Method to control load-lifting machine drive

FIELD: mechanical engineering; lifting and transportation machinery.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in automated protection and control systems of load-lifting cranes. Load-lifting machines drive is controlled by operator acting onto control member, transmission of shifting of said member to control member of drive made to shift any mechanism of load-lifting machine depending on movement of control member, and preliminary determination of tolerable value of at least one parameter characterizing load and/or spatial position of boom or load-gripping member of load-lifting machine, keeping the parameter value in memory, measuring said parameter by direct or indirect method in process of operating of load-lifting machine, comparing measured value with tolerable value and subsequently shaping drive control signal. Control signal is used to interlock shifting of drive control member and if, necessary, to reset member in neutral position. Interlocking of drive control member is done by mechanical blocking of transmission of control member shifting to drive control member or mechanical interlocking of displacement of said member.

EFFECT: increased reliability.

6 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to hoisting and transport machinery and can be used in automated systems for the protection and management of cranes.

A known method of controlling the hydraulic lifting crane by turning axis specifies the sensor at an angle proportional to the set speed mechanism, and the formation of the exponential control signal is driven with an amplitude proportional to the set speed [1].

The disadvantage of this method is the lack of protection of crane overload and the collision of his boom system with different obstacles.

The closest to the invention is a widespread method of controlling the hydraulic lifting machine by exposure of the operator to the authority of manual control this actuator, a preliminary determination of allowable values of the parameters characterizing the load and the spatial position of the boom or lifting body lifting machine, the dimension in the process of lifting machines these parameters, comparison of measured values with valid and the subsequent formation of the control signal electrohydraulic means of discharge of the hydraulic drive to prevent exceeding these parameters let the s values [2].

This method provides protection for lifting the machine from the emergency operation. However, it can be implemented only on lifting machines with hydraulic drive mechanisms and cannot be used, for example, on machines with mechanical drives. In addition, the use of this method leads to an increased complexity of retrofitting lifting machinery protection systems (safety devices), because it requires the installation of additional elements in its hydraulic system.

Another disadvantage of the known technical solution is reduced, the reliability of the electro-hydraulic means unloading device lock actuator, electro-hydraulic actuators and the like), and accordingly the protection system of load-lifting machines, owing to the working fluid.

Technical results, seeks to achieve the proposed solution are:

- ensuring the suitability and versatility install blocking devices (actuators) in the protection system lifting machine with any type of actuator, including mechanical, electrical, hydraulic or electro-hydraulic;

- simplify the implementation and improve the reliability of a device lock actuator lifting machine is accordingly the system for its protection;

- simplify retrofit lifting machine protection system.

In the method of controlling the drive of the hoisting machine, is the impact of the statement on the governing body of the lifting machine, the transfer movement of the body on the control element of the actuator is arranged to move any of the lifting mechanism of the machine depending on the movement of the control element, and the preliminary definition of acceptable values, at least one parameter characterizing the load and/or the spatial position of the boom or lifting body lifting machines, memorizing, dimension in the process of lifting machines specified direct or indirect method, comparing the measured values with valid and the subsequent formation of the control signal for the actuator, designed to prevent the movement of the lifting mechanism of the machine to the side, causing the excess of this parameter, valid values, problem solving is achieved by the fact that the control signal is used for mechanically blocking movement of the control element drive and if necessary, make the subsequent return of this element in the neutral position, which carry out blocking lane is giving travel management body lifting machine on the control element of the actuator or locking movement of the body.

The drive machine can be performed hydraulic, or mechanical, or electrical, or electro-hydraulic, and blocking the transmission of the movement of the management body lifting machine on the control element of the drive can be effected by mechanical separation using Electromechanical or electrohydraulic or electropneumatic actuator.

The actuator can be performed, in particular, in the form of electrically controlled locking hinge or electromagnetic clutch, transfer characteristic which/which influence the specified control signal. Moreover, after separation of the body of the manual operating hoisting machine and control element drive this element if necessary, return to the neutral position by means of a spring or other return device, moving the control element in a position corresponding to the absence of motion of the target element drive mechanism or lifting machine moved this drive.

The solution of this problem can be achieved also by the fact that after the formation of the specified signal of the drive control and subsequent impact statement on the governing body lifting machine, aimed at predot Amenia exceeded the valid parameter values, identify the return operator control in the neutral position, then turn off blocking movement of the control element of the drive.

