Dispersion

FIELD: chemistry of polymers, chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention elates to dispersions. Invention describes a method for preparing an aqueous dispersion. Method involves the first step for mixing, the first material not mixing with this phase, the first polymeric material and the second polymeric material wherein: (a) the first polymeric material comprises a repeating monomer of the formula (I) given in the invention description wherein A and B are similar or different and chosen from aromatic and heteroaromatic groups that can be substituted, and at least of them comprises a relatively polar atom or group; R1 and R2 comprise independently relatively nonpolar atoms or groups; or the first polymeric material is prepared or can be prepared by formation of compound wherein A, B, R1 and R2 mean groups described above in an aqueous solvent, and carrying out reaction of groups C=C of indicated compound each with other to yield the first polymeric material; (b) the second polymeric material comprises a functional group able to react with the first polymeric material to form covalent bonds between the first and the second polymeric materials; (c) the mass ratio of the first polymeric material to mass of the first phase is 0.0025 or less; (d) the mass ratio of the second polymeric material to mass of the first phase is 0.035 or less; (e) the indicated first phase comprises water. Also, invention describes methods for preparing dispersions (variants) and dispersions (variants). Invention provides preparing stable dispersion of materials.

EFFECT: improved preparing method of dispersions.

37 cl, 15 ex

 

The technical FIELD

The present invention relates to dispersions and provides a method of producing dispersions and dispersion as such.

PRIOR art

In PCT/GB97/02529 described a method of obtaining a polymer material, a polymer material as such and receiving gels using a polymer material.

The INVENTION

The present invention is based on the discovery of compositions of polymeric materials with unexpected properties, such as obtaining stable dispersions of materials, such as materials, insoluble in water.

Therefore, the present invention is the creation of a polymer material with useful properties.

According to the first aspect of the invention provides a method of obtaining a variance, which includes a step of contact of the first phase, the first interface material and the first polymeric material with the second polymeric material, and:

(a) (1) of the first polymeric material contains a repeating monomer with the formula

where a and b are the same or different, selected from the optional substituted aromatic and heteroaromatic groups, and at least one of them contains a relatively polar atom or group, a R1and R2independently soda is subject to relatively non-polar atoms or groups; or

(2) the first polymeric material obtained or can be obtained through the formation of compounds with the General formula

where a, b, R1and R2are as described above, in an aqueous solvent (suitable for molecules of a specified monomer formed therein aggregates) and implementing response groups=With the specified connection between them (for example, using UV radiation) with receipt of the first polymeric material;

(b) a second polymeric material includes a functional group capable of reacting with the first polymeric material to form covalent bonds between the first and second polymeric materials;

(C) the ratio of the weight of the first polymeric material to the weight of the first phase is less than or equal 0,0025; and

(g) the ratio of the weight of the second polymeric material to the weight of the first phase is less than or equal 0,035.

Group a and/or b can be multicyclone aromatic or heteroaromatic groups. Preferably a and b are independently selected from the optional substituted five - or, more preferably six-membered aromatic and heteroaromatic groups. Preferred heteroatoms mentioned heteroaromatic groups are atoms of nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, of which the preferred oxygen and special what about the nitrogen. Preferred heteroaromatic groups contain only one heteroatom. Said heteroatom preferably is located at the maximum distance from the position of attachment heteroaromatic group of the main chain of the polymer. For example, if the heteroaromatic group contains six-membered ring, the heteroatom is preferably in position 4 relative to the position of connection of the ring with the main chain of the polymer.

A and b preferably represent different groups. Preferably one of the groups a or b is an optional substituted aromatic group, and the second is an optional substituted heteroaromatic group. Preferably a represents an optional substituted aromatic group, and is an optional substituted heteroaromatic group, especially a group that includes a heteroatom of nitrogen, for example pyridinyl group.

Unless otherwise specified, optionally substituted groups described in this work, such as group a and b can be substituted by halogen atoms and optionally substituted alkyl, acyl, acetylene, polyacetylene, acetylacetone, polyacetylenic-, nitro-, cyano-, alkoxy-, hydroxy-, amino-, alkylamino-, sulfanilimide, alkylsulfonyl, sulfanilimide, alkyls ffonline, sulphonate, amido, alkylamino-, alkylcarboxylic, alkoxycarbonyl, halocarbonyl and haloalkyl groups. Preferably the optional substituted group may contain up to 3, more preferably up to 1 optional substituents.

