Method of optical registration
SUBSTANCE: method of optical registration of process, changing in time, is realized due to frame-by-frame shooting of digital camera with CCD array to get time dependence of at least one cinematic characteristic of tested process. During frame-by-frame shooting, registration is carried out in area of one or row of spatially fixed fragments of field of any frame. Video camera reads out information at any field from those columns or lines of CCD array only which are disposed in field of specified fragment. After that images of any registered fragment are combined to get time dependence in form of time-base.
EFFECT: improved reliability.
5 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to techniques for the photographic recording of a single, time-varying, mostly of fast processes (combustion, detonation, shock waves etc) on the photosensitive medium.
There is a method of optical detection in the form of timebase mainly of fast gas-dynamic processes (e.g., detonation of the explosive charge) by the image projection process through a narrow slit on a segment of the film, mounted on a rotating drum or on the stationary segment of the film, through a rotating mirror (for example, in a high-speed camera SFR). In a similar way we get the time base through a system of slit - raster (Dubovik A.S. Photographic registration of fast processes. M., Nauka, 1964, p.21).
The disadvantage of this method are the time costs associated with the need for film processing (manifestation etc), and the time constraints of registration processes the raster method (this method may be registered only short processes; otherwise, due to the overlap of image scans from different cracks raster almost completely overlap).
Widely known method of optical detection of a time-varying process through time-lapse photography using videokameraet high-speed digital video camera, help get a full and realistic information about the developing time process in the form of a temporal sequence of frames of the process. For example, the camera VS-FAST-2 by "NGOs VIDEOSCAN" allows images to be captured with a frequency of 500 frames per second or more (Butuzov A.A. and other Proceedings of the International Conference VII Kharitonov topical Scientific Readings, Sarov, 2005, p.á305-306). Conducting successively in each frame measurements given kinematic characteristics of the process (for example, the position of the shock front along the given direction; the difference of the output waves on a given base, and so on), you can obtain the time dependence of a given kinematic characteristics.
The disadvantage of this method of registration of the investigated process are, on the one hand, the time costs associated with the need to perform measurements on each frame and subsequent mathematical processing of measurement results, and on the other hand, the errors associated with measurement errors on each frame.
The technical result achieved when using the proposed method, is to accelerate the registration process and improve the accuracy of registration of the investigated processes, in particular fast, using a digital video recorder.
This result d is attained when the optical reception (mostly of fast gas-dynamic processes through time-lapse photography with obtaining a function of time, at least one of the kinematic characteristics of the process due to the fact that registration in the zone of one or more spatial fixed portions of a field frame with the subsequent Union of the images of each of the fragments in the form of optical timebase.
I.e. asked to register not only the fields of the frame, and one or more pieces of the frame. Get then when combining images of each of the fragments of the time base of the studied process is more accurate and informative in comparison with stop motion. Spatial fixation of the fragment (fragments) in the frame necessary to ensure the spatial fixing of the recorded area (areas) of the investigated process.
In particular, one fragment may have the form of narrow linear strips. The direction of the long side of the strips is chosen coincident with the direction of change of a given kinematic characteristics of the studied process. For example, it may be the moving wave front or border along the selected direction. The sequential combining images of fragment frames received with frame-by-frame shooting, in the direction perpendicular to the long side of the strips obtained a temporary expand the ku image registered process within a given fragment. This procedure can be implemented using a computer that controls the camera. As a result of repeatedly reduced time costs associated with the need to perform measurements on each frame and the subsequent mathematical processing of measurement results, and on the other hand, eliminates errors associated with measurement errors on each frame.
Alternatively, when the registration is carried out on several portions of a field frame in the form of a system of identical, straight, parallel strips, combining separate images of each of the fragments. In this case, you can get not one but a series of temporary scan process similar to bitmap, practically not limited in time, which will provide a more complete picture of the investigated process.
Finally, the registration may be carried out in the field point (or point) of fragments of the frame. In this case, the latter may contain a few pixels or in the limit only one point of the recording element (pixel). When combining images of these fragments obtained in slow motion in a given direction, the output image process in the form of a scanner that allows to obtain the time dependence of the process in them. For example, it may be time dependent luminescence reg is sriramulu object at the given points.