Implementation of a system for controlling the drive of the lifting machine with the distinctive features allows you to implement a blocking movements of the machine when it is overloaded or when triggered protection against harmful movement of the boom or lifting of the body without interfering with the hydraulic, electric or kinematic scheme of the drive. Blocking movements of the machine by mechanical rupture of the transmission control action of the operator on the body drive control is simple to implement and reliable technical solution because of the low power device lock actuator lifting machine. Low power of this device and no intervention is required in the power drive elements simplifies the retrofitting of the hoisting machine protection system.

Therefore, these distinctive signs are in direct causal connection with the achievement of the following technical results.

In figure 1 the example shows a simplified functional diagram of the device that implements the proposed method of control. Figure 2 and figure 3 show examples of performance Electromechanical grant is part of the device - device block transmission control actions of the operator on the control (input) drive.

The control device drives 1 mechanisms of load-lifting machines - boom (lifting) equipment 2 includes sensors operating parameters of the machine 3, the digital controller 4 and the blocking device 5 included in the gap between the bodies (levers, handles, etc.) manual control 6 hoisting machine and controls (drive elements, the input rollers, the axes of the potentiometers and the like) 7 each drive 1 (figure 1).

The actuator 1 can be mechanical (based on friction clutches, variable speed, switched gears, and the like), hydraulic (hydraulic motors or hydraulic cylinders with relevant distributors), electrical (motors with gearboxes), electrohydraulic, pneumatic, pneumatic with relevant distributors), etc. These drives provide the moving mechanisms of the lifting/lowering, lifting/lowering of the boom, rotating platform lifting machine and other boom (lifting) equipment 2.

The parameters of the machine, first of all the parameters characterizing the load and the spatial position of the boom and/or lifting of the body, controlled by sensors 3. Any who, in particular, the sensor weight (strain gauge force sensor or strain gauge pressure), the length of the boom (e.g., potentiometric sensor, installed in the cable drum, connecting nevidimye and put forward section of the boom), the steering angle of the slope (rise) arrows (e.g., MEMS inclinometer accelerometer), proximity sensor to the transmission line, the angle sensor platform (sensor azimuth), the sensor (limit switch) limit lifting hauling and other sensors, the installation of which is determined by the specific design of hoisting machine, on which you are installing the management system. The sensors 3 can be digital and/or analog outputs to connect to the digital controller 4 thus, using a multiplex channel of data exchange and/or individual wires.

Digital controller 4 performs the basic logical and computational functions of the drive control 1, including the implementation of security features of the machine, and is implemented as a rule-based microcontroller and connected to the memory block, indicators and devices interfacing with the sensors 3 and the locking device 5. This controller can optionally contain their own controls (buttons, keys or switches), provide the exciting possibility of putting him in the driver settings, determining the operation modes and control options (view of the boom system, the degree of hoist winch part of the polyspast, extension poles, the parameters of the coordinate protection and so on).

Digital controller 4 may be made in the form of one or more electronic components (emitting in a separate block of the power unit, the display unit and so on), the relationship between them, similar to the communication with the sensors 3 may be implemented through a separate wire, and/or on the multiplex channel of communication. In this case, each of the electronic units is based on microcontroller and associated peripheral devices.

The locking device 5 provides a block (prevent) the movement or disconnection of the control element 7 of the actuator 1 when moving or when you try to move the operator of the hoisting machine of the governing body 6. This device can be made in the form of Electromechanical, electrohydraulic or electropneumatic actuator.

Figure 2 schematically shows an example of its implementation in the form of electromagnetic lock double-acting. The device comprises an electromagnet 8, which includes the coil 9 and the core 10. To the housing of the electromagnet 8 by means of hinges a and B 11, 12 attached to the anchor And 13 and the anchor 14 B connected sootvetstvenno management body 6 and a control element 7 of the actuator 1.

If the coil 9 of the electromagnet 8 submitted voltage, the armature 13 and the anchor 14 B are attracted to the core 10. In this case, the force of the driver from the governing body 6 is transmitted to the control element 7. Accordingly, the moving body control 6 leads to the displacement of the control element 7 and the locking device 5 does not affect the process of manual operation of the actuator 1.

When the voltage of the moving body control 6 depending on the direction of this movement causes rotation of the armature And 13 relative to the axis of the hinge And 11 or anchors 14 B relative to the axis of the hinge B 12. In this, the control element 7 remains stationary, i.e. is the gap kinematic link between the governing body 6 and a control element 7. If necessary, the control element 7 by means of a spring or other return device (in the drawing conventionally not shown) is returned to neutral (initial) position, in particular, the stationary state of the output element of the actuator 1 and the corresponding lifting mechanism of the machine 2.

