Biomat

FIELD: reinforcement and protection of ground surfaces such as ground planning embankment slopes, automobile and railway roads, open pits, dry slopes of earth-fill dams etc from erosion processes by quick recovery of soil and plant layer.

SUBSTANCE: biomat is formed as multiple-layer, at least three-layer, structure including layers of cloth comprising artificial chemical fibers, and intermediate layer placed between each two cloth layers and secured therewith, said intermediate layer comprising plant seeds. Natural fibers are added into cloth so as to form mixture of natural and synthetic fibers, said mixture containing at least 15-50 wt% of synthetic fibers and 50-85 wt% of natural fibers from materials which form upon decomposition nutritive medium for plants, and surface density of cloth ranging between 250 and 800 g/m2. Apart from seeds of plants presented in cloth structure in an amount of 60-150 g/m2, cloth additionally contains nutrient mixture consisting of fertilizers, plant growth promoters and soil forming additives selected with soil-ground conditions of region where biomat is to be utilized and composition of used seeds being taken into consideration. Content of nutrient mixture is 20-90 g/m2. Also, natural or artificial sorbing substances are introduced into biomat structure in an amount of 30-600 g/m2 by embedding of these substances into cloth or composition of intermediate layer. Biomat may be readily unrolled on any ground surface and serves as artificial soil layer.

EFFECT: high moisture retention capacity providing formation of stable soil and ground covering, improved protection of ground surface from erosion processes, retention of plant seeds during growing, efficient development of root system during vegetation and high vitality of plant covering during formation thereof.

7 cl, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of construction and is designed to enhance and protect soil surfaces such as the ground slopes planning embankments, roads and Railways and quarries, dry slopes of earth dams, etc. from erosion by rapid recovery of soil and vegetation.

Known biomat representing a protective coating made of natural fibers, consisting of vegetable fibers, superimposed on a thin layer of cellulose and double stitched jute or polypropylene thread (EN 2188275 C1, publ. 27.08.2002).

This biomat in combination with biotextiles representing woven from natural fibers of the mesh, is used as a permeable layer multi-coating for strengthening and restoration of ground surfaces.

The disadvantage of this known biomat is that he is not and cannot be used as independent constructs, capable of providing rapid recovery of soil and vegetation, and is part of the rather complex structure of the multilayer coating to strengthen and reclamation of waterlogged natural and/or man-made soils, and/or silty sediments, characterized in that it contains laid on the ground and/or silt deposition of the bottom water is they have water resistant layer of geotextile and/or biomat and biotextiles, a reinforcing layer of metal mesh with a protective coating or plastic lattice plane section and the top layer of vegetable soil, made in the thickness for the formation of the additional reinforcing layer consisting of the roots of the grass and/or shrubs and/or trees, and under the top layer can be located ballast or drainage layer. The implementation of such coverage requires a fairly complex multi-operational works and large time for their conduct and cannot be attributed to the rapid and efficient construction methods.

A device for strengthening the slope of the soil structure containing fixed on the slope of the geogrid in the form of interconnected polymeric tapes forming the tensile cells, which are dispersed mineral material, and through the holes in the polymeric tapes of the geogrid through its cells missing wire or load bearing polymeric or metallic wires, and the geogrid is located on the substrate of the geotextile, which may contain plant seeds (EN 49011 U1, publ. 10.11.2005).

The disadvantages of this device to strengthen the slope of the soil structures lie in the complexity of its design and the duration of its installation on the slope of the soil structure, in which the Tr is required to stretch the polymer tape and secure them in the stretched position on the slope by means of wire or bearing polymeric or metal cables, then post the resulting tensile polymer tapes cells of the geogrid dispersed mineral material, as well as the fragility and insecurity of its design from the external atmospheric manifestations, such as wind, precipitation, alternate freezing and thawing, which will destroy and remove from cells placed in them and in no way protected dispersed mineral material.

Also known needle-punched geotextile material "Terasen" from a mixture of natural and synthetic fibers recovered from waste textile production and consumption waste, collected from the population, in which is embedded the seeds of perennial grasses. Such material is made of these wastes and weighing 330-440 g/m2contains grass seed in an amount of from 30 to 50 g/m2and used to reinforce eroded ditches along the roads (one of the analogs described in SU 1728314 A1, publ. 23.04.1992).

The disadvantage of this material is that it is not regulated the percentage of synthetic fibers. With their large investment that takes place in this material, it will be bad to perform the functions of drainage and create a more nourishing environment for the development of the root system of perennial grasses.

