Method for forming metallic portion on metallic substrate by depositing layers one on other (variants)
FIELD: processes for forming metallic portion on metallic substrate by superimposing deposited layers one on other, possibly manufacture of articles with laminate coating.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of generating heat beam of heat power source and directing said beam to metallic powder fed from powdered metal source; moving substrate relative to beam along formed portion while creating propagating zone of melt; during process of forming group of metallic layers reading parameters of melt zone in group of selected coordinates; storing read parameters in each of selected coordinate group and processing stored parameters while determining respective power of laser for applying next layer. Power change for applying next layers is realized in such a way that to create melt zone corresponding to those formed for applying lower optimal layer. It compensates heating of substrate caused by layer deposition and causing increased melt zone dimension or temperature in upper layers.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of metallic substrates.
12 cl, 4 dwg
The technical field to which the invention relates.
The present invention relates to the manufacture of metal parts by direct deposition of a group of relatively thin layer which serves as a base substrate, in particular, to such devices that regulate spent in the deposition of layers of power using the parameters generated in the process of formation of the previous layer.
The level of technology
Fabrication of bulk metallic components layer-by-layer welding was first published in 1978 by the authors Breinan and Kear. In U.S. patent No. 4323756, issued in 1982 in the name of Brown, and others, described a method of manufacturing a massive rapid curing and metal products, having a near-net shape, practically used in the manufacture of some components of gas turbine engine, including discs and knife air seal. In accordance with the description of many thin layers of the base material is applied using an energy beam, naplouse each layer on the substrate. Used energy source may be a laser or electron beam. In the practice of the invention, the base material may serve or wire, or powder material and the basic material is applied to the substrate in such a way that it passes through the laser beam Anaplasma on the melted portion of the substrate.
In this way the direct deposition of metal for the manufacture of bulk components, it is advisable to use multi-axis, commercially available devices with numerical control. U.S. patent No. 5837960 relates to a method and apparatus for forming products from bulk materials. The material is melted using a laser beam and precipitated points along the trajectory of the head to form the product of a given shape and size. In a preferred embodiment, the head trajectory and other parameters of the deposition process are defined using the technology of automatic design and manufacture. The controller included in a digital computer that controls the movement of the deposition zone along the trajectory of the head and provides for the issuing control signals to configure device settings, such as the speed at which the deposition head, moving the laser beam and the powder in the zone of deposition, moves along its path.
Most of the existing technologies, however, based on the regulation of open-loop, which requires significant mechanical finishing machining to get the item with sizes lying within the acceptable range. In the manufacturing process requires the constant use of corrective action to bring the items to the set PA is amerov largest tolerance and residual stresses. The device control closed loop in which such problems are solved, as described in U.S. patent No. 6122564. This patent disclosed a device with computer process control direct deposition of metal using a laser, in which successive layers of material applied to the substrate to produce the product or cause the layers of the coating.
Unlike the previous approach, this device is the direct deposition of metal provided with feedback to control the dimensions and overall geometry of the part being manufactured in accordance with the CAD file. The trajectory of the deposition head is produced by a computer system device with a numeric control with the use of additional software precipitation instead of the uninstall program, as in a conventional device with numerical control. Such systems with adjustable feedback can make completely unnecessary intermediate machining and significantly reduce the final mechanical processing.
In U.S. patent No. 6518541 disclosed device direct deposition of metal, which use a laser having a working cycle of the "on-off", and means to regulate the process of using feedback to establish the operating cycle with the necessary parameters. U.S. patent No. 6459951 the relative is conducted to the device direct deposition of metal, uses a control device parameters feedback with the aim of establishing a permanent zone of the melt in the process of deposition of a particular layer.
These devices control feedback can improve the accuracy of each layer in the multilayer process of production, but does not relate to the problem changes from layer to layer, resulting heating of the substrate in the process of direct deposition of metal.
Disclosure of inventions
The present invention relates to multilayer technology sedimentation control feedback and adaptive device for regulating the power of the laser used in the application layer, and regulation based on the parameters read in the formation of the previous layer.
In the deposition process a certain amount of energy emitted by the laser is absorbed by the substrate, which causes the increase of substrate temperature. Repeated application of the layers leads to a gradual increase in the substrate temperature up until the temperature stabilizes at a certain level. At this point the heat loss from the substrate peak, and, therefore, further absorption of laser energy increases the temperature and the size of the zone of the melt. The increase in the size of zone melt a negative impact n the uniformity of deposited layers.
