Method of optical registration

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: method of optical registration of process, changing in time, is realized due to frame-by-frame shooting of digital camera with CCD array to get time dependence of at least one cinematic characteristic of tested process. During frame-by-frame shooting, registration is carried out in area of one or row of spatially fixed fragments of field of any frame. Video camera reads out information at any field from those columns or lines of CCD array only which are disposed in field of specified fragment. After that images of any registered fragment are combined to get time dependence in form of time-base.

EFFECT: improved reliability.

5 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to techniques for the photographic recording of a single, time-varying, mostly of fast processes (combustion, detonation, shock waves etc) on the photosensitive medium.

There is a method of optical detection in the form of timebase mainly of fast gas-dynamic processes (e.g., detonation of the explosive charge) by the image projection process through a narrow slit on a segment of the film, mounted on a rotating drum or on the stationary segment of the film, through a rotating mirror (for example, in a high-speed camera SFR). In a similar way we get the time base through a system of slit - raster (Dubovik A.S. Photographic registration of fast processes. M., Nauka, 1964, p.21).

The disadvantage of this method are the time costs associated with the need for film processing (manifestation etc), and the time constraints of registration processes the raster method (this method may be registered only short processes; otherwise, due to the overlap of image scans from different cracks raster almost completely overlap).

Widely known method of optical detection of a time-varying process through time-lapse photography using videokameraet high-speed digital video camera, help get a full and realistic information about the developing time process in the form of a temporal sequence of frames of the process. For example, the camera VS-FAST-2 by "NGOs VIDEOSCAN" allows images to be captured with a frequency of 500 frames per second or more (Butuzov A.A. and other Proceedings of the International Conference VII Kharitonov topical Scientific Readings, Sarov, 2005, p.á305-306). Conducting successively in each frame measurements given kinematic characteristics of the process (for example, the position of the shock front along the given direction; the difference of the output waves on a given base, and so on), you can obtain the time dependence of a given kinematic characteristics.

The disadvantage of this method of registration of the investigated process are, on the one hand, the time costs associated with the need to perform measurements on each frame and subsequent mathematical processing of measurement results, and on the other hand, the errors associated with measurement errors on each frame.

The technical result achieved when using the proposed method, is to accelerate the registration process and improve the accuracy of registration of the investigated processes, in particular fast, using a digital video recorder.

This result d is attained when the optical reception (mostly of fast gas-dynamic processes through time-lapse photography with obtaining a function of time, at least one of the kinematic characteristics of the process due to the fact that registration in the zone of one or more spatial fixed portions of a field frame with the subsequent Union of the images of each of the fragments in the form of optical timebase.

I.e. asked to register not only the fields of the frame, and one or more pieces of the frame. Get then when combining images of each of the fragments of the time base of the studied process is more accurate and informative in comparison with stop motion. Spatial fixation of the fragment (fragments) in the frame necessary to ensure the spatial fixing of the recorded area (areas) of the investigated process.

In particular, one fragment may have the form of narrow linear strips. The direction of the long side of the strips is chosen coincident with the direction of change of a given kinematic characteristics of the studied process. For example, it may be the moving wave front or border along the selected direction. The sequential combining images of fragment frames received with frame-by-frame shooting, in the direction perpendicular to the long side of the strips obtained a temporary expand the ku image registered process within a given fragment. This procedure can be implemented using a computer that controls the camera. As a result of repeatedly reduced time costs associated with the need to perform measurements on each frame and the subsequent mathematical processing of measurement results, and on the other hand, eliminates errors associated with measurement errors on each frame.

Alternatively, when the registration is carried out on several portions of a field frame in the form of a system of identical, straight, parallel strips, combining separate images of each of the fragments. In this case, you can get not one but a series of temporary scan process similar to bitmap, practically not limited in time, which will provide a more complete picture of the investigated process.

Finally, the registration may be carried out in the field point (or point) of fragments of the frame. In this case, the latter may contain a few pixels or in the limit only one point of the recording element (pixel). When combining images of these fragments obtained in slow motion in a given direction, the output image process in the form of a scanner that allows to obtain the time dependence of the process in them. For example, it may be time dependent luminescence reg is sriramulu object at the given points.

Implementation of the described method is most simply can be implemented using a digital video camera in which an image of the recorded object is projected on the CCD-matrix. Time-lapse photography in normal mode in each frame display all of the elements of the CCD array and then information from each of the elements is read sequentially in memory (or on tape). In the proposed method, the information is read only with the square of the fragment or fragments. As a result, significantly reduces the readout time for each frame and, accordingly, may be increased frequency filming and improved temporal resolution determines the accuracy of the registration. In the limit of fragments can contain only one-dimensional sequence of dot recording elements (i.e. the fragment frame in the form of strips in the transverse direction contains one cell (one pixel)).

Figure 1. The conventional image of the field frame (CCD) high-speed digital video camera with one slice in which you are recording (similar to a slit scan): 1 - individual recording elements (pixels); 2 - boundary of the image of the registered object; 3 - fragment boundaries of the field frame in which the pixels are read into the computer memory

Figure 2. Conditional image field of the camera frame with multiple FR is gentami, where registration (similar to a raster scan).

Figure 3. Conditional image field of the camera frame with several points of slices: 4 - point portions of a field frame

The proposed method can be implemented, for example, in the case of high-speed digital video camera controlled by a computer (for example, the camera VS-FAST company VIDEOSCAN). In such cameras periodically repeating the procedure of registration of each frame consists of the following steps:

- exposition of the entire field of the frame within the specified time;

sequential reading of information from elements of the first row (or column), then the second and so on, until the end of the specified fragment.