Known to be used for landscaping and fixing soil is and the slopes during excavation works multilayer geotextile floor, contains layers of non-woven cloth, between which is placed notextile filler, including plant seeds, foam particles and the like, with layers of nonwoven fabric bonded together, for example, igloprobivnye, holoprogram or gluing (DD 221769 A1, publ. 02.05.1985).

The disadvantage of this known multi-layer geotextile cover is that is not regulated raw composition, from which a greater extent on the operating conditions of the coverage and effectiveness of seed germination.

The closest analogue of the proposed biomate the technical essence is used to reinforce slopes road and other roads, for quick fastening of erosion of land or slopes due to fouling their grass floor, which is a multilayered, at least three-layer, a construction comprising layers of canvas containing artificial fiber chemical origin, and placed between every two layers of canvas and sealed them with the middle layer containing the seeds of plants (SU 1728314 A1, publ. 23.04.1992).

In this known coating the canvas consists of a mixture of regenerated fibers obtained from waste viscose and synthetic fibres, with viscose rayon fibres are contained in the amount of 60-70% by weight of a fibrous mixture canvas is, and as synthetic fibers used a mixture of polyamide fibers and yarns in the amount of 15-20% and polyacrylonitrile fibres in the amount of 15-20%. Viscose fibers are synthetic fibers chemical origin, formed from viscose, i.e. viscous solution obtained from mercerized (treatment with NaOH solution) cellulose, maturation of the obtained alkali cellulose and subsequent treatment with carbon disulfide (CS2).

Disadvantages the closest analogue is the lack or very low nutrient for seed and plant substances in artificial fibers chemical origin, only of which is formed of canvas used in this known coating, and a low water-holding capacity of the materials of these artificial fibers, which leads to their rapid drying during operation, in addition, artificial fiber chemical origin decomposition can excrete chemicals and elements that are not conducive to the development of plants and their root system. All this greatly reduces germination, viability of emerging vegetation cover and, thereby, the efficiency of known coatings.

The present invention is the creation of biomat (cover ground surfaces) permanent what s the shelf life, simple in design and manufacture and easy to use, providing fast work if installed on any unpaved surface, performing the function of an artificial soil with high water-holding capacity during the formation of sustainable natural soil and vegetation, as well as protecting the soil surface from erosion, preservation of seeds during the time of germination, the effective development of the root system of plants during their growing season and the viability of the vegetation cover during the period of its formation.

The solution of this problem is achieved by the fact that biomate, which is a multilayered, at least three-layer, a construction comprising layers of canvas containing artificial fiber chemical origin, and placed between every two layers of canvas and sealed them with the middle layer containing the seeds of plants, according to the invention in the canvas added natural fiber with the formation of a mixture of natural and synthetic fibers, containing by weight from 15 to 50% synthetic fibers and 50-85% natural fibers from materials with biodegradable forming a growth medium for plants, and the achievement of the surface density of the canvas in the range 250-800 g/m2and media is the second layer, in addition to plant seeds, the content of which is 60-150 g/m2, further comprises a nutrient mixture consisting of fertilizers, plant growth stimulants and soil-forming additives, selected with consideration of the soil conditions of the area of application of biomat and composition of the used seeds, and nutrient content of the mixture is 20 to 90 g/m2in biomat made of natural or artificial sorbing substances, the content of which is 30-600 g/m2by introducing them to the canvas or inclusion in the composition of the middle layer.

As canvas can be used in woven or non-woven geotextile material.

Layers of biomate bonded preferably by igloprobivnye or holoprogram.

As synthetic fibers can be used polyester, or polypropylene, or other polymer fibers, or a combination of them.

As the natural fibers can be used coconut or flax, or other vegetable fiber, or a combination of them.

As sorbing substances can be used active carbon, peat, straw or other natural or artificial sorbents.

Biomat performed mainly by the width of 5-50 mm, while ensuring its total surface density within 350-1700 g/m2.

In the production of biomate rolling out rolls served the bottom layer of canvas, which with a scattering device evenly over the area of the canvas is applied plant seeds, nutrient layer and sorbent in the case of inclusion of the last part of the middle layer, while in the scattering device called the components of the middle layer comes in the form of a mixture from the mixer, in which they are served by feeders from the respective storage hoppers plant seeds, fertilizers, plant growth regulators, soil additives and sorbing substances. After laying on top of the middle layer of the top layer of canvas layers biomat fasten igloprobivnye or holoprogram.