Unless specified otherwise, an alkyl group can have up to 10, preferably up to 6, more preferably up to 4 carbon atoms, and particularly preferred are methyl and ethyl groups.

Preferably, each of the groups a and b is a polar atoms or groups; this means that preferably in groups a and b there is some dissociation (separation) of the charges, and/or groups a and b do not contain only atoms of carbon and hydrogen.

Preferably, at least one of the groups a or b includes a functional group which can undergo a condensation reaction, such as reaction with a second polymeric material. Preferably And includes a specified functional group that can be subjected to the condensation reaction.

Preferably one of the groups a and b contains optional Deputy, which includes a carbonyl or acetamino group, and particularly preferred is a formyl group. The second of the groups a and b may include optional Deputy, who is alkyl GRU is sing, moreover, particularly preferred is optional substituted, preferably unsubstituted C1-4alkyl group such as methyl group.

Preferably a represents a group, such as an aromatic group, more specifically, phenyl group, substituted (preferably 4-position relative to the main chain of the polymer, if a is an optional substituted phenyl group), formyl group or a group with the General formula

where x is an integer from 1 to 6, and each of R3independently is alkyl or phenyl group, or together they form alkalinity group.

Preferably represents an optional substituted heteroaromatic group, more particularly nitrogen-containing heteroaromatic group substituted by a heteroatom hydrogen atom or alkyl or aranceles group. More preferably represents a group of General formula

where R4represents a hydrogen atom or alkyl, or aracelio group, R5represents a hydrogen atom or alkyl group, and X-represents a strongly acidic ion.

Preferably R1and R2independently selected from a hydrogen atom or facultati is but substituted, preferably unsubstituted alkyl groups. Preferably R1and R2represent the same atom or the same group. Preferably R1and R2represent a hydrogen atom.

Preferred first polymeric materials can be obtained from any of the compounds described on page 3, in lines 8 through 39 GB 2030575, the method described in WO 98/12239.

Such Monomeric compounds include: α-(p-formilitary)-pyridine, γ-(p-formilitary)-pyridine, α-(m-formilitary)-pyridine, N-methyl-α-(p-formilitary)-pyridine, N-methyl-β-(p-formilitary)-pyridine, N-methyl-α-(m-formilitary)-pyridine, N-methyl-α-(o-formilitary)-pyridine, N-ethyl-α-(p-formilitary)-pyridine, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-α-(p-formilitary)-pyridine, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-γ-(p-formilitary)-pyridine, N-allyl-α-(p-formilitary)-pyridine, N-methyl-γ-(R-formilitary)-pyridine, N-methyl-γ-(m-formilitary)-pyridine, N-benzyl-α-(p-formilitary)-pyridine, N-benzyl-γ-(p-formilitary)-pyridine and N-carbamoylmethyl-γ-(p-formilitary)-pyridine. These Quaternary salts can be used in the form of hydrochloride, hydrobromide, hydroiodide, perchlorates, tetrafluoroborates, methosulfate, phosphates, sulfates, methanesulfonates and p-toluene-sulfonates.

Also Monomeric with the organisations can represent stillpending, having an acetate group, including the following:

The first polymeric material may have the formula

where a, b, R1and R2are as described above and p is an integer. An appropriate number n is 10 or less, preferably 8 or less, more preferably 6 or less, especially 5 or less. An appropriate number n is at least 1, preferably at least 2, more preferably at least 3.

Preferably the second polymeric material includes a functional group that can react with the first polymeric material in the condensation reaction, so that between the first and second polymeric materials are formed covalent bonds. Preferably the reaction between the first and second polymeric materials is formed of a third polymeric material.

Preferably the formation of the third polymeric material of the first is the first and the second polymeric material comprises the reaction of condensation. Preferably the formation of the third polymeric material includes a reaction catalyzed by the acid. Preferably the first and second polymeric materials contain functional groups which are adapted to respond, for example to participate in the condensation reaction, with the formation of the third polymeric material. Preferably the first and second polymeric materials contain functional groups which are adapted to respond, for example to participate in the reaction catalyzed by the acid, with the formation of the third polymeric material.