The locking device 5 in the second example of its implementation (figure 3) contains the electromagnet 8 pushing performance, the anchor retainer 15 which communicates with sector 16, attached to the governing body 6. Control is the third element 7 with a fixed electromagnet 8 has a movable connection with the governing body 6 by means of a hinge 17.

When applying voltage to the electromagnet 8 its anchor retainer 15 is in the groove sector 16 and fixes the position of this sector and, accordingly, the governing body 6 relative to the electromagnet 8. In this case, the moving body control 6 leads to the displacement of the control element 7 and the locking device 5 does not affect the process of manual drive control.

Disabling voltage to the electromagnet 8 leads to axial displacement of the anchors of the latch 15 under the influence of a return spring. He goes at the bottom (drawing 3) position. The effect of the driver on the governing body 6 causes it to rotate around the hinge 17 and the force of the driver on the control element 7 is not transmitted. Operation of the actuator 1 is blocked.

In any embodiment, the blocking device 5 governing body 6 when the electromagnet 8 and in the absence of exposure to it for the convenience of the operator can use any items, such as return springs, installed at a predetermined position (on the drawings conventionally not shown).

The locking device (actuator) 5 may have any other structure that is implemented in the form of a remotely lockable hinge with electric locking element, in the form of an electromagnetic clutch, pilot-operated check valve, etc., h is of no importance.

For controlling the position of the governing body 6 relative to the control element 7, the locking device 5 is equipped with an additional sensor (sensors). In the simplest case, this sensor is a limit switch that is triggered at the moment of closing of the blocking device 5 (i.e. the coincidence of the angular positions of the governing body 6 and the control element 7). It is also possible to use two limit switches, each of which is triggered when the deviation of the governing body 6 in one direction or another relative to the control element 7.

The output signals of the sensor (the sensor) is used by the digital controller 4 to enable the drive enable 1 in the opposite direction, i.e. to decrease the value of the parameter above which caused the necessity of blocking the transmission of force or move the body control 6 control 7.

The control transfer function of the blocking device 5, i.e. the transmission operator or travel management body 6, is supplied from the digital controller 4, which has a corresponding output device is performed, in particular, in the form of one or more (by number of devices 5) the power of the keys.

The drive control system of the machine that implements the proposed method, which operate as follows.

Before you begin hoisting machine operator in manual mode using the controls located on the front panel placed in front of the digital controller 4, provides input into the controller parameters that determine the modes and conditions of operation of the machine (position of sliding bearings, pistons hoist winch part of the polyspast etc), if for a given machine design input these parameters is necessary. The entered parameters are saved in non-volatile memory of the controller 4. A valid area provisions of the boom and/or hauling machine, if necessary, set the parameters of the coordinate protection is also entered by the operator and stored in the same way.

The machine is controlled by the operator in manual mode by moving the controls (knobs, levers, etc.) 6 and respectively control elements 7 of the actuator 1 (for example, the spools of the valves of the hydraulic actuators) in the respective directions. For example, to implement the lifting of the hoist operator moves in the corresponding direction of the governing body (arm, arm, etc.) 6 the section of the hydraulic valve, which is connected with a hydraulic drive winch.

To happen any movement of the machine, it is necessary how the panel is engaged in impact driver (displacements of the respective governing body 6 in the desired direction), and no blocking of the moving device 5, i.e. it is necessary movement of the control element 7 of the actuator 1.

When there is no overload of the machine, when his arrows or hauling in the zone of acceptable terms and in the absence of dangerous proximity to transmission lines digital controller 4 on their outputs generates the required voltage levels supplied to all devices block 5. Accordingly, these devices do not block the control actions of the operator (passed his efforts with controls 6 controls 7) and the lifting machine is carried out without any restrictions.

Sensors operating parameters of the machine 3 provide measurements of its load, position, lifting (boom system) and other digital and analog parameters of the machine and transmit measurement values to the digital controller 4.

After receiving information from sensors 3 digital controller 4 according to the program defined by the design of the control system and pre-recorded in his memory of the microcontroller or an additional block of memory at a known functional dependency determines the current load lifting machines and lifting her position (boom) equipment, including an approximation to the power lines. Valid the loading conditions in the form of cargo characteristics are stored in the microprocessor memory of the digital controller 4.

Next, the digital controller 4 compares the actual loading of the machine with the maximum allowable, comparing the actual position of the boom and/or hauling area with valid provisions specified in the introduction coordinate protection, as well as the comparison of measured distances to power lines, with a minimum and depending on the results of these comparisons, generates control signals for the devices block 5. When exceeding any parameter limit value digital controller 4 turns off the control voltage from the blocking device 5, through which the operator transmits to the actuator 1 control action, can lead to excess.