Sorbing substances can not be included in the composition of the middle layer, and to introduce them to the canvas when forming it from a mixture of natural and synthetic fibers by incorporating in the mixture as a natural or synthetic fibers of a small number of fibers from absorbing substances, respectively, natural, i.e. natural or synthetic.

The proposed biomat is a multilayer of at least three-layer, a construction comprising layers of canvas containing artificial fiber chemical origin, and placed between every two layers of canvas and sealed them with the middle layer containing the seeds of plants.

The canvas added natural is the result of fiber with the formation of a mixture of natural and synthetic fibers, containing by weight from 15 to 50% synthetic fibers and 50-85% natural fibers from materials with biodegradable forming a growth medium for plants, and the achievement of the surface density of the canvas in the range 250-800 g/m2. Canvas performs the function of reinforcing material, which protects the soil surface from erosion, and also prevents the loss of seeds from the middle layer of biomate due to flushing, blowing, or destruction of birds.

The number of synthetic fibers in the canvas is prescribed in terms of the strength of the canvas with different permissible frangible loads acting on biomat in real conditions. As shown by the experimental production of biomat and field tests on the samples with different parameters acting on biomat breaking loads less than 5 kN/m and greater than 30 kN/m, was observed, and when discontinuous loads from 5 to 10 kN/m and from 10 to 30 kN/m acting on biomat, his strength was achieved when the content in the canvas, synthetic staple fibres by weight, respectively, from 15 to 25% 25 to 50%. The number of natural fibers in the mixture shall be appointed by the residual principle while ensuring the strength of the canvas. The presence of natural fibers increases the water-holding capacity of the material during the period of seed germination, in the next 2-3 years provides rapid decomposition significant (50-85%) mass, b is omata with the formation of a nutrient medium for plants. Synthetic fibers are characterized by long period of decay and play the role of reinforcing material in the first years of formation of the root system of the plants and the soil and vegetation.

The surface density of the canvas is assigned in the range 250-800 g/m2subject to the conditions of application of biomat. As shown by the experimental production of biomat and field tests on the samples with different parameters, depending on the humidity of the climate and the degree of drainage of the soil surface under the condition of filling biomat top soil thickness up to 3 cm should be used canvas weighing 250 to 350 g/m2in wet conditions, slightly drained surfaces and from 350 to 600 g/m2in dry conditions in well-drained surfaces. If the filling biomat ground is not provided, you should use the canvas weighing 600-800 g/m2.

The middle layer, other than seeds plants, the content of which is 60-150 g/m2, further comprises a nutrient mixture consisting of fertilizers, plant growth stimulants and soil-forming additives, selected with consideration of the soil conditions of the area of application of biomat and composition of the used seeds, and nutrient content of the mixture is 20 to 90 g/m2.

Plant seeds are selected and the walking of climatic and soil conditions of the area of application of biomat. As shown by the experimental production of biomat and field tests of various samples, the optimal number of seeds depending on their species composition and germination and speed of broadening the ground surface, is 60-150 g/m2so, in areas where the broadening of ground surfaces herbs occurs within 3 years, a sufficient number of seeds is 60-70 g/m2when broadening the term from 3 to 5 years a sufficient number of seeds is 70-100 g/m2and when the period of broadening more than 5 years, a sufficient number of seeds is 100-150 g/m2.

Pilot production of biomat and field tests of various samples allowed us to determine that the optimal nutrient mix is 20-90 g/m2so, depending on the nutritional value of the soil and germination of seeds on the horizontal weakly drained ground surfaces sufficient nutrient mixture is 20-40 g/m2on the horizontal drained surfaces sufficient nutrient mixture is 40-60 g/m2and on the slopes this amount is 60-90 g/m2.

To prevent leaching of nutrients and increase water-holding capacity of biomate it made of natural or artificial sorbing substances,the content of which is 30-600 g/m 2by introducing them to the canvas or inclusion in the composition of the middle layer. As sorbing substances can be used active carbon, peat, straw or other natural or synthetic sorbents. Introduction in biomat sorbing substances allows to increase the time between watering up to 7-10 days.

Pilot production of biomat and field tests of various samples allowed us to determine that the optimal content of natural or artificial sorbing substances depending on the type of sorbent and soil conditions of the area of application of biomat is 30-600 g/m2so, depending on the type of sorbent on the horizontal weakly drained ground surfaces provided filling biomate the soil layer thickness up to 3 cm number of sorbent ranges from 30 to 50 g/m2in the same conditions without backfill soil from 50 to 100 g/m2; on the horizontal drained and slope areas with clay soil with filling biomat soil from 100 to 150 g/m2in the same conditions without backfill soil from 150 to 250 g/m2; in sloping areas with sandy soil under the condition of filling biomat soil from 250 to 400 g/m2without filling in the same conditions from 400 to 600 g/m2.