The present invention relates to adaptive device with a closed cycle in which the size or temperature of zone melt read using video, or alternatively using a pyrometer, and read the value sent to the numeric processor, which regulate the laser power for each layer. Algorithm power control operates so as to set the same values or temperature zone at a certain point in each layer, as the value or the temperature at this point in the underlying layers.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, this adjustment mechanism of the laser power feedback is not activated when applying the first layer on the substrate, since the conditions of heat transfer and, accordingly, the temperature of zone melt that layer will be significantly different from values for subsequent coating layers. For the second or overlying layer depending on design parameters on the surface layer choose the coordinates of several test points. The number of test points is chosen depending on the area of deposition, the geometry of the part and the processing speed of the algorithm in the Central processor. When applying the second layer or another layer reads and remembers the size or temperature of the AOR is s melt for each control (test) point. This layer may be called "the Gold layer, as the size of the zone or the temperature measured at each control point in the process of applying this layer are considered installation values for the parameters applying to coordinates of corresponding control points for the application of subsequent layers.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention in the process of applying the Gold layer of the image area of the melt obtained using CCD cameras (cameras with charge-coupled), captured in various control points, and the size of the melt for each control point is determined by image analysis. The values stored for each control point, and then categorized into low, medium or high point, in accordance with the difference between the size of the individual zones of the melt. Then create a two-dimensional Matrix of Values for the variables at each control point using the difference between the sizes of the images in the high and low points. Next, without changing the laser power is applied the next layer and the capture zone of the melt at the control points. Calculated a matrix of image sizes for this layer and compared with the matrix for the previous layer to compute the matrix "Layer Weight". Next, this matrix image sizes for the layer is ravnivat with a matrix of image sizes for the Gold Layer and calculate the difference. The difference in size is used with matrix Values and the corresponding weight value is selected from a matrix layer weight for each control point, and form a matrix of correction weights in the control points. Applying this matrix to the power of the laser in the Gold layer, calculate the new value of the laser power for the next layer. This process is repeated for each subsequent layer.
As a result of this process, the size of zone melt to a specific point in the layer is adjusted until the best approximation to the size of the zone at this point for the Gold Layer.
In accordance with the foregoing, it is proposed a method of forming a metal part (area) on a metal substrate by depositing group superimposed on each other layers, which generate laser thermal beam, and served in the laser beam metal powder from a source of powdered metal, and thus carry out the movement of the substrate relative to the beam using a numeric control programmable trajectory and formation of the spreading zone of the melt. In the process of forming the group of metal layers perform reading (definition) zone settings of the melt in the group selected coordinates, memorizing a few options in each of the selected coordinates and the process saved the settings with the definition of the corresponding laser power for overcoating.
In preferred variants of the method when processing the saved settings carry out the comparison matrix read parameters stored in the formation of the last deposited layer, with the matrix a few parameters previously applied layer on the basis of which to determine the appropriate laser power for overcoating. While previously applied layer is a second layer deposited on the substrate.
Read the zone settings of the melt may include the size of the zone and/or optical brightness zone temperature zone of the melt.
In another embodiment, a method of generating heat beam from the energy source, and served in the beam metal powder from a source of powdered metal, and thus carry out the movement of the substrate relative to the beam on the formed part with the creation of the spreading zone of the melt. In the process of forming the group of metal layers perform the reading zone settings of the melt in the group selected coordinates, memorizing a few options in each of the selected coordinates and processing parameters stored with identifying the appropriate laser power for overcoating.
As an energy source can be used in laser or electron beam. In the process of forming each layer level is Amnesty support beam constant.
In yet another embodiment, the method is carried out the deposition of the first layer in contact with the substrate when the first thickness of thermal beam, then carry out the deposition of the second layer on the first layer with the same thickness of the heat ray, and that when applying the first layer, and the reading in the process of forming the specified second layer zone settings of the melt in the group selected coordinates, followed by the deposition of the third layer with the same thickness of the heat ray that when applying the first two layers, and reading in the process of forming the third layer zone settings of the melt in said selected coordinates, and save the settings area of the melt in the process of forming the second and third layers and then use them in determining the appropriate capacity of thermal beam for deposition of subsequent layers.
When the deposition of each successive layer reads the settings area of the melt in the specified group selected coordinates and use them together with the previously saved a few parameters to determine thermal power of the beam for subsequent layers.
Other objectives, advantages and applications will be apparent from the subsequent detailed description of a preferred variant implementation of the invention. In the description referring to the accompanying drawings.
A brief description of h is of Raja
Figure 1 shows schematically the device of the direct deposition of metal, which is used in the present invention.
Figure 2 shows a typical item that can be manufactured using the method and device in accordance with the present invention.