This leads to blocking movement of the control element 7 of the actuator 1, which prevents a further increase of the parameter of operation of the machine, reached its maximum allowable value. Blocking is carried out, in particular, by breaking the kinematic connection of the governing body 6 and the control element 7 of the actuator 1 by means of the blocking device 5. Then, if necessary, the control element 7 by means of any return device, such as a spring, is installed in the position corresponding to the absence (zero speed) move the corresponding lifting mechanism Masha is s.

Thanks this is the signal forming device management block 5, designed to prevent exceeding the parameters of the hoisting machine of valid values, i.e. provides automatic protection of the machine against overload, protection from collisions boom system with different obstacles (coordinate protection) and protection from dangerous proximity to power lines.

After activation of any protection for the output of the hoisting machine of the limiting state of the driver translates the governing body 6 corresponding actuator 1 hoisting machine in neutral, and then in the opposite direction. The digital controller 4 by controlling the output signals of the sensors embedded in the locking device 5, reveals that the operator carries out the drive control aimed at reducing the value of the parameter of operation of the machine reached its limit. In the transition management body 6 neutral position digital controller 4 carries out the supply voltage to the electromagnet 8, the blocking device 5. This leads to the removal of blocking movement of the control element 7 of the actuator 1 and to restore normal control of the machine.

From the above it follows that the proposed control method is provided enabled the ability to use the universal device block dangerous movements of the load-lifting machine with any type of actuator, including mechanical and hydraulic. Elimination of the need for any intervention in the wire enables easy implementation of the control system, including the equipping of the hoisting machine protection system.

Sources of information

1. SU 1197983 A, IPC 4 VS 13/20, 15.12.1985.

2. EN 2158220 C1, IPC 7 VS 13/42, 27.10.2000.

1. The method of controlling the drive of the hoisting machine by impact statement on the governing body lifting machine, transfer, move that body to the control element of the actuator is arranged to move any of the lifting mechanism of the machine depending on the movement of the control element, and also pre-specify a valid value for at least one parameter characterizing the load and/or the spatial position of the boom or lifting body lifting machine, its memory measurement in the process of lifting machines specified direct or indirect method, comparing the measured values with valid and the subsequent formation of the control signal drive, aimed at preventing move the lifting mechanism of the machine to the side, causing the excess of this parameter, valid values, and the control signal is used for blocking the lane is a mix of control of the drive and if necessary, make return of this element in the neutral position, characterized in that the blocking movement of the control element of the actuator is carried out by mechanical blocking transmission of the movement of the management body lifting machine to control the actuator or mechanical blocking movement of the body.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the drive of the hoisting machine are hydraulic, or mechanical, or electrical, or electro-hydraulic.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the blocking of the transmission of the movement of the management body lifting machine on the control element of the actuator is carried out by mechanical separation using Electromechanical or electrohydraulic or electropneumatic actuator.

4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the actuating mechanism is in the form of electrically controlled locking hinge or electromagnetic clutch, transfer characteristic which/which influence the specified control signal.

5. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that after said separation control actuator return in neutral position by means of a spring or other return device, moving the control element in a position corresponding to the absence of motion konechno the element of the actuator or lifting mechanism of the machine, roaming this drive.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that after the formation of the specified signal of the drive control and subsequent impact statement on the governing body lifting machine, designed to prevent exceeding the valid parameter values, identify the return operator body drive control to neutral position, then turn off blocking movement of the control element of the drive.



 

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3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in control systems of load-lifting cranes. Proposed method and safety system provides realization of noncontact (wireless) communication between separate module (electronic units and pickups of boom tilting angle and length, force and pressure, azimuth, etc) of load-lifting crane safety system. For this purpose electric signals with serial code are converted into radiation (ultrasound, radio signal or optical radiation and said radiation is transmitted to receiving station. Transmission and reception of radiation is effected periodically by setting reception and transmission periods corresponding to required response of load-lifting crane safety system. Speed of change of operating parameters of crane and position of its load-lifting equipment are checked additionally, and at increase of speed, automatic decrease of crane operating parameters and position of its load-lifting equipment is done and automatic decrease of radiation transmission periods is provided. Safety system modules are furnished additionally with radiation transmitters and receivers (ultrasound, radio frequency or optical radiation ones) whose input and outputs are connected with outputs of forming units and inputs of reception units of serial digital signals. Serial digital signal forming units are made for periodical forming of said signals.

EFFECT: improved reliability of safety system and facilitated servicing.