Preferably the second polymeric material contains a functional group selected from an alcohol, carboxylic acid, carboxylic acid derivative, for example a complex ester, and amine groups. The second polymeric material preferably contains the main chain, preferably consisting essentially of carbon atoms. The main chain is preferably saturated. From the main chain depart in the direction of one or more of the above functional groups. The specified polymer may have a molecular weight of at least 10,000. The second polymeric material is preferably polyvinyl polymer. Preferred second polymer compound include optional substituted, preferably unsubstituted, polyvin Lowy alcohol, the polyvinyl acetate, polyalkylene glycols, such as polypropyleneglycol, and collagen (and any of their components). The second polymeric material can be a copolymer, with at least one of its components has the characteristics described above for the second polymeric material. The second polymeric material is preferably polyvinyl alcohol. The third polymeric material can include a link to the formula:

where R1, R2and are such as described above, And1represents the balance of the group As described above, after the reaction of the first and second polymeric materials, Y represents the remainder of the second polymeric material after the above reaction, comprising first and second polymeric materials, and X represents a connecting atom or group between the remnants of the first and second polymeric materials. In one of the preferred embodiments of the invention And1is an optional substituted phenyl group, X represents a group:

which is linked via oxygen atoms with the remainder of the second polymer material. For example, the group X may be linked to the main chain of the polymer of the second polymeric material.

Thus, the SP is the FDS preferably includes a step of reacting the first and second polymeric materials with each other with formation of a third polymer material.

The first phase preferably contains water, more preferably predominantly consists of water. Accordingly, preferably the mass fraction of the first and second polymeric materials specified in paragraphs (C) and (d) of the first aspect, refer to the masses of the first and second polymeric materials relative to the amount of water present.

In the method according to the first aspect, the ratio of the weight of the first polymeric material to the weight of the first phase may be less than or equal 0,0020 can also be less than or equal 0,0015 and preferably less than or equal to 0.001. In some cases, the ratio may be less than 0,0005. Is appropriate ratio of at least 0,00005 and preferably at least 0,00010.

The ratio of the weight of the second polymeric material to the weight of the first phase may be less than or equal 0,030 can also be less than or equal 0,026, preferably less than or equal 0,020, and more preferably less than or equal 0,010. Is appropriate ratio of at least about 0.001, preferably at least 0.005, more preferably at least 0,0055.

Accordingly, the ratio of the weight of the second polymeric material to the weight of the first polymeric material is in the range from 10 to 100. The ratio may be at least 15, preferably at least 20. In some case the s it may be, at least 30. The ratio may be less than 90, preferably less than 80. In some cases it may be less than 70.

As described above, the third polymeric material can be obtained by reaction of the first and second polymeric materials. Accordingly, the mass ratio of the third polymeric material to the weight of the first phase is equal 0,0375 or less. Preferably the ratio is less than or equal to 0.03, more preferably less than or equal to 0.025, particularly preferably less than or equal to 0.02. The ratio may be at least about 0.001, preferably at least 0.05 is taken.

The method can be used for dispersion in the first phase of the quantities of the first material, varying in a wide range. The ratio of the mass of the first material to the weight of the first polymeric material may be in the range from 200 to 3200. This ratio may be at least 300, preferably at least 350. This ratio may be less than 3000, preferably less than 2500, more preferably 2000 or less.

The ratio of the mass of the first material to the weight of the second polymeric material may be in the range from 5 to 80. The ratio may be at least 6, and preferably at least 8. The ratio may be less than 70 and predpochtitelnye 60 or less.

Mass % of the first phase in contact with the first material and the first and second polymeric materials in this way can be equal to at least 10 wt.%, preferably, at least 15 wt.%. In many cases, wt.% equal to at least 20 wt. %. Specified wt.% the first phase is preferably equal to 80 wt.% or less.

Mass % of the first material in contact with the first phase and the first and second polymeric materials in this way can be equal to at least 20 wt.%. Specified mass percentage may be equal to 85 wt.% or less.

The mass percentage of the first polymer material in contact with the first phase, the first material and the second polymeric material, in this way can be equal, at least at 0.020 wt.%. Specified wt.% may be equal to 0.1 wt.% or less.

The mass percentage of the second polymer material in contact with the first phase, the first material and the first polymeric material, in this way can be equal to at least 1 wt.%. Specified wt.% may be equal to 3 wt.% or less, preferably 2.5 wt.% or less.

The first material may be any material that is not miscible with the first phase, primarily water. The first material may be a liquid or solid substance in the conditions under which contact the first phase and the first mater is al. The first material may be liquid or solid at 25°and atmospheric pressure. If the first material is a liquid, it can be in the liquid phase of organic matter or liquid phase inorganic substances. If the first material is a solid, specified solid substance is a substance not miscible with the first phase, primarily water, and is preferably in powdered form, for example, in powdered form. The first material preferably is liquid at the conditions under which it is in contact with the first phase.