Figure 3 - block diagram of the preferred variant of the method in accordance with the present invention.
Figure 4 presents the description of the algorithm used in a preferred embodiment of the invention.
The implementation of the invention
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, schematically represented in figure 1, the device comprises a head 10, consisting of a powerful laser and dispenser, throwing out using a gas jet of metal powder (a process of direct deposition of metal using gas and laser), which form the zone 14 of the melt at the point on the substrate 12. This device similar to the device described in the prior art in U.S. patent 6122564. In a variant, alternative dosing of powder, the laser beam may be wire, and alternatively, the laser beam can be an electron beam. Later used the terms "laser" and "powder" should be considered as including those alternatives.
Polozka 12 moves relative to the part of the head 10 by a programmable trajectory under the control of the controller 16 of the device numeric control (CNC), so the area of the melt describes this trajectory in order on a substrate formed of a metal layer. On the desktop of the device is fixed a pair of CCD cameras 18 and 20 forming the image zone of the melt from two opposite sides. This is necessary in cases when the area of the melt is formed in such a way that blocked the view from one of the cameras.
In alternative versions of the invention, more preferable in comparison with the dimensions of the zone of melt in her image is the determination of the temperature zone of the melt through one or more pyrometers. The size of the melt and temperature are closely related to each other.
Output signals from the cameras 18 and 20 are transferred to the graphics card 22 includes a block 24 software image processing, which executes the procedures described below. The interface driver 26 connects the block 24 software image processing software unit 28 of the numerical control device issuing control signals moving through the controller 16 of the numerical control device and on line 30 sends the control signal power of the laser in the head 10.
Figure 2 shows a typical workpiece, generally designated as 32, which includes which serves as a Foundation metal substrate 34 with a deposited methodology the direct deposition of the metal section 36, formed by a group of layers on the upper surface of the substrate. When applying an initial layer of deposited volume 36 much of the heat of laser energy is spent on heating which serves as a base metal substrate 34. As you continue applying layers the temperature of the substrate reaches a maximum and then an additional laser energy goes into melting the powdered metal in a previously applied area. If each region to apply a constant laser power, the size of the melt will begin to rise as it is heated substrate, which will cause abnormal pattern of deposition of the metal. This invention is intended to compensate for this phenomenon.
In General, the method in accordance with the present invention lies in the choice of the initial laser power based on the conventional empirical approach, and applying at least the first two layers of the section 36. When applying the first layer is no measurement of the size of the zone is not carried out, since the contact of the first layer with the substrate 34 the resulting thermal characteristics different from those obtained by the application of subsequent layers. When applying the second layer (or in the alternative to the higher layers, such as the third layer, depending on the metallurgical properties of the substrate 34) in the process of this drawing will be conducted measurements of RA is a measure of the area of the melt at selected points. These values are stored in the program unit 24 of the image processing. Generally speaking, the measurements of the size of the melt in the same selected coordinates as the formation of subsequent layers, and the results of the measurement zone in a particular layer will be processed according to the stored matrices representing the zone size in the previous layers in order to determine the appropriate laser power for use when applying the next layer. Such adjustment of the laser power from layer to layer in a broad sense is intended to compensate for the effect of heating the substrate in the zone of the melt.
The image area of the melt is the main input for the control system and contains information about the temperature in the zone of the melt. Information about the temperature in the zone of the melt can be obtained from the image zone of the melt, determining the brightness level of the image and an area called "the zone of the melt". By regulating the laser power is regulated by the size of the zone of the melt and, consequently, the temperature zone of the melt, which creates a closed-loop feedback system. The system is self-learning or adaptive through the use of information about previous layer to adjust the laser power during the formation of subsequent layers.
Each selected coordinate of each of the NAS is independent of the layer is treated as a separate Control (Test) Point. At each Control Point, the image size may be different due to the influence of the geometry. The size of the image area of the melt to a point on the flat surface may be different from the size for a point on the inclined surface. In addition, even on a flat surface the size of the image area of the melt for areas with sealed trajectories passing head will be different from the dimensions of the image area of the melt at the endpoints. When implementing adaptive closed-loop system temperature zone of the melt takes into account all the above circumstances, in order to make this system sustainable.
Figure 3 in accordance with the preferred implementation of the invention presents the algorithm of the adaptive closed-loop system temperature zone of the melt. When performing the operation indicated in block 48, the operator enters the initial data. This includes the coordinates of the Control Points on the part. The number of considered Control Points depends on the area of deposition and processing speed of the algorithm by the CPU. On a relatively large flat parts of the coordinates of the Control Points can be spaced far enough from each other, while for the part with the changing contours requires closer placement coordinates.