6 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: materials handling equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of protection of boom load-lifting cranes and pipelayer cranes from overloads and damage. Adjustment is carried out by lifting calibrated load of preset mass in points of load characteristic with known parameters of boom equipment and regulating signals in load, reach and/or boom tilt angle measuring channels to provide correspondence of safeguard characteristic to preset load characteristic of crane. In process of regulation of signals in load, reach and/or boom tilt angle measuring channels, values of output signals of corresponding sensors are kept constant and regulation is done by adding and/or multiplying output signals from sensors and signals corresponding to adjusting parameters. Values of the latter are preliminarily determined and kept in nonvolatile memory of safeguard.

EFFECT: reduced labor input in adjustment of safeguard on load-lifting crane, provision of interchangeability of all components, possibility of adjustment of device on any type of load-lifting crane with unspecified mounting of load sensor.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; boom cranes.

SUBSTANCE: method relates to control and protection of load-lifting facilities from overloads and damage. According to proposed methods, at least one of working parameters is measured and, if necessary, said parameter is processed in real time according to preset procedure. Indication of working parameter and its comparing with tolerable value, forming of signal to interlock operation of load-lifting mechanism and sending of signal to actuating device if working parameter exceeds tolerable value are provided. Value of working parameter and interlock signal and time of their appearance are recorded in nonvolatile memory for reading in case of necessity. Prior to beginning of operation of load-lifting mechanism, additional interlock signal is formed and said signal is transmitted to actuating device. Moreover, biometric data of operator of load-lifting mechanism are read off which are recorded, together with time of reading, in nonvolatile memory for keeping and reading off in case of necessity. After reading off of biometric data of operator, additional interlock signal of load-lifting mechanism is cut off. Device for implementing the method contains microprocessor calculator, control module, data input/output module, memory module, indication module, actuation module and working parameters sensors. Real time module and biometric data read off module are introduced additionally into device. Microprocessor calculation is made to form additional interlock signal of load-lifting mechanism at switching on overload safeguard of load-lifting mechanism and switching off of its in case of presence of output signal from biometric data read module.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of protection of load-lifting mechanism.

20 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; loading-lifting cranes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed group of inventions relates to controls and safeguards of load-lifting cranes. Method provides measuring and/or checking operating parameters of load-lifting crane characterizing load, geometry, conditions or modes of operation and conversion of measured and/or checked parameters into serial code and their transmission by multiplexed communication line with addition of identification or address of module. At least in one module at least two operating parameters of load-lifting cranes are measured and/or checked and converted into serial code, combined reception and combined transmission of serial digital signals by multiplexed communication line with use of one identification or address of module are provided. System implementing the method contains at least two separate modules being electronic units and/or transducers, for instance, control and indication units, boom tilting angle and length transducers, force or pressure transducers. At least two of them are connected through multiplexed communication line. Each of combined modules contains microcontroller, driver or transceivers and information measurement or information control circuit, made for measuring and/or checking operating parameter of load-lifting crane. Outputs of said circuit are connected with inputs of microcontroller, and one of primary converters of operating parameters of load-lifting crane is connected to its input. Microcontroller is made for reception, processing and transmission of serial digital signals, its inputs/outputs being connected through driver of transceiver with multiplexed communication line. In at least one of modules at least one of primary converters of operating parameters of load-lifting crane is connected to input of information measurement or information control circuit in addition. Said circuit of module is made for measuring and/or checking of at least two measured and/or checked operating parameters of load-lifting crane, and microcontroller is made for combined reception, combined processing and combined transmission of serial digital signals by multiplexed communication line with use of one identificator or address of module.

EFFECT: improved reliability of protection of load-lifting crane owing to high-speed response and accuracy of operation of safety system.

9 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: material handling facilities.

SUBSTANCE: according to first design version, two sensors are placed additionally on fixed part of crane. They are shifted relative to each other through quarter of revolution to provide forming of two additional electric stresses. All sensors are magnetically sensitive ones and are acted upon by Earth's magnetic field. Angle between fixed part of crane and Earth's magnetic field is determined by processing additional electric stresses. Actual value of azimuth angle is determined as difference in angular positions of fixed and slewing parts of crane relative to Earth's magnetic field. Device uses tow additional sensors shifted through quarter of revolution whose inputs are connected to supply source, and outputs, to additional inputs of measuring circuit. All sensors in device are made magnetically sensitive with possibility of measuring Earth's magnetic field. According to second design version, actual value of azimuth angle is determined as difference between angular position of crane slewing part and direction of crane track.

EFFECT: facilitated measurement of crane azimuth angle, simplified device for implementing the method.

4 cl, 1 dwg

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