Method for pit protection against underground water inflows
FIELD: mining, particularly mining and pit protection against underground water inflow in the case of open-pit kimberlite pipe and other mineral deposits development in subpermafrost horizon.
SUBSTANCE: method involves discharging water initially contained in deposit section to be developed and precipitation water from said deposit section; drilling injection wells around kimberlite pipe perimeter and performing explosions through regular system from pit bottom to create joined subvertical annular and subhorizontal rock fissured zones which have uniform fissures; supplying plugging materials therein and creating joined solid watertight diaphragms shaped as integral cups.
EFFECT: possibility to create watertight diaphragm, which protects deposit section to be developed against underground water ingress.
The invention relates to mining, in particular to protect the pit from the inflow of groundwater at an open development kimberlite pipes and other mineral deposits in hydrate accumulations (aquifer) the horizon.
There is a method of protection quarries in these terms, including the pumping - pumping or drainage coming into the quarry groundwater direction through a system of pipes with pumps in open waters or aquifers deep . The prototype.
The disadvantages of this method are:
the need to create a complex system of drainage pipes, pumps and wells for pumping postupajusch in quarry waters in the deeper horizons of the reservoir directly under developed field or lifting water up with subsequent transport through pipes to drain surface waters, if it is possible for environmental reasons, or injection into deeper horizons of the reservoir away from the field;
the need, sometimes, to move huge volumes of water, as measured by the hundreds of thousands of cubic meters.
The technical problem is to create a continuous waterproof grout, protect the developed part of the field from tributaries, groundwater and drainage the original is on the contained groundwater.
Proposed protection method developed in hydrate accumulations horizon open way part of the kimberlite pipes or deposits of other minerals from groundwater inflow, including drainage initially contained, including that derived from precipitation in the planned development of the field of waters, namely, that the Buryats injection wells around the perimeter of the Kimberley and regular network, with the bottom of the quarry, create explosions in them sub-vertical annular and horizontal connecting zones of high rocks fracture, homogeneous on this basis, continue to serve them through the injection well plugging materials and create a continuous waterproof grout forming one in the shape of a Cup.
Introduced in the formula of the invention, a significant feature that pre perimeter of the Kimberley and regular network with the bottom of the quarry are drilling injection wells, which allows subsequent explosions in them to create costimulate sub-vertical annular and horizontal zones of high rocks fracture, homogeneous on this topic.
Introduced in the formula of the invention, a significant feature that is created by the explosions zone rocks high fracture, homogeneous on this basis, alternating with the C injection wells served under the pressure of the plugging material, allows after their solidification to obtain the stacked sub-vertical and sub-horizontal monolithic waterproof grout, forming a single whole in the form of a Cup.
The method is as follows. To create a sub-vertical part of the grout drilling of wells on the perimeter of the Kimberley, to all planned development part of it was protected from the water, and regular network, for example, at the vertices of squares or rectangles, with the bottom of the quarry drilling a well to the target depth, then blasts them create respectively subvertical and subhorizontal zone rocks high fracture, homogeneous according to this feature, mating and hydraulically connected. Next, through the same hole, if necessary, restored by re-drilling in zones of high tremenously served under the pressure of the grouting material, after hardening which form a continuous monolithic waterproof membrane veil in the form of glass, within which is a working part of the field. It is preferable to use a plugging material that is not susceptible to the ravages of aggressive groundwater and volume during solidification increases that pic is of bstweet better filling of the pore space. The distance between the holes is selected such that when the explosions in two neighboring wells between them created a homogeneous zone of fractured rocks. The degree of homogeneity of the fractured zone to the injection solution can be estimated using geophysical research, in wells, in particular consistently measuring the resistance between the electrodes in two adjacent wells, which in these circumstances will be filled with water. In areas with high resistance and, consequently, a relatively lesser degree of destruction of rocks to increase their fracture explosions should be repeated. The presence of hydraulic connection subhorizontal and subvertical zones of high rocks fracture can be set by known methods: the flow in the well at the bottom of solutions with different indicators - salts, coloring agents, radioactive isotopes and control of their receipt in wells along the perimeter of the quarry. Water originally contained in the isolated membrane veils the volume of rocks and flowing into the quarry with precipitation, are removed by known methods of drainage and/or drainage. Likewise, when developing parts of coal, bauxite in karst cavities, placer gold deposits found in aquifers, although often in the area of R is Suite permafrost limited to the development of mineral resources in the frozen state, leaving the pillar between the working part of the field and hydrate accumulations (aquifer) horizon.