"MIN" and "MAX", not only what are the coordinates of the start and end Control Points. "INC" is a step between the Test Points. "KCON" - constant regulatory systems related to the values of the matrix. "PWR1" means the initial laser power.
The blocks 52 are related to the initial operations of the first layer after you enter the initial data. This layer is in direct contact with the substrate 34, and for him during the coating process, there is no size measurements. Next, in block 54 should the operation of applying the second layer, and in the process of applying for the coordinates of Control Points is the calculation of the image zone of the melt. This layer is called "the Gold Layer, as the information collected during the formation of this layer is considered as the optimal solution for the corresponding coordinates of Control Points in the subsequent layers. It is believed that the temperature of the substrate during the deposition of the Gold Layer is minimal compared to the temperature of the substrate during the application of subsequent layers. Thus this layer is considered as the best of the applied layer. The image areas of the melt obtained using CCD cameras 18 and 20, is captured at various Control Points, and the size of the melt for each point is determined by image processing software unit 24. The size of the image area of the melt for the Checkpoint of the Gold Layer CPA is valuated with all other points, and Control Points are divided into categories of LOW, MEDIUM or HIGH point in accordance with the difference in specific dimensions. This is performed in the steps shown in the frames 54 and 56. In block 58 is a matrix of VALUES for the first layer or a Gold Layer. The matrix of VALUES is generated for LOW, MEDIUM or HIGH points using the difference between the sizes of the images in the high and low points. Matrix values for the LOW points will have a shorter distribution of values compared to the distribution of the matrix of VALUES of the HIGH points. Simultaneously with the formation of a matrix of VALUES completed the calculations for the initial layer or a Gold Layer. The equations and algorithms used in these and other calculations, shown in figure 4. Then without changing the laser power is applied the next layer and the captured image zone of the melt at the Control Points. As before, the matrix size of the zone of the melt, the matrix size of the image of this layer compared to the matrix size of the image of the previous layer, and the calculated value wl2a using the equations shown in figure 4. This is all shown in blocks 60 and 62 in figure 3. Next, in block 64 matrix size of the image for the layer number two is compared to the matrix size of the image of the Gold Layer and the calculated difference is between them. The difference in size is used with a matrix of VALUES, and the corresponding weight values selected from wl2a for each Test Point, and wt2p are set using the equation for the third step, shown in figure 4. Finally, using the value wt2p for the laser power pwr1 Gold layer, calculates the new value of the laser power. The new value of the laser power is set to the laser generator in the cylinder 10 through the analog communication line. This is illustrated in block 66. The process shown in blocks 60, 62, 64 and 66, is repeated for subsequent layers until then, until you applied the last layer, and the manufacturing end.
Obviously, that can be used in other specific equations to achieve the goal in a broad sense, as outlined in this specification and defined in the attached claims.
You can also see that instead of the temperature measurements, based on the dimensions of the zone of the melt, can be made direct temperature measurement.
1. The method of forming a metal part on the metal substrate by depositing group superimposed on each other layers, which generate heat beam from the energy source and served in the beam metal powder from a source of powdered metal, and provide navigation padlock the relative beam formed on part with the creation of the spreading zone of the melt, characterized in that in the process of the formation of the metal layers perform the reading zone settings of the melt in the group selected coordinates, memorizing a few options in each of the selected coordinates and processing parameters stored with the definition of the relevant thermal power beam for applying the next layer.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the source energy use of the laser.
3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the processing of the saved settings carry out the comparison matrix read parameters stored in the formation of the last deposited layer, with the matrix a few parameters previously applied layer on the basis of which to determine the appropriate laser power for overcoating.
4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the previously applied layer is a second layer deposited on the substrate.
5. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the read zone settings of the melt include the size of the zone.
6. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the read zone settings of the melt include optical brightness zones.
7. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the read zone settings of the melt include the size of the optical zone and the brightness of the zone.
8. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the read parameters of the melt zone which includes temperature zone of the melt.
9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as an energy source using an electron beam.
10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in the process of forming each layer of the power level of the beam constant support.
11. The method of forming a metal part on the metal substrate by coating group superimposed on each of the layers, which generate heat ray and served in the beam metal powder from a source of powdered metal, and thus carry out the movement of the substrate relative to the beam using a numeric control programmable trajectory and formation of the spreading zone of the melt, characterized in that carry out the deposition of the first layer in contact with the substrate when the first thickness of thermal beam, then carry out the deposition of the second layer on the first layer with the same thickness of the heat ray, and that when applying the first layer, and the reading process the formation of the specified second layer zone settings of the melt in the group selected coordinates, followed by the deposition of the third layer with the same thickness of the heat ray that when applying the first two layers, and reading in the process of forming the third layer zone settings of the melt in said selected position, and retain the pairs of the format area of the melt in the process of forming the second and third layers and then use them in determining the appropriate capacity of thermal beam for deposition of subsequent layers.