Implementation of the described method is most simply can be implemented using a digital video camera in which an image of the recorded object is projected on the CCD-matrix. Time-lapse photography in normal mode in each frame display all of the elements of the CCD array and then information from each of the elements is read sequentially in memory (or on tape). In the proposed method, the information is read only with the square of the fragment or fragments. As a result, significantly reduces the readout time for each frame and, accordingly, may be increased frequency filming and improved temporal resolution determines the accuracy of the registration. In the limit of fragments can contain only one-dimensional sequence of dot recording elements (i.e. the fragment frame in the form of strips in the transverse direction contains one cell (one pixel)).
Figure 1. The conventional image of the field frame (CCD) high-speed digital video camera with one slice in which you are recording (similar to a slit scan): 1 - individual recording elements (pixels); 2 - boundary of the image of the registered object; 3 - fragment boundaries of the field frame in which the pixels are read into the computer memory
Figure 2. Conditional image field of the camera frame with multiple FR is gentami, where registration (similar to a raster scan).
Figure 3. Conditional image field of the camera frame with several points of slices: 4 - point portions of a field frame
The proposed method can be implemented, for example, in the case of high-speed digital video camera controlled by a computer (for example, the camera VS-FAST company VIDEOSCAN). In such cameras periodically repeating the procedure of registration of each frame consists of the following steps:
- exposition of the entire field of the frame within the specified time;
sequential reading of information from elements of the first row (or column), then the second and so on, until the end of the specified fragment.
The proposed method is implemented as follows.
When preparing to shoot time-varying process or object first is allowing the camera to the object and receive his image on the monitor screen of the PC that controls the camera. Then on the screen are determined by the boundaries of the fragment field of the frame that will be used to read information (Figure 1). The width of the fragment can be limited to one pixel. The direction of the long side of the fragment is chosen coincident with the direction of change of a given kinematic characteristics of the studied process. For example, it may be moving wave froh the one or border along the selected direction.
Next is shooting. The program control camera reads each frame of information with only those columns or rows that are in the field of a given fragment. Then with the help of special programs read from each frame information is combined, modeling optical time base changes the picture into the box portion of the frame. After receiving the scan processing, including determination of the temporal characteristics of the recorded process is performed by using the PC for a given program, while the temporal characteristics of the scanner is rigidly set by the imaging frequency, which in the digital video camera is maintained with high precision.
The area of the frame, which is the registration of the subject as may be specified in the form of several fragments, having the form of narrow strips, the width of which may be limited by one pixel (Figure 2). The strips are arranged in parallel. Each frame in the computer memory are read only in the pixels in the area of the fragments. Combining a few of the information is performed for each fragment separately. The result is similar raster scan register process. This method of getting the raster scan has the advantage over mechanical method of obtaining such resort and (for example, using the camera SFR), because in the second case, the duration of a registered process may be limited due to the overlay of the images of the individual raster lines to each other on the film, at the same time, in the first case it is excluded.
Finally, the fragments of the frame may have a dot shape, i.e. each fragment can be in the form of a square, circle, etc. and include a small number of pixels (one pixel) (Figure 3). Association read information for each such fragment allows you to receive time base status register object at given points, for example the presence or absence of illumination at a given point of the recorded object.
The inventive method was tested in experiments in a shock tube using video cameras VS-FAST. The size CCD digital video camera VS-FAST - 1024×1280 pixels. The maximum shooting speed at full frame 500 frames per second. The read speed of a single line (1024 pixel) ˜2 μs, the time read the full frame ˜2 MS.
Shock tube was cylindrical transparent channel of Plexiglas; the driver of the shock wave were self-luminous products of detonation of a mixture of acetylene with oxygen. In these experiments during the registration process fixed the fragment field of the frame was four rows, sityva the Oia - 8 ISS, the frame was recorded as a separate bmp file size 1024×4. Fixed the fragment field of the frame coincides with the axis of the image channel shock tube on the frame. Exposure time was chosen equal to 6 μs. This value is determined by the technical characteristics of the camera. Among recorded within 2 seconds 250 thousand frames was determined visually the beginning of the process and selected the desired number of frames (1000). Then with the help of a special program these frames are lined up from left to right without a gap and was recorded as a bmp file size 1024×4000, making a temporary scan motion boundaries luminous products of detonation in a shock tube with a temporal resolution of 8 MS.