The first material may contain oil. This can be a mineral, silicone or vegetable oil, or oil of any other type. The first material may include an active ingredient, for example, active pharmaceutical or herbicide ingredient.

In the method according to the first aspect of the invention the first phase, the first material, the first polymeric material and second polymeric material can be brought into contact and mixed with each other, perhaps using high-speed stirrers. This can be carried out at a temperature and ambient pressure. Preferably in this method the first phase, the first polymeric material and second polymeric material is first brought into contact site is preferably by stirring. Then the mixture containing the first phase, the first polymeric material and second polymeric material, preferably mixed with the first material. It is assumed that the mixing with the first material will lead to the formation of a layer containing the first and second polymeric materials, between the first phase and the first material. For example, the first and second polymeric materials may be adsorbed on the first material. Preferably after the initial contact of these materials can be carried out stage, promoting the reaction of the first and second polymeric materials. It can be affected by adjusting the pH, for example, reducing the pH of the mixture containing the first phase, the first material and the first and second polymeric materials. You can add to a mixture of acid, for example a proton acid to reduce the pH below 4, preferably below about 3, more preferably below 2. After adding the acid, the pH should preferably be above 1. It is assumed that after the reaction the third polymeric material formed as described above, will be surrounded, it is possible to encapsulate the particles and/or droplets of the first material, and these particles and/or droplets are dispersed in the first phase. Alternatively, the mixture can subsequently be neutralized by adding a base.

The shape and/or consistency of the mixture after the education the education of the third polymeric material is different depending on the composition of the mixture. If the ratio of the mass of the first material to the mass of the first phase (initial contact in this way) is relatively large (i.e. more than 3 or greater than 4), then the mixture may have a relatively thick consistency (for example, like thick cream). On the other hand, if the ratio is smaller (for example, less than 1.5), the viscosity can be significantly reduced.

After the formation of the third polymeric material mixture can be processed further. Of the mixture can be removed by water, for example by drying. This can lead to the formation of dry particles of the first material and the associated third polymeric material. The dry particles can be re-hydrated and/or re-atomized by adding water.

The relative amounts of the first and second polymeric materials used to obtain the third polymeric material can be adjusted to modify the properties of dry particles of the type described. For example, if the used amount of the first polymer material increases, the third layer of polymeric material surrounding the first material may be more dense. At relatively low concentrations of the first polymeric material layer of a third polymeric material may be relatively soft. In addition, in General, the longer the reaction time of the first and the showing of polymeric materials, the more dense layer is formed.

According to the second aspect of the invention provides a method of obtaining a variance, which includes a step of contact of the first phase that is not miscible first material and the first polymer material described in the first aspect (e.g., having a repeating unit with the formula (I), with a second polymeric material which contains a functional group described in the first aspect, and:

(a) the ratio of the weight of the second polymeric material to the weight of the first polymeric material is in the range from 10 to 100; or

(b) the ratio of the mass of the first material to the weight of the first polymeric material is in the range from 200 to 3200; and the ratio of the mass of the first material to the weight of the second polymeric material is in the range from 8 to 80.

According to a third aspect of the invention provides a method of obtaining a dispersion containing the first phase and the first material, not miscible; the method comprises the contact of the first phase and the first material with:

(a) the first polymer material described in the first aspect (e.g., having a repeating monomer with formula (I), and the second polymeric material which contains a functional group described in the first aspect, and through reaction of the first and second polymeric materials formed the third floor of the dimensional material; or

(b) a third polymeric material containing a group with the formula:

where R1, R2and are such as described above, And1represents the balance of the group As described above, Y represents the remainder of the second polymeric material, and X is a connecting atom or group between the remnants of the groups a and Y;

moreover, the ratio of the masses of the third polymeric material to the weight of the first phase is less than or equal 0,0375.

According to a fourth aspect of the invention is provided a dispersion consisting of a first phase that is not miscible first material, the first polymeric material described in the first aspect (e.g., having a repeating unit with the formula (I), and the second polymer material, which contains a functional group described in the first aspect, and:

(a) the ratio of the weight of the first polymeric material to the weight of the first phase is less than or equal 0,0025, and the ratio of the weight of the second polymeric material to the weight of the first phase is less than or equal 0,035; or

(b) the ratio of the weight of the second polymeric material to the weight of the first polymeric material is in the range from 10 to 100; or

(C) the ratio of the mass of the first material to the weight of the first polymeric material is in the range from 200 to 32000, and the ratio of the mass of performatively to the weight of the second polymeric material is in the range from 8 to 80.