12. The method according to claim 11, characterized in that during the deposition of each successive layer reads the settings area of the melt in the specified group selected coordinates and use them together with the previously saved a few parameters to determine thermal power of the beam for subsequent layers.
FIELD: aerospace engineering, motor industry and shipbuilding, storage and transportation equipment of various gases and liquids under pressure, in particular, production of shell articles.
SUBSTANCE: before application of matrix-forming materials in an inflatable model with the reinforcement applied onto it, an excess pressure is built up providing for a tight adjoining of the reinforcement to the model surface and formation of elastic stresses in the reinforcement material of such a value that after application of the matrix-forming material and removal of pressure inside the model the presence of volumetric compressive stresses would be provided in the applied matrix-forming materials. The matrix-forming materials are applied by gas-thermal deposition on the reinforcement repeating the configuration of the ready-made ARTICLE. The reinforcement is made in the form of a folding net, whose cells are obtained by combination of linear elements and spring in a movable joint. The reinforcement is applied onto the inflatable model of the article of elastic materials.
EFFECT: provided production of shell articles for transportation and storage of substances corresponding to the requirements to the high-pressure vessel.
4 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: powder metallurgy; methods of the gas-flame spraying of the metallic powder materials.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the powder metallurgy, in particular, to the method of the gas-flame spraying of the metallic powder materials and may be used at manufacture of the products with coatings in the different branches of mechanical engineering and instrument engineering. The method includes injection in the flame formed at combustion of acetylene and oxygen of the jet consisting of the transported gas and the being sprayed metallic powder. The jet is protect by the noble gas, which is fed at the space of 30-90 mm from the shear of the nozzle of the gas-flame burner along the periphery of the sprayed stream with the angle of inclination of the generatrix of the stream of the inert protective gas to the axis of the jet of 10°- 35° and at the rate of 0.3 - 0.5 m3/h. In the capacity of the inert gas they use nitrogen or argon. As a result the invention allows to produce the coatings with the high strength of adhesion with the basis.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the coatings with the high strength of adhesion with the basis.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; methods of reconditioning of the machines components.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of mechanical engineering, in particular, to reconditioning of the machines components and may be used for restoration and increasing of reliability of the blocks of the "pivot bolt - the aperture under the pivot bolt" of the beams of the cars forward axles. At the wear of the holes up to 0.4 mm per the diameter for the diameter deposition of the coating made out of copper or its alloys is carried out by the electric spark treatment at the impulses power of 0.5-1.5 J, and specific time of the treatment of 2.5-3.5 minute/cm2. At the wear of the holes from 0.4-1 mm per the diameter - deposition of the layer of the coating is conducted by the electric spark treatment with the specific time of the treatment of 2.5-3.5 minute/cm2. In the beginning they deposit the layer of the coating made out of the medium-carbon steel or the high-carbon steel at the impulses power of 1.5-2.5 J, and then - the layer of copper or its alloys at impulses power of 0.5-1.5 J. The invention ensures the decreased fretting and the adhesion interaction of the reconditioned holes of the fixed joints.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the decreased fretting and the adhesion interaction of the reconditioned holes of the fixed joints.
2 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: processes for restoring or strengthening worn surfaces of steel parts by means of electric arc surfacing, mainly parts of passenger and cargo cars of railway road rolling stock.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of electric arc surfacing of worn surface, mechanically working it, heating and gas-flame depositing wear-resistant layer onto it for further flashing coating surface. Electric arc surfacing is realized while taking into account allowance for further mechanical working performed at lowering nominal size of part. Then worked surface is subjected to activation by means of shot blasting. Gas-flame deposition is realized with use of self-fluxing powdered alloy for further flashing of applied coating by heating part till temperature 950 - 1050°C. Coating is applied for increasing nominal size of part by shrinkage value of coating after finally cooling part.
EFFECT: improved quality of restored surfaces of parts, increased fatigue strength of steel parts.
FIELD: metallurgy, namely method for producing substrate of AlN, possibly manufacture of coated articles.
SUBSTANCE: substrate is produced by deposition of powder onto base at high temperature and high rate. Powder contains AlN grains coated with layer of oxide precursor selected from oxide precursors providing formation of liquid phase around AlN grains at deposition process. Invention allows make substrates with thickness 0.1 mm - 0.5 mm sufficient for operating at preset voltages.