In the computer processing time scan flow in a shock tube was turned over ˜10 minutes. For manual processing, 1000 frames, the time of receipt time dependence of the motion of the boundary of the lighting products of detonation in a shock tube would have increased at least tenfold.
If the registration process was carried out on full frame, the time resolution of the time dependence of the motion of the boundary of the lighting products of detonation in a shock tube would be in ˜250 times worse. In the camera VS-FAST has the ability to increase speed shooting of up to 5000 frames per second by reducing the field of video frame format 1280, but in this case, the resolution would be in ˜25 times worse than achieved in the described experience.
Thus, confirmed the efficiency of the method. Compared with the method of obtaining the time dependence of the investigated process (prototype) by measurements sequentially in each frame of a given kinematic characteristics of the studied process, the proposed method allows to reduce dozens of times time costs, improve accuracy and temporal resolution.
The proposed method has several advantages over commonly used in the present method of obtaining continuous photographic recording on the film (analog):
Mobility information, eliminating the need for processing photographic film (manifestation, etc.) and further converting the received information into a digital format;
- Implementation of standby. The duration of the sweep time is not limited by the length of the film, and depends only on your computer's memory. For existing high-speed video camera VS-FAST company VIDEOSCAN check-in time is 2.5 sec. Essentially, this is approaching the waiting mode; so there is no need to develop special devices to synchronize the start of registration with the beginning of the registered process, the duration of which, as a rule, many IU is the more fractions of a second. In particular, this property of the proposed method is advantageous in the case of raster scan, at which time continuous recording on the film is severely limited.
- The possibility of unlimited time raster scan. In this case, you can get not one but a series of temporary expansions of the process is practically not limited in time (generally continuous raster registration on the film is limited by the travel time of a raster image by a distance equal to the step raster images on film), which significantly extends the study of fast processes raster method.
Thus, the single photography, time-varying processes in a limited area of one or more spatial fixed portions of a field frame and the subsequent Union of the images of each of the fragments to obtain the time dependence in the form of the timebase register process helped to improve the known method of time-lapse photography with a digital camera.
1. The method of optical detection of a time-varying process through time-lapse photography with a digital camera with a CCD matrix with obtaining a function of time, at least one kinematic characteristics of issledovaniia, characterized in that in slow motion make registration in the zone of one or several spatial fixed portions of a field of each frame, while the camera reads each frame of information with only those columns or rows of the CCD array, which are in the field of a given fragment, followed by merging images of each registered fragments with getting time dependence in the form of time base.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that register in the area of one slice of the field frame in the form of narrow linear strips.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that registration area number of fragments field frame in the form of a system of parallel spaced narrow rectilinear strips.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that register in the zone of the point portions of a field of the frame.
5. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the optical registration process performed by the video camera, computer controlled.
FIELD: method for interpolating values of sub-pixels during encoding and decoding of data.
SUBSTANCE: method of interpolation during video data encoding is claimed, which features an image, containing pixels ordered in rows and columns and represented by values having given dynamic range, where pixels in rows are in integral horizontal positions, and pixels in rows are in integral vertical positions, which image is interpolated in such a way that values of sub-pixels are generated in fractional horizontal and vertical positions, aforementioned method containing following stages: a) when values are required for sub-pixels in half-integral horizontal positions and integral vertical positions and in integral horizontal positions and half-integral vertical positions, such values are interpolated directly using weighted sums of pixels located in integral horizontal and integral vertical positions; b) when values are required for sub-pixels in half-integral horizontal positions and half-integral vertical positions, such values are interpolated directly using a weighted sum of values for sub-pixels located in half-integral horizontal positions and integral vertical positions, computed in accordance with stage a); and c), when values are required for sub-pixel in quaternary horizontal position and quaternary vertical position, such values are interpolated by averaging of at least one pair from first pair of values of sub-pixel located in half-integral horizontal position and half-integral vertical position, and of sub-pixel, located in integral horizontal position and integral vertical position, and second pair of values of pixel, located in integral horizontal position and integral vertical position, and of sub-pixel, located in semi-integral horizontal position and semi-integral vertical position.
EFFECT: creation of improved method for interpolating values of sub-pixels during encoding and decoding of data.