The proposed method is implemented as follows.

When preparing to shoot time-varying process or object first is allowing the camera to the object and receive his image on the monitor screen of the PC that controls the camera. Then on the screen are determined by the boundaries of the fragment field of the frame that will be used to read information (Figure 1). The width of the fragment can be limited to one pixel. The direction of the long side of the fragment is chosen coincident with the direction of change of a given kinematic characteristics of the studied process. For example, it may be moving wave froh the one or border along the selected direction.

Next is shooting. The program control camera reads each frame of information with only those columns or rows that are in the field of a given fragment. Then with the help of special programs read from each frame information is combined, modeling optical time base changes the picture into the box portion of the frame. After receiving the scan processing, including determination of the temporal characteristics of the recorded process is performed by using the PC for a given program, while the temporal characteristics of the scanner is rigidly set by the imaging frequency, which in the digital video camera is maintained with high precision.

The area of the frame, which is the registration of the subject as may be specified in the form of several fragments, having the form of narrow strips, the width of which may be limited by one pixel (Figure 2). The strips are arranged in parallel. Each frame in the computer memory are read only in the pixels in the area of the fragments. Combining a few of the information is performed for each fragment separately. The result is similar raster scan register process. This method of getting the raster scan has the advantage over mechanical method of obtaining such resort and (for example, using the camera SFR), because in the second case, the duration of a registered process may be limited due to the overlay of the images of the individual raster lines to each other on the film, at the same time, in the first case it is excluded.

Finally, the fragments of the frame may have a dot shape, i.e. each fragment can be in the form of a square, circle, etc. and include a small number of pixels (one pixel) (Figure 3). Association read information for each such fragment allows you to receive time base status register object at given points, for example the presence or absence of illumination at a given point of the recorded object.

The inventive method was tested in experiments in a shock tube using video cameras VS-FAST. The size CCD digital video camera VS-FAST - 1024×1280 pixels. The maximum shooting speed at full frame 500 frames per second. The read speed of a single line (1024 pixel) ˜2 μs, the time read the full frame ˜2 MS.

Shock tube was cylindrical transparent channel of Plexiglas; the driver of the shock wave were self-luminous products of detonation of a mixture of acetylene with oxygen. In these experiments during the registration process fixed the fragment field of the frame was four rows, sityva the Oia - 8 ISS, the frame was recorded as a separate bmp file size 1024×4. Fixed the fragment field of the frame coincides with the axis of the image channel shock tube on the frame. Exposure time was chosen equal to 6 μs. This value is determined by the technical characteristics of the camera. Among recorded within 2 seconds 250 thousand frames was determined visually the beginning of the process and selected the desired number of frames (1000). Then with the help of a special program these frames are lined up from left to right without a gap and was recorded as a bmp file size 1024×4000, making a temporary scan motion boundaries luminous products of detonation in a shock tube with a temporal resolution of 8 MS.

In the computer processing time scan flow in a shock tube was turned over ˜10 minutes. For manual processing, 1000 frames, the time of receipt time dependence of the motion of the boundary of the lighting products of detonation in a shock tube would have increased at least tenfold.

If the registration process was carried out on full frame, the time resolution of the time dependence of the motion of the boundary of the lighting products of detonation in a shock tube would be in ˜250 times worse. In the camera VS-FAST has the ability to increase speed shooting of up to 5000 frames per second by reducing the field of video frame format 1280󗄀, but in this case, the resolution would be in ˜25 times worse than achieved in the described experience.

Thus, confirmed the efficiency of the method. Compared with the method of obtaining the time dependence of the investigated process (prototype) by measurements sequentially in each frame of a given kinematic characteristics of the studied process, the proposed method allows to reduce dozens of times time costs, improve accuracy and temporal resolution.

The proposed method has several advantages over commonly used in the present method of obtaining continuous photographic recording on the film (analog):

Mobility information, eliminating the need for processing photographic film (manifestation, etc.) and further converting the received information into a digital format;

- Implementation of standby. The duration of the sweep time is not limited by the length of the film, and depends only on your computer's memory. For existing high-speed video camera VS-FAST company VIDEOSCAN check-in time is 2.5 sec. Essentially, this is approaching the waiting mode; so there is no need to develop special devices to synchronize the start of registration with the beginning of the registered process, the duration of which, as a rule, many IU is the more fractions of a second. In particular, this property of the proposed method is advantageous in the case of raster scan, at which time continuous recording on the film is severely limited.

- The possibility of unlimited time raster scan. In this case, you can get not one but a series of temporary expansions of the process is practically not limited in time (generally continuous raster registration on the film is limited by the travel time of a raster image by a distance equal to the step raster images on film), which significantly extends the study of fast processes raster method.

Thus, the single photography, time-varying processes in a limited area of one or more spatial fixed portions of a field frame and the subsequent Union of the images of each of the fragments to obtain the time dependence in the form of the timebase register process helped to improve the known method of time-lapse photography with a digital camera.

1. The method of optical detection of a time-varying process through time-lapse photography with a digital camera with a CCD matrix with obtaining a function of time, at least one kinematic characteristics of issledovaniia, characterized in that in slow motion make registration in the zone of one or several spatial fixed portions of a field of each frame, while the camera reads each frame of information with only those columns or rows of the CCD array, which are in the field of a given fragment, followed by merging images of each registered fragments with getting time dependence in the form of time base.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that register in the area of one slice of the field frame in the form of narrow linear strips.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that registration area number of fragments field frame in the form of a system of parallel spaced narrow rectilinear strips.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that register in the zone of the point portions of a field of the frame.

5. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the optical registration process performed by the video camera, computer controlled.



 

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