EFFECT: improved quality of substrate of preset thickness value.
FIELD: metallurgy; mechanical engineering; installation for deposition gas-thermal coatings.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to metallurgy, in particular, to the installation for deposition of the gas-thermal coatings and may be used in the various branches of mechanical engineering in operations of preparation of the surfaces for sputtering. The installation contains the heat and sound insulation chamber (1), the front and rear stocks with the common shaft of the centers, the plasma generator (10), the circular table (4) for fixation of the sputtered detail with the drive of its gyration consisting of the electromotor (19) and pressing reduction valve (21), the protective housing, the detachable containers (15)of the sub-standard abradants, the hopper of the conditioned abradant (12), the cover (13) of the hoppers, which have been made in the form of the inverted truncated pyramid, the pneumatic cylinder, the shot-blasting tool (8) and the pneumatic control valve (16). The cylindrical hollow mixer (14)is made with the charging window (43)is arranged in the hopper of the conditioned abradant (12) and contains the internal(45) and the external (44) netted blades and the netted grating (35). The cylindrical hollow mixer (14) is established with the capability of rotational movement on the arbor (22) mounted on the bearings and coupled through the belt drive (20) and the reducing gear (24) with the electromotor (19). The netted grating (35) is consolidated in the lower part of the foundation of the cover of the hopper (13). The protective housing is made with the capability of motion in the horizontal plane, and its upper part(6) and the lower part (30) are pivotally coupled among themselves. Such construction of the installation allows to prepare the abrasive mixture of the uniform composition and ensures the uniform feeding of the fractions at the shot-blasting treatment of the detail by different mixtures of the abradants, and as the result of it the installation ensures the high quality of preparation of the detail and as the result - the increased adhesion strength of the sputtered coating.
EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the installation provides the high quality of preparation of the detail and as the result - the increased adhesion strength of the sputtered coating.
FIELD: metallurgy; plasma spraying of coats; mechanical engineering; prosthodontics.
SUBSTANCE: coat is formed by flow of particles due to spraying of rod material molten in plasma jet. Spraying of part of rod material is performed by imparting ultrasonic oscillations to it. Current of plasmatron arc and distance between axis section of nozzle and axis of rod material are equal to (120-150)A and (10-15) mm, respectively. Rate of delivery of rod material to plasma jet depends on condition of inverse ratio of rate of spreading of molten material front and retaining of layer of melt on end face of rod material which does not exceed half length of standing wave of ultrasonic oscillations. Article to be coated is subjected to ultrasonic oscillations in required direction, thus ensuring continuous control of properties of coat from inner layers to outer ones.
EFFECT: enhanced adhesion-cohesion properties of coats; improved quality of articles.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: metallurgy; making erosion-resistant heat-protective coats by plasma spraying.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method may be used in rocketry in manufacture of combustion chambers for liquid propellant engines with cermet erosion-resistant heat-protective coats on base of ZrO2 NiCr composition. Proposed method includes spraying of nichrome precoat followed by spraying of cermet composition from mechanical powder mixture containing 50-80 wt-% of zirconium dioxide and 50-20 wt-% of nichrome. For spraying cermet composition, use is made of mechanical mixture containing zirconium dioxide and nichrome powders at size of particles of 10-40 mcm and 40-100 mcm, respectively. Powder mixture is delivered under nozzle exit section of plasmatron in way of its motion relative to surface to be coated. Calcium oxide is used as stabilizing additive in zirconium dioxide powder in the amount of 4-6 wt-%.
EFFECT: increase of adhesion strength by 2-3 times; enhanced heat resistance of cermet coats due to phase transition from metal precoat to main coat.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: working rails, sleepers, baseplates, or the like, in or on the line.
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying coating on rail road component surface, wherein the coating contains aluminum and silicon taken in the following ratio: 3:2≤Al:Si≤4:1. The coating is applied by arch spraying operation. The rail road component is switch member.
EFFECT: improved coating quality, increased friction and abrasive wear resistance, improved resistance to corrosion caused by salt water or deicing agent and enhanced bond resistance.
14 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: thermal spraying on engine parts.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in spraying layer of coat material, heat treatment of coat material and spraying of additional layers of the same coat material. Each additional layer is subjected to heat treatment forming necks at points of contact of particles. Coat thus obtained has porosity from 1 to 15 vol-%. Part coated by this method is proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced wear resistance of part, enhanced impact viscosity, corrosion resistance, heat resistance and plasticity.
