion interlock module are, respectively, maximum height pickup of load grip and pickup of load grip lowering mechanism.

EFFECT: improved safety under abnormal conditions owing to preservation of function of limiting of hook maximum lifting height at interlocking of functional of disconnection of crane travel motion by main controller.

8 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; load-lifting and transporting facilities.

SUBSTANCE: according to proposed method, drives of mechanisms providing operation of crane equipment are started and cut off by action onto crane controls. In proposed method, use is made of wire rope angular position sensor. Hook holder is suspended from said wire ropes. Signal from said sensor is compared with tolerable value. To control tension of load wire ropes, load is measured and change in wire rope tension is calculated which is compared with signal of tolerable level of change. At no change of wire rope tension before starting load lifting or when load is lifted from ground, possibility of lifting mode is provided, and at change of tension of wire ropes. Load lifting from ground and angular displacement of boom in vertical plane for constant holding of wire ropes in vertical position are provided. Direction of boom shifting is determined by direction of angular deflection of wire ropes detected by three-position comparator, and at displacement of boom lowering or weakening of wire rope tension is provided. If crane operates with girder boom, travel of trolley is checked for maintaining wire ropes in vertical position.

EFFECT: improved reliability.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; load-lifting cranes.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in control and protection system of load lifting cranes to preclude overloads and damage in crane mechanisms. Proposed system consists of separate parts made in form of at least one electronic unit and pickups measuring parameters of load-lifting crane. To supply electronic circuit of any component of safety system use is made of self-contained supply source which is constantly or periodically charged. Conversion of mechanical energy of load or boom rope, or energy of measured parameter of operation of load-lifting crane, mechanical energy of measured load in boom or load rope, angle of azimuth length of boom, etc or hydraulic energy of measured pressure in hydraulic cylinder or in hydraulic boom lifting/lowering motor, load-gripping member or slewing platform of load-lifting crane or energy of external mechanical, acoustic or heat ambient medium onto parameter pickup of load lifting crane into electric energy is provided.

EFFECT: simplified servicing, improved reliability, provision of serviceability of safety system at cut off supply.

23 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; lifting and transportation machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in control and protection system of load-lifting cranes. Proposed system contains load pickups 1, boom tilting angle pickups 5, parameters indicator 6 and series-connected tolerable load setting unit 8, comparator 9 and actuating unit 10 whose output is connected to first input of parameters recorder 11, unit to record designed values of parameters 12, correction unit 3, load weight check unit 2, scaling unit 4, variable coefficients unit 14, change-over switch 15, boom deflection recording unit 13 and boom reach calculating unit 7.

EFFECT: improved safety of crane owing to increased accuracy of control of its parameters.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to safety and control systems of load lifting cranes. Proposed method of supply of measuring and control component part of safety and control system arranged on boom or tackle block of load-lifting crane comes to use of self-contained supply source with automatic charging the source from generator - converter of mechanical energy of moving load or boom wire rope of load-lifting crane or block directing or supporting the wire, rope, into electric energy. According to invention, said component part of safety and control system of crane provides measuring of at least one operating parameter and control of loads, particularly, marker light and/or headlight. To charge self-contained supply source, in additional of wire rope motion energy, use can be made of energy of external mechanical actions, solar energy or heat energy of surrounding medium. Transmission of data between component parts of system can be provided by wireless data exchange channel.

EFFECT: facilitated maintenance, increased reliability, provision of serviceability of safety and control system of crane.

16 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; load-lifting cranes.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in control and protection system of load lifting cranes to preclude overloads and damage in crane mechanisms. Proposed system consists of separate parts made in form of at least one electronic unit and pickups measuring parameters of load-lifting crane. To supply electronic circuit of any component of safety system use is made of self-contained supply source which is constantly or periodically charged. Conversion of mechanical energy of load or boom rope, or energy of measured parameter of operation of load-lifting crane, mechanical energy of measured load in boom or load rope, angle of azimuth length of boom, etc or hydraulic energy of measured pressure in hydraulic cylinder or in hydraulic boom lifting/lowering motor, load-gripping member or slewing platform of load-lifting crane or energy of external mechanical, acoustic or heat ambient medium onto parameter pickup of load lifting crane into electric energy is provided.

EFFECT: simplified servicing, improved reliability, provision of serviceability of safety system at cut off supply.

23 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: materials handling facilities; crane safeguards.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to overload and damage protection of load-lifting cranes and cranes-pipelayers. Proposed method comes to adjusting at least one signal in at least one load measuring channels and/or reach, and/or luffing angle to provide correspondence of safeguard switch off characteristic to preset load characteristic of crane by adding and/or multiplying results of direct or indirect measurement of at least one of crane operating parameters and signals corresponding to adjustment parameters whose values are stored in non-volatile memory of safeguard. Values of adjustment parameters are determined to provide independent switching off characteristic of safeguard from direction and/or speed of boom movement or speed of movement of crane load gripping members. Different adjustment parameters for different directions and/or speeds of boom and/or load-gripping member can be set.

EFFECT: simplified mounting and servicing of safeguards on crane, improved accuracy of realization of protection functions.