The advantage of the proposed method is to create a reliable cut-off wall in the form of glass, insulating working part of the mine from groundwater inflow.
The source of information
1. Mountain encyclopedia, volume 1. - M.: Publishing House. "Soviet encyclopedia", 1984, see s.
The protection method developed in hydrate accumulations horizon open way part of the kimberlite pipes or deposits of other minerals from groundwater inflow, including drainage initially contained, including that derived from precipitation in the planned development of the field water, characterized in that the Buryats injection wells around the perimeter of the Kimberley and regular network, with the bottom of the quarry, create explosions in them sub-vertical annular and horizontal connecting zones of high rocks fracture, homogeneous on this basis, continue to serve them through the injection well plugging materials and create a continuous waterproof grout, forming one in the form of a Cup.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: backfill fibrosolution consists of concrete, argil, fibers and water, as fibers solution contains synthetic filaments with diameter 0,1-0,15 mm and length 10-20 mm in amount of 10-20 kg for 1m3 of argil-cement mixture, subjected to electrification with induction of static electric charge.
EFFECT: possible backfill of extensive fractured systems with active influx of water, increased hardness of backfill material, decreased material costs of reinforcement of fractured rocks, removal of water influxes in mines.
SUBSTANCE: water-proofing sheet comprises three layers. The first layer provides mechanical strength of the sheet and is made of elastometer polyethylene of high strength and flexibility. The second layer is intermediate one, represents the connection between the first and second layers, and is made of foam plastic with closed pores. The third layer is made of a impermeable plastic material which possesses high resistance to breaking. The tensile strength, breaking elongation, and thickness of the sheet range from 24 MPa to 39 Mpa, from 550% to 900%, and 3 mm to 50 mm, respectively.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: mining industry, particularly elimination of emergency situations.
SUBSTANCE: method involves closing borehole cross-section with extendable means; arranging predetermined volume of non-combustible material above the means, wherein the volume is determined from a given relation; discharging all non-combustible material in the borehole at a time and further distributing portions of non-combustible material having volumes of not less than volume of incoming water. Non-combustible material includes clay and pourable components which are laid in layers above the means, wherein clay volume is equal to pore volume of pourable component.
EFFECT: increased reliability of borehole sealing and water burst liquidation.
3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to protect mine workings against underground water ingress.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling injection wells along pit shaft perimeter; widening cracks by supplying high-pressure water and injecting grouting mortar in the cracks; additionally boring vertical preparation well in pit shaft center. Cracks are widened by feeding water and then air or only water in vertical preparation well. Water and air are supplied under pressure lesser than pressure of hydraulic rock fracturing. Grouting mortar is injected in cracks by forcing thereof through injection wells immediately after finishing of feeding water or air in vertical preparation well. Cryogenic gel is used as the grouting mortar. Cryogenic gel is foamed before injecting thereof in wells and foamed cryogenic gel is forced into cracks beyond the pit shaft perimeter by supplying compressed air in vertical preparation well. After leaving pit shaft as it is for grouting mortar setting time wells are sunk for the next grouting step depth and above operations are repeated up to reaching the lower boundary of pit shaft interval, wherein injection is performed under pressure exceeding that on previous step.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and material consumption along with increased efficiency of water suppression.
3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining, particularly to perform stripping and mining in pits with 6-8 crushing index.
SUBSTANCE: method involves filling previously created trench with rock loosened with milling machine, wherein loosened rock is poured in the trench from which said rock had been excavated. In the case of conveyer deactivation device usage rock is left in open trench just after rock cutting with milling means. After that rock is scooped with scrapers following pit machine without pit machine stopping.
EFFECT: increased open-pit work efficiency due to decreased milling machine downtime during rock mining.