13 cl, 26 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: observation of moving objects.
SUBSTANCE: method includes using movement sensors, capable of recording two-dimensional distributions of intensity in form of images, where sensors are positioned with known spatial orientation, making it possible to perform simultaneous observation of one and the same scene, periodical query of sensors is performed during whole time period after their enabling, processing and analysis of data received from sensors is performed, which constitutes series of images, and output signal is generated in case of detection of three-dimensional moving object and determining of its spatial position, which signal is injected into output device.
EFFECT: increased trustworthiness when determining spatial position of a moving object.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: systems for automatic video surveillance of an object.
SUBSTANCE: system for automatic detection and tracking of individuals on basis of images and biometric identity recognition based on target list, realizes following operations: on basis of three-dimensional data about scene and two-dimensional data, characterizing optical flow, detection of objects-noises of scene is performed, static background objects are selected, and regular dynamic object-noises; on basis of comparison of two-dimensional and two-dimensional data about the scene in current frame with reference data on previous frames and a map of object-noises changes are determined on a scene, in three-dimensional zones of interest, preliminary check of presence of human-like objects is performed, zones of interest are determined more precisely and their changes are tracked: a contour of separate elements of human body is singled out, zones of interest are divided onto a set of sub-zones of interest for elements, detection of three-dimensional head of individual is performed and it is tracked in each zone of interest; face of individual is tracked in each zone of interest; images of detected face are normalized in terms of dimensions, angles and brightness; recognition is performed.
EFFECT: objectivity and stability of system operation.
FIELD: video encoding, in particular, methods and devices for ensuring improved encoding and/or prediction methods related to various types of video data.
SUBSTANCE: the method is claimed for usage during encoding of video data in video encoder, containing realization of solution for predicting space/time movement vector for at least one direct mode macro-block in B-image, and signaling of information of space/time movement vector prediction solution for at least one direct mode macro-block in the header, which includes header information for a set of macro-blocks in B-image, where signaling of aforementioned information of space/time movement vector prediction solution in the header transfers a space/time movement vector prediction solution into video decoder for at least one direct mode macro-block in B-image.
EFFECT: creation of improved encoding method, which is capable of supporting newest models and usage modes of bi-directional predictable (B) images in a series of video data with usage of spatial prediction or time distance.
2 cl, 17 dwg
FIELD: mobile robot, such as cleaner robot, and, in particular, device for tracking movement of mobile robot.
SUBSTANCE: suggested device for tracking movement of mobile robot includes: video camera for filming an individual object; unit for tracking movement and creation of image for setting support one in an image for current moment by means of filming of individual object by video camera and creation of image in current moment, for which support zone is set; unit for selecting image of difference of pixels of image support zone limit based on difference between pixels present only at limit of support zone of aforementioned images; and micro-computer for tracking movement of separate object on basis of selected image of difference.
EFFECT: decreased time of pixel comparison operation and increased efficiency of room perception.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: system for encoding moving image, in particular, method for determining movement vector being predicted, of image block in B-frame in process of decoding of moving image.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, at least one movement vector is produced for at least one block, different from current block, while aforementioned at least one block is related to one, at least, supporting frame in a row of supporting frame, movement vector is predicted for current block on basis of received one, at least, movement vector, while prediction operation includes also operation of comparison of value of order number of B-frame to value of order number of one, at least, supporting frame, while movement vector for current block and aforementioned one, at least, movement vector are vectors of forward movement.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: technology for processing images of moving objects, possible use, in particular, in theatric art, show business when registration/recording is necessary or repeated reproduction of scenic performance.
SUBSTANCE: method includes inserting enumeration system for each object and performing projection of enumerated objects onto plane, while projection is displayed in form of graph with trajectories of movement of enumerated objects in each staging.
EFFECT: spatial-temporal serial graphic display of scenic action for its further identification and repeated reproduction.
FIELD: device and method for recognizing gestures in dynamics from a series of stereo frames.
SUBSTANCE: method includes producing a series of stereo-images of object, on basis of which map of differences in depths is formed. System is automatically initialized on basis of probability model of upper portion of body of object. Upper portion of body of object is modeled as three planes, representing body and arms of object and three gauss components, representing head and wrists of object. Tracking of movements of upper part of body is performed with utilization of probability model of upper part of body and extraction of three-dimensional signs of performed gestures.