23 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering industry; other industries; methods of machining of the working surfaces of the friction blocks details for giving- to them the wear-resistant and antifriction properties.
SUBSTANCE: invention is pertaining to mechanical engineering and may be used at manufacture of the new and restoration of the worn-out blocks of the friction of different machines and mechanisms. The surface protecting coating is gained by its electric-spark alloying using the copper-based electrode. Grind the coating with removal of 10-30 % of the coating thickness, then the latter is passivated in the solution of oxidizer- and dried. On the worked surface apply the composition containing- the following components (in mass %): copper - 4-12, polytetrafluoroethylene - 2-8, glycol borate - 2-8, the soap plastic lubricant - the rest. The indicated - composition is periodically additionally applied in the operational mode of friction block. Before passivation the coating is rubbed with the stuff on the basis of copper at the pressure on the coating of 50-120 MPa, at the staff motion speed on the working surface of 0.01-0.10 m/s, in the medium consisting of the mixture of glycerin with the copper chloride taken in the ratio from 97:3 up to 99:1 mass %. The given working of the detail surface allows to improve the antiwear and - antifriction properties of the block of friction.
EFFECT: invention ensures the increase of the antiwear and - antifriction properties of the block of friction.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: production of cartridges of small arms of various designation, can be realized mainly for production steel cartridge cases of live cartridges of small arms.
SUBSTANCE: the steel cartridge case with a protective coating consists of successively applied layers: a zinc-phosphate layer in the form of a polymeric compound based on the polymer of polyorganosiloxane and the copolymer of butadiene with styrene and a polymer and/or oligomer modifying it, forming with the polyorganosiloxame of sale spatially joined structure of polymeric coating. The method for application of the protective coating onto the surface of a steel cartridge case includes a success forming of the zinc-phosphate layer serving as a prime coat, polymeric layer that is applied by a treatment of the cartridge case in one bath in an aqueous solution of the polymer of polyorganosiloxane and copolymer of butadiene with styrene and polymer and/or oligomer modifying it, or by a continuous successive treatment of the case in two baths, the cartridge case treatment in the first bath is conducted in an aqueous solution of the polymer of polyorganosiloxane and copolymer of butadiene with styrene, and it the second bath-in an aqueous solution of modifying polymer and/or oligomer, forming of the polymeric protective coating is conducted by hardening of the modified polymeric layer applied in the process of the thermal treatment up to forming of a sole spatially joined structure of the polymeric compound.
EFFECT: enhanced resistance to corrosion of the cartridge case coating and resistance of the given coating to attrition.
13 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; metal-working industry; other industries; methods of the corrosion protection of the steels by application of the zinc-chromate coatings.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the corrosion protection of the metals and may be used for the protection of the steel articles against corrosion by means of the multilayer coatings. The zinc-chromate coating on the steel contains the zinc layer produced out of the sulfate electrolyte, and the external chromate layer. At that the coating in addition contains the inner electric current- conductive chromate layer produced out of the solution, (g/dm3): CrO3 - 8, HNO3 - 4, Na2SO4 - 12, Cr2(SO4)3·18H2O - 5, Na2SnO3·3H2O - 8. The zinc-chromate coating on the steel contains the zinc layer produced out of the sulfate electrolyte, and the outer chromate layer. At that the zinc-chromate coating additionally contains the inner electric current conductive chromate layer produced out of the solution, (g/dm3): CrO3 - 8, Na2SO4 - 12, Cr2(SO4)3 ·18 H2O - 5, In(NO3)3 - 6. The technical result of the invention is the raise of the protective capability of the zinc-chromate coating on the steel on the average in 2 times.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased protective capability of the zinc-chromate coating on the steel on the average in 2 times.
1 dwg, 4 ex
FIELD: electrical engineering; electricity-conductive compound in the form of flocculent particles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed compound has titanium oxide with mean large diameter of 1 to 100 μm and mean thickness of 0.01 to 1.5 μm, potassium in amount of 0.03 to 5 mass percent in the form of potassium oxide (K2O), as well as first electricity-conductive layer which is formed on surface and has in its composition tin oxide and antimony, and second electricity-conductive layer which is formed on first electricity-conductive layer and has in its composition tin oxide. Proposed electricity-conductive composition in the form of flocculent particles is capable of imparting good electricity-conductive properties even when formed in layer of 1 to 10 μm in thickness.
EFFECT: improved properties of electricity-conductive composition.
6 cl 3 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: materials resistant to corrosion accompanied by metallic dust formation; methods of manufacture of such materials, reactor materials in particular subjected to action of media supersaturated with carbon.