2 cl, 1 ex, 4 dwg
FIELD: open-cast mining, particularly for mineral mining in the case of vertical ore body confined in plane view, particularly kimberlite pipes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves spacing common pit edges at intermediate stage along with new edges creation, wherein the new edges are formed of triple ledges with stability provision parameters so that the ledges are separated one from another with safety berms; creating transport descent for double-path large dump truck movement; creating U-turn platform and annular transport descends at finishing stage, wherein annular transport descends provide opposite single-path dump truck movement and are joined one to another at U-turn platform; constructing pit edges in superhigh ledges in steep ore body pitch areas; transporting ore to plant and conveying gob to extreme refuse heaps. At pit finishing stage U-turn plate forming is accompanied by transfer platform creation. Steeply inclined descent and U-turn platform are created below transfer platform along rock pillar between pits. The descent is created through the full pillar depth. Ore bodies are alternately cut with steeply inclined end descents having thicknesses providing double-path crawler dump movement. Ore and gob of the first pit are transported to transfer platform. Then ore is loaded in dump trucks. Gob is piled on the second pit edge. After total the first pit excavation gob of the first and the second pits is arranged in the worked-out space of the first pit. Inclined galleries are cut along rock pillar base to provide drain water passage from the first pit into another one.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and mineral mining completeness.
1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly excavation of hard rock in confined environment demanding prevention of blasted rock cuttings falling under high ledge slopes, namely during re-activation of temporarily unworked edges of deep pits, spacing sides of deep rock excavations in road building and so on.
SUBSTANCE: method involves separating high ledge into layers so that each layer has height not exceeding excavation equipment digging height; preparing the layers for following blasting by arranging light-weight woven mat with weight on side slope of high ledge below layer to be blasted; drilling blast-holes in each layer; filling blast-holes with charges, wherein blast-holes, which are outermost from side slope, are filled with decreased charge; arranging two-layer gas-permeable covering on all opened surfaces of area to be blasted, wherein lower end of the covering is made of metal mesh, upper one is created of mats formed of worn-out car tires; inserting lower covering part under mat for distance of not less than tire diameter; blasting rock; removing covering and excavating cut rock.
EFFECT: prevention of rock fragment dispersion under high ledge slopes during blasting works performing and rock excavation.
FIELD: mining, particularly open cast kimberlite pipe mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mining ore body by hydromining device of floating dredger; supplying diamond-containing pulp to floating dressing plant, recovering diamonds and transporting reject material from pit to preliminarily prepared plate for following utilization thereof. Ore body is developed by hydromining device reciprocation across total ore body area. Diamonds are recovered by serial pump decomposition, sizing, dressing and conditioning. Residual material is utilized by dewatering thereof in centrifuge and stacking for following usage for building material production.
EFFECT: simplified method and rig and decreased power inputs for kimberlite pipe development.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly for underground mining of steeply-dipping and inclined ore bodies having low and high thickness, as well as streaks.
SUBSTANCE: method involves separating stages and substeps in pit side slope; constructing deep pit with steeply-dipping side slopes in hanging and lying ore deposit walls, wherein side slope direction vary up to vertical direction at final stage; cutting zones in upper horizons and constructing the first continuous transportation path made as conveyer lifting means in trenches as pit is excavated; moving upper conveyer lifting means to new pit side point of upper stage when shifting to other mining stages at central and deep horizons and constructing conveyer system in trench located in central horizon; mounting conveyer lifting means at vertical side slope reinforced with polymers, bolts and mesh along with deep horizon excavation so that curvature of formed stable side sections correspond to surface and path of continuous ore and capping rock transportation from lower horizons to upper ones, wherein increasing shear loads in material to be transported are accommodated in conveyer structure by control of pull system and pressing means of tape drive mechanism. Device for said method realization is also disclosed.
EFFECT: increased operational efficiency, decreased costs of ore and capping rock delivery from deep pit.
2 cl, 1 ex, 10 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to create high dumps during open pit mineral mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming preliminary dump layer near outermost deep pit outline with the use of cyclically acting means at optimal rock transportation shoulder; digging out steeply inclined semi-trench in pit side in overburden rock location zone and in direction of pit outline sections of the first, the second and the third excavation orders from depth corresponding to optimal vehicle operation height; creating embankment on surface by forming a number of transversal transport paths made as temporary dumps having heights increasing to preliminary dump mark so that embankment is at predetermined angle to preliminary dump; mounting crushing machines on main haulage level inside pit; installing in-line conveyance means in trench and in preliminary dump; covering thereof with light-weight snow-protection tent. Dumping operation is performed in parallel runs from stacking conveyor, wherein rock is received with inclined boom-mounted mechanism of plate feeding means arranged in tube-shaped structure supported by sliding supports so that the structure may rotate in place of structure connection with stacking conveyer. Boom length is selected from inclined dumped rock layer thickness to provide minimal dump settlement in unloading device installation place. Dump embankment forming for main conveyer of the second order is continued by preliminary dump forming within design dump outline by means of in-line conveyance means and by rock stacking on dump and by cyclic means. After that the second and the third dump layers are constructed. To prevent dump deformation rock layer stacked in winter is covered with snow-free buffer rock so that said layers have equal thicknesses. As central and deep pit zones are developed main conveyer is enlarged by installing new crushing equipment section on the second haulage level formed in permanent side. Conveyer path enlargement is continued with the use of steeply inclined and vertical conveyers to provide threshold distance of rock conveyance to crushing unit by collecting transport specified by optimal collecting transport operation.