EFFECT: simplified operation of system, high precision of gesture interpretation.
3 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: movement detection systems, technical cybernetics, in particular, system and method for detecting static background in video series of images with moving objects of image foreground.
SUBSTANCE: method contains localization of moving objects in each frame and learning of background model with utilization of image remainder.
EFFECT: increased speed and reliability of background extraction from frames, with possible processing of random background changes and camera movements.
4 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: support frame is assigned with sign, showing information about direction of support frame, and during determining of predicted vector of movement of encoded block averaging operation is performed with use of vectors of movement of neighboring blocks, during which, if one of aforementioned blocks has movement vectors, information about direction of support frames is received, to which these movement vectors are related, and one of movement vectors is selected with reference to received information about direction, than averaging operation is performed with use of selected movement vector to receive subject movement vector of encoded block.
EFFECT: higher precision, higher reliability.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: safety and control systems.
SUBSTANCE: as main mechanism, detection of living human face and detection of unsanctioned users present closely to registered user, are used. In invention, methods for tracking a three-dimensional object are used, where object is brought to first normalized face shape, while fast method is used for measuring and comparing facial mimics to a template, and also methods are used for detection of local features and representation of face in three different normalized forms. Also, fast method for measuring and comparing to a template is used for such a behavioral biometric characteristic as phonemic signature, produced as a result of execution of system commands by the user.
EFFECT: increased reliability and speed when detecting an attempt of unsanctioned access to an object.
2 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: engineering of devices for capture, processing and transfer of text and mixed information, containing symbols and images.
SUBSTANCE: image is firstly analyzed relatively to its text information, after that original image is segmented onto block of text and block of image, while text is interpreted by means of methods for optical recognition of symbols, transformed and compressed to code. Graphic information is added to code, allowing to create synthesized image of text block.
EFFECT: possible capture, recognition and storage for text and other information.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparing samples, producing video images by scanning, processing video images by software to detect structural defects, estimation of defects and recording received data, forming of electronic report on each analyzed sample. Software for processing two-dimensional images is used, defects are automatically searched for, type, geometric distribution and significance of each defect are automatically identified in numbers in accordance to standard scale of defect classification, sent to computer of computer module are technological parameters for manufacturing of each sample, full report is generated on quality at given technological founding parameters, library of detected defects is supplemented, system of non-defect technology for continuous founding of billets is determined on basis of data of performed video analysis.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: processing of images.
SUBSTANCE: method includes inputting signals, appropriate for alternating series of scene images, at which object can appear, first Fourier transformation of this signals series, recording Fourier spectrum signals, appropriate for one of images of series in form of synchronized Fourier filter, synchronized Fourier filtering of signals of current images with following second Fourier transformation of resulting signals of multiplication and change of response signals values, being responses to synchronized Fourier filtering, while at the beginning current images of scene are divided on fragments, and then synchronized Fourier filtering of signals of Fourier spectrums of each fragments are performed after which value of response signals is measured, being a result of synchronized Fourier filtering of current fragment of threshold processing of these signals is performed, while response signals being results of synchronized filtering of signals of fooling current images are used to determine coordinates of object.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, broader functional capabilities.
1 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: systems for recognizing and tracking objects.
SUBSTANCE: system has matrix sensors, each of which is meant for performing functions of first type sensor, providing for possible detection of object presence in working zone of sensor and determining position thereof, and second type sensor, providing for possible use of this object position, determined by first type sensor, for identification or recognition of object, and possible focusing or operation with greater resolution then first type sensor.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
16 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: technical physics.
SUBSTANCE: system can be used for getting images of quick-going processes in open photographic material on base of shade photography; it can be used during aero-ballistic surveys, in particular, when investigating conditions of tested models. Device has pulse light source and camera with open photographic film. Camera is made in form of light-penetrable basket with opening turned to light source mounted along optical axis of system. Diffuse screen is placed between camera and light source at distance of l from opening of camera, which distance is defined by required scale of image. Shade photography of quick-going process can be made onto wide-format photo-film; process is accomplished with background illumination.
EFFECT: elimination of influence of natural illumination onto process of registration; simplified design of registration system.
2 cl, 1 dwg