18 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; load-lifting equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to overload and damage protection device of load-lifting cranes and pipelayer cranes. Proposed method comes to adjusting at least one signal in load measuring channels and/or reach, and /or angle of boom tilting by adding and/or multiplying said signal with at least one signal corresponding to at least one adjusting parameter whose value is preliminarily determined and kept in nonvolatile memory of safeguard. Signal is adjusted at no load-gripping member of load-lifting crane at zero value of mass of lifted load or load moment in lifting crane load limiting channel. For this purpose value of at least one of said adjusting parameters is determined at no load on load-gripping member of load-lifting crane.

EFFECT: improved accuracy of safeguard and efficiency of protection of load-lifting crane.

10 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: materials handling facilities.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to devices for checking condition of safeguards of load-lifting machines and reading parameters of built-in parameters recorders. Proposed method comes to revealing output signals of separate components of safeguard and transmitting signals to control device, processing signals and their recording in control device according to prestored signals determining sequence of processing and recording and forming, by control device, in case of necessity, replacement test signals in compliance with prestored signals determining sequence of forming of replacement test signals and transmitting the latter to separate components of safeguard. Revealing of output signals and forming of replacement test signals is done by receiving and transmitting sequential digital signals by multiplexed communication line at asynchronous or synchronous modes by algorithms specified by sequential protocols. Proposed device to control safeguard of load-lifting machine contains control unit, data input-output module and memory module. Data input-output module is made in form of transceivers of multiplexed communication line CAN, LIN, RS-232, USB or IrDA of interface. Group of invention provides both control of safety of safeguard and reading of data of built-in parameters recorder making it possible to reveal troubles of connecting bundles, control and diagnosing of condition of safeguard directly on load-lifting crane, improve safety of crane at partial failures of safeguard owing to automatic or manual program disconnection and subsequent replacement of any defective functional unit of safeguard without its physical disconnection and without complete disconnection of partially failing safeguard.

EFFECT: improved control of safeguard.

12 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: materials handling equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of protection of boom load-lifting cranes and pipelayer cranes from overloads and damage. Adjustment is carried out by lifting calibrated load of preset mass in points of load characteristic with known parameters of boom equipment and regulating signals in load, reach and/or boom tilt angle measuring channels to provide correspondence of safeguard characteristic to preset load characteristic of crane. In process of regulation of signals in load, reach and/or boom tilt angle measuring channels, values of output signals of corresponding sensors are kept constant and regulation is done by adding and/or multiplying output signals from sensors and signals corresponding to adjusting parameters. Values of the latter are preliminarily determined and kept in nonvolatile memory of safeguard.

EFFECT: reduced labor input in adjustment of safeguard on load-lifting crane, provision of interchangeability of all components, possibility of adjustment of device on any type of load-lifting crane with unspecified mounting of load sensor.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; tower cranes.

SUBSTANCE: method includes periodical continuous polling during which signals are obtained, recorded and memorized which correspond to values of load characteristic of crane, crane geometry and operation conditions, obtained signals are compared with values of characteristics introduced into crane control system before its operation, and after comparing of signals received at polling with tolerable values of characteristics, if they exceed tolerable characteristics, commands of crane operator are cancelled. Introduced additionally into crane control system are parameters of crane operation conditions, speed of wind, ambient temperature and crane condition parameters, load, vibration, temperature of crane drive mechanism lubricants, and voltage in electrical devices. Maximum tolerable values of said parameters are introduced into control system to limit operation of crane drives at which operation of crane should be stopped or can be executed at introduction of definite limitations into operation of crane drive as to speed, accelerations, combined or successive travel motions of drives, obtained signals concerning operation and state of crane are compared with tolerable values, and possibility and conditions of execution of operator's commands are determined, command is left without changes or definite limitations are applied to operation of crane by introducing corresponding corrections to operator's command or execution of command is prohibited according to preset program.

EFFECT: improved safety of operation of tower crane.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; lifting and transportation machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in control and protection system of load-lifting cranes. Proposed system contains load pickups 1, boom tilting angle pickups 5, parameters indicator 6 and series-connected tolerable load setting unit 8, comparator 9 and actuating unit 10 whose output is connected to first input of parameters recorder 11, unit to record designed values of parameters 12, correction unit 3, load weight check unit 2, scaling unit 4, variable coefficients unit 14, change-over switch 15, boom deflection recording unit 13 and boom reach calculating unit 7.

EFFECT: improved safety of crane owing to increased accuracy of control of its parameters.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: hoisting and transportation machinery, particularly to control and protect hoisting machines against overload.

SUBSTANCE: system comprises the first control means group installed on support structure or on equipment parts not to be separated from structure. The first control means group includes digital data processing unit 2 having output connected to executive and signaling device 4, 5 units, the first data input-output unit 3 linked to digital data processing unit with two-directional data exchange channel, crane 6 parameter sensors and power supply unit 1. Power supply unit 1 has one clamp connected to load-lifting machine body and another clamp secured to power supply system bus. The second control means group is supported by movable structure or equipment to be demounted and includes crane parameter sensors 10. The first and the second control means groups are linked one to another through two-directional radioline. The first control means group is provided with the first receiving/transmitting radio station, independent power source 15 and switchboard 16.

EFFECT: increased safety system reliability, simplified assemblage and installation thereof on load-lifting machine.

1 dwg

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