According to the fifth aspect of the invention is provided a dispersion consisting of a first phase that is not miscible first material and the third polymeric material that includes a group with the formula:

where R1, R2and are such as described above, And1represents the balance of the group As described above, Y represents the remainder of the second polymeric material, and X is a connecting atom or group between the remnants of the groups Y and a1; and the ratio of the masses of the third polymeric material to the weight of the first phase is less than or equal 0,0375.

And1preferably represents an optional substituted phenyl group, and X represents a group

which is linked via oxygen atoms with the remainder of the second polymer material.

Any feature of any aspect of any invention described above may be combined with any feature of any aspect of any invention or variant embodiment of the invention with the necessary changes.

Further, for example, will be described specific embodiments of the invention.

DESCRIPTION of embodiments of the INVENTION

Example 1. Obtaining poly(1,4-di(4-(N-methylpyridyl))-2,3-di(4-(1-formylphenyl)-butylidene

It was obtained as described in Example 1 of PCT/GB97/02529, the content of which is included here by reference. In the method of preparing an aqueous solution containing more than 1 wt.% 4-(4-formylphenylboronic)-1-methylpyridine methosulphate (SbQ), by mixing SbQ with water at ambient temperature. Under such conditions, the SbQ molecules form aggregates. Then the solution was exposed to ultraviolet radiation. This leads to a photochemical reaction between the double carbon-carbon bonds adjacent molecules of 4-(4-formylphenylboronic)-1-methylpyridine methosulphate (I) in the aggregate with the formation of polymer - poly(1,4-di(4-(N-methylpyridyl))-2,3-di(4-(1-formylphenyl)butylidene methosulphate (II), as shown in the reaction scheme below. Note that the anions of the compounds I and II have been omitted in the interest of clarity:

Example 2. A General procedure for obtaining water microemulsion of water-insoluble material

Water-insoluble material, for example, non-polar material, is mixed with the aqueous composition containing the polymer of Example 1 and polyvinyl alcohol (for example, 88% hydrolyzed polyvinyl alcohol with a molecular weight of 300,000), using a high-speed stirrer at ambient temperature. which then leads to emulsification of water-insoluble material in the form of droplets which are stabilized by adsorption layer, for example almost monomolecular layer of polymer from Example 1 and polyvinyl alcohol. Then cause the reaction of the two polymers contained in the layer, for example a reaction catalyzed by the acid, to obtain the hydrogel layer, which encapsulates the water-insoluble material. The formation of hydrogel summarized in the schematic below.

Preferred microemulsions can be obtained with the use of aqueous compositions, containing up to 0.1 wt.%, for example, from 0.025 to 0.1 wt.%, polymer from Example 1 and up to 2.5 wt.%, for example, from 1 to 2.5 wt.%, polyvinyl alcohol. Such aqueous compositions can be used to obtain microemulsions containing up to 75 wt.% water-insoluble materials that can be used up to 75 wt.% water-insoluble material and 25 or more mass % aqueous compositions of the type described.

Example 3. Emulsification of heavy crude oil

25 g of aqueous compositions, containing a 0.05 wt.% polymer from Example 1 and 2 wt.% polyvinyl alcohol described in Example 2 (the remainder was water), stirred at high speed with 75 g of crude oil. Then added 5 ml of 5% hydrochloric acid to reduce the pH to approximately 1.8. Then continued paramesh the existence and in the end, were very small droplets containing the encapsulated oil. Although the emulsion obtained was relatively thick, the addition of water reduces the viscosity without destabilize the microemulsion.

Example 4. Emulsification of crude oil

Followed the procedure described in Example 3, except that it was emulsified with 50 g of heavy crude oil. In this case, there was obtained an emulsion with a lower viscosity than Example 3, and with a wide range of variations in the sizes of droplets.

Example 5. Emulsification of herbicides

50 g of the aqueous composition described in Example 3 was mixed at high speed with a liquid containing water-insoluble organic herbicide ingredient (50 wt.%), in order to emulsify herbicide ingredient. The mixture was acidified to pH 1.8 with 5% hydrochloric acid and continued the stirring for one hour. Then the mixture was neutralized with NaOH solution (Neutralization stops acid catalyzed reaction between polymers). The obtained material was given a chance to air dry, and the sample examined under a microscope, dry it on a slide. It was found that after drying, the material is destroyed.