In the manufacture of biomate Pets allocation error above Mat is rials in biomate not more than 5% by weight per 1 m 2.

As canvas can be used in woven or non-woven geotextile material.

Layers of biomate bonded preferably by igloprobivnye or holoprogram.

As synthetic fibers can be used polyester, or polypropylene, or other polymer fibers, or a combination of them.

As the natural fibers can be used coconut or flax, or other vegetable fiber, or a combination of them.

Depending on the materials used, the thickness of biomat can vary from 5 to 50 mm, while ensuring its total surface density within 350-1700 g/m2. The results of field tests to determine the optimal total surface density of biomat for basic types of plots are given in the table.

This biomat has a long shelf life, not complex in design and in manufacture, easy to use, as it can be quickly deployed on any unpaved surface performs the function of an artificial soil with high water-holding capacity during the formation of sustainable natural soil and vegetation cover protects the soil surface from erosion, preservation of seeds during the time of germination, the effect is the rapid development of the root system of plants during their growing season and the viability of the vegetation cover during the period of its formation.

Table
Results of field tests to determine the surface density of biomat for basic types of plots
Characteristics of the soil surfaceThe presence of filling biomat groundThe type of soil surface protectedThe velocity broadening of the surface under natural conditions, yearsThe surface density of the canvas, g/m2The number of seeds, g/m2The amount of nutrients, g/m2The amount of sorbent, g/m2The total surface density of biomat, g/m2
Horizontal drainedClay or sandyUp to 3250-35060-7040-60100-150450-630
3-570-100460-660
More than 5100-150490-710
NoUp to 3600-80060-70150-250850-1180
3-570-100860-1210
More than 5100-150890-1260
Horizontal undrainedUp to 3Varying between 250 and 60060-7020-4030-50360-760
3-570-100370-790
More than 5100-150400-840
NoUp to 3600-80060-7050-100710-960
3-570-100720-990
More than 5100-150750-1040
SlopesClayUp to 3600-80060-7060-90100-150820-1110
3-570-100830-1140
More than 5100-150860-1190
SandyUp to 360-70250-400970-1360
3-570-100980-1390
More than 5100-1501010-1440
NoClayUp to 3600-800 60-70150-250870-1210
3-570-100880-1240
More than 5100-150910-1290
SandyUp to 360-70400-6001120-1560
3-570-1001130-1590
More than 5100-1501160-1640

1. Biomat, which is a multilayered, at least three-layer, a construction comprising layers of canvas containing artificial fiber chemical origin, and placed between every two layers of canvas and sealed them with the middle layer containing the seeds of plants, characterized in that canvas added natural fiber with the formation of a mixture of natural and synthetic fibers, containing by weight from 15 to 50% synthetic fibers and 50-85% natural fibers from materials with biodegradable forming a growth medium for plants, and the achievement of the surface density of the canvas in the range 250-800 g/m2and the middle layer, other than seeds plants, the content of which is 60-150 g/m2, further comprises a nutrient mixture consisting of fertilizers, plant growth stimulants and soil-forming additives selected taking into account soil conditions, R is Yon apply biomat and composition of the used seeds, moreover, the nutrient mixture is 20-90 g/m2in biomat made of natural or artificial sorbing substances, the content of which is 30-600 g/m2by introducing them to the canvas or inclusion in the composition of the middle layer.

2. Biomat according to claim 1, characterized in that the quality of the canvas used woven or non-woven geotextile material.

3. Biomat according to claim 1, characterized in that it layers bonded igloprobivnye or holoprogram.

4. Biomat according to claim 1 or 2, or 3, characterized in that the synthetic fibers used polyester, or polypropylene, or other polymer fibers, or a combination of them.

5. Biomat according to claim 1 or 2, or 3, characterized in that as the natural fibers used coconut or flax, or other vegetable fiber, or a combination of them.

6. Biomat according to claim 1 or 2, or 3, characterized in that as sorbing substances used active carbon, peat, straw or other natural or artificial sorbents.

7. Biomat according to claim 1, characterized in that it has a thickness equal to 5-50 mm, while ensuring its total surface density within 350-1700 g/m2.



 

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