SUBSTANCE: proposed material contains alloy and protective oxide coat on base of alloy. Protective oxide coat consists of at least two oxide layers: first layer which is farthest from surface of alloy is made from manganese oxide. Alloy contains base metals including iron, nickel and cobalt and alloying metals including chromium and manganese; concentration of manganese is at least 10 mass-% and concentration of chromium is at least 25 mass-%. Total content of chromium and manganese is no less than 40 mass-%.
EFFECT: enhanced resistance of material to corrosion with metallic dust formation in media supersaturated with carbon.
2 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: foundry, possibly technology, painting art and architecture.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of forming pattern of article for making according to it rough mold; performing sand blasting of working surface of rough mold; depositing onto its surface layer of alloy being material of decorative article; releasing deposited layer from rough mold due to difference of thermal expansion factors of materials of deposited layer and substrate.
EFFECT: possibility for making thin-wall decorative articles of metals and alloys with high surface quality, small mass due to their porous structure and thin wall and with mechanical properties sufficient for using article in interior.
4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: different industries; methods of manufacture of the spindles out of the steel for the pipeline fittings.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of manufacture of the pipeline fittings, in particular, the spindles, shutters and valves for shutting and control of consumption off the mediums passing through the pipelines. The method includes the thermal treatment and the mechanical working with formation of the threading. After the mechanical working exercise nitriding by the vacuum ion-implantation method at the temperature of T = (320-450)°С, the voltage - U = (250 - 750)V and during the time t = (20-60) minutes. The technical result consists in the increased reliability and the service life of the pipeline fittings.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased reliability and the service life of the pipeline fittings.
3 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of articles with normalized properties of surface layer, namely for improving strength of press tools at pressing shapes of titanium alloys.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of surfacing hard alloy layer forming reinforcing structure onto base material; applying by electric spark alloying layer of hard alloy having plastic components onto surfaces layer of hard alloy in order to provide coating with reinforcing effect; then applying onto surface of formed coating additional layer having oil-phobic properties.
EFFECT: enhanced strength of part with such coating, lowered stresses of base metal.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: building industry; method and devices allowing to make the three-dimensional visual effects on the surface of the metallic material.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to application of the coatings on the surfaces of the metallic materials. The method provides for application of the coating made out of the metal or out of the metal alloy. The first layer of the applied coating has the depth smaller or equal to 2.5 microns. Then conduct the thermal treatment of the first layer of the coating by means of the fast heating by heating the surface of the first layer of the coating up to the temperature laying within the limits from0.8 Tf up tothe temperature of Tf, whereTf is the temperature of smelting of the metal or the metal alloy, which is used in application of the first layer of the coating. Then they apply the second layer of the coating from the metal or the metal alloy with the depth smaller or equal to 1 micrometer. The invention also presents the material containing the indicated layers as well as the device for application of the coating on the metallic material in the form of the strip, which contains the tool for the strip pulling and the tool for application of the coating. On the path of motion of the dawn strip there are in series mounted the following tools: the tool for application of the first layer on the strip; the strip fast heating tool, which is capable to heat the surface of the first layer up to the above-indicated temperature; the tool for application on the strip of the second layer of the metal or the metal alloy. The technical result of the invention is creation of the method and the device allowing to produce the three-dimensional visual effects on the surface of the metallic material.
EFFECT: the invention ensures creation of the method and the device for production of the three-dimensional visual effects on the surface of the metallic material.
24 cl, 6 dwg, 8 ex
FIELD: electrophysical and electrochemical treatment processes such as electric-erosion alloying, possibly treatment of surfaces of inserts of sliding bearing assemblies.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of applying onto working surface of inserts by electric-erosion alloying with use of tool-electrodes layers of silver, copper and tin-base babbitt. Electrochemical coating of silver and copper is applied at pulse energy 0.01 - 0.05 J and coating of tin-base babbitt is applied at pulse energy 0.01 - 0.06 J. Coating layers are applied in different directions: crosswise, lengthwise and by inclination angle relative to surface at least of one block of inserts. Inserts having micro-relief on their working surfaces feature enhanced carrying capacity.
EFFECT: improved operational reliability, carrying capacity of inserts.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: artistic working of metals for decorating metal parts of arms, souvenirs and jewelry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing steel surface of work piece to be processed to predetermined degree of surface finish for making artistic pattern; applying pattern to surface; positioning part to be worked; simultaneously directing laser beam with fused metal over pattern. After smoothing, master-engraver performs additional working of pattern by removing excessively fused metal. Final working involves polishing and oxidizing processes.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and decorative effect.