EFFECT: increased dumping efficiency.
1 ex, 5 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly safe refuse disposal during deep laying kimberlitic pipe excavation in extreme northern permafrost zone conditions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves constructing protection dam of overburden and creating water-tight screen of loamy soil; stacking waste and rock mass of different types inside protective dam; dumping rock in layers along with layer slopes and berms creation. Each protective dam layer is formed along finite outline. Water-tight screen is covered with zeolite layer to neutralize poisonous gas. Rock saturated with brine is stacked inside formed bowl in direction from layer periphery towards center thereof. As layer is filled with brine-saturated rock the layer is covered with zeolite layer. Then upper layer is formed in the same order. After all layer dumping termination slopes are treated to impart variable geometry thereto and the slopes are covered with sapropel. Dump has elliptical configuration oriented depending on wind rose.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and safety of aggressive brine-saturated rock dump stacking and storage.
1 ex, 2 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly opened development of horizontal and gently sloping mineral deposits.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting next to last overburden bench; providing explosion to shift rock to goaf during above cutting operation; forming road over shifted rock; performing transportation of rock cut from next to last bench; transporting rock remaining after explosion out of ore body outline along with rock bench slope cleaning and ore body roof cleaning; removing remaining cone with bulldozer; digging-out pit along contact line between ore and shifted rock; mining mineral and transporting thereof along temporary ore-transportation road formed over shifted rock pile.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of deposit development, increased discharge coefficient, decreased distance of next to last bench and mineral rock transportation.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, possible use during open combined excavation of bed deposits with two coal formations with alternating extraction of formations and parting and technology of stripping operations based on transporting and non-transporting excavation system.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to invention, at predetermined sections usable for processing parting in accordance to transport-less dragline technology, special dumping vessels are created and moved for required value towards excavated space, meant later for excavation of parting rocks into them. Volumes and amount of these vessels is determined depending on mining conditions and parameters of stripping equipment. Therefore, a part of volumes of transport stripping is redistributed to non-transport stripping.
EFFECT: lower costs of stripping operations and less harmful blowouts into atmosphere from vehicle transport.
1 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, in particular, technology for extracting mineral resource deposits, possible use for extracting ores of balance and over-balance resources during extraction of mineral resources.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparing the massif, supplying reagents, draining solutions, sedimentation of useful components. Ore sections of useful components are detected in massif beyond limits of pit contour above the level of depression cone. These massif portions in pit sides are subjected to explosive crushing, well is drilled to upper area of each prepared ore section, and then lixiviation solutions with reagents are fed into the well. Solutions, self-flowing downwards along ore section, lixiviate metal and then enter common flow of underground waters, formed by depression cone. Sedimentation of metal is performed in the pit on geo-chemical barrier, in place of common exit of subterranean waters.
EFFECT: ensured fullness of extraction and high efficiency when completing a formation in accordance to open method.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to reduce ejection of underground water flowing into mine during mining operations to ground surface.
SUBSTANCE: method involves receiving and collecting of mine inflow, which enters mining zone from cone of depression along mine tunnels; cleaning mine inflow; accumulating thereof in underground water accumulation means and delivering mine inflow into water-bearing seam. Mine inflow is supplied out of cone of depression located outside of mining zone in direction of water-bearing seam depression line to provide water return in operating mine tunnels, wherein distance between lower edge of cone of depression and point of mine inflow supply must be not less than width of mine inflow spreading in water-bearing seam. Mine inflow to be discharged from water accumulation means is supplied to intermediate sump and then is filtered in water-bearing seam due to intermediate sump location in water-bearing seam. Mine inflow is supplied to underground or land-based intermediate sump.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of hydrological regime recovery and improved ecological safety due to landscape conservation and enhanced industrial safety due to elimination of underground gas accumulation in dewatered water-bearing seams.
4 cl, 3 dwg