Example 6. Emulsification of herbicides

Followed the procedure described in Example 5, and is opened in that, instead of neutralizing the mixture after 1 hour, the mixture was neutralized with NaOH solution after 5 hours. Then the composition given the opportunity to dry out and watched it under a microscope, as described in Example 5.

In this Example, it was found that the material retained its integrity after drying and it can be registrationall, for example, adding on a glass slide water dropwise.

Examples 7 through 12 illustrate how it is possible to vary the procedures of preparation for the purpose of modifying the properties of microemulsions and derived materials. Mentioned liquid paraffin was a liquid paraffin medical quality. He was selected as representative of water-insoluble materials.

Example 7

After the procedure generally described in Example 2, 80 wt.% aqueous compositions containing 0,05 wt.% polymer from Example 1, and 3 wt.% polyvinyl alcohol mentioned in Example 2, was mixed with 20 wt.% liquid paraffin. Then add 7% HCl to reduce the pH to about 1.8 and the result is a stable microemulsion. When the drying air and the study described in Example 5, the droplets were destroyed.

Example 8

Was used the procedure from Example 7, except that it was emulsified 50 wt.% paraffin. After addition of the acid was obtained a stable microemulsion. After drying as described in Example 5, the resulting material is not destroyed, but were obtained dry particles encapsulated liquid paraffin. These particles can be easily registrationall.

Example 9

Followed the procedure of Example 8, except that water was used a composition containing 0.75 wt.% polymer from Example 1 and 3 wt.% polyvinyl alcohol. The microemulsion essentially behaved as described in Example 8.

Example 10

Followed the procedure of Example 8, which was used 50 wt.% liquid paraffin, except that water was used a composition containing 0,05 wt.% polymer from Example 1 and 1 wt.% polyvinyl alcohol described in Example 2. There was obtained an emulsion with droplets of larger size. It was found that the emulsion can be obtained in this way, when the content of liquid paraffin to 85 wt.%. At 85 wt.% liquid paraffin was found that after adding 7% HCl to reduce the pH to about 1.8 and subsequent storage during the night the emulsion was solid.

Example 11

Followed the procedure of Example 8, except that the neutralization with NaOH was performed 3 hours after acidification. (It should be stated that in the procedure of Example 8 there is no stage neutralization base). After drying as described above, it was found that the material decomposes.

the example 12

Followed the procedure of Example 8, a modified similarly to the procedure described in Example 11. In this case also it was found that after drying, the material disintegrates.

In examples 13 and 14 described the use of a non-polar material diesel oil.

Example 13

After the procedure generally described in Example 2, 25 wt.% aqueous compositions containing 0,05 wt.% polymer from Example 1, and 2 wt.% polyvinyl alcohol specified in Example 2, was mixed with 75 wt.% diesel oil, and the mixture was subjected to intensive mixing. After addition of acid to reduce the pH to approximately 1.8 formed a microemulsion with the consistency of thick cream. It was found that this composition is very flammable. Such a composition can be used as a substitute for conventional mixtures of diesel oil/water used for fire as emulsified oil lighter is lit.

Example 14

Followed the procedure described in Example 13, except that it was emulsified 50 wt.% diesel oil. There was obtained an emulsion of the type of thick cream. In this case, it was found that the resulting material does not burn. Such materials can be used for safe transportation of diesel fuel or other flammable liquids, such as acetone, ether, xylene and the like), as opian the second encapsulation in microemulsions these materials do not pose a significant fire hazard.

Example 15. General procedure for destruction of microemulsions

The above-described micro-emulsions can be destroyed using salt periodate, which breaks down the chain of polyvinyl alcohol. Thus, this process can be applied, for example, to the emulsion in the form of thick cream from Example 14. When processing diesel oil is separated from other components and can be selected.

The readers attention is directed to all papers and documents which have been published simultaneously with this description of the invention or to him in connection with this application and which are open for public review along with this description of the invention, and the content of all these articles and documents included by reference.

All the features of the invention described in this description of the invention (including the accompanying claims, abstract and drawings), and/or all stages of any of the described method or process described in this work can be combined in any combination, except combinations where at least some of these signs and/or stages are mutually exclusive.

Each element of the invention described in this description of the invention (including the accompanying claims, abstract and drawings)may be replaced by alternative features serving the same, equivalent or similar purpose, unless expressly stated otherwise. Therefore, unless explicitly stated otherwise, any of the described characteristic of the invention is only an example of a generic series of equivalent or similar features.

The invention is not limited to the details above variant (or variants) of the invention. The invention applies to any new sign or a new combination of characteristics described in this description of the invention (including the accompanying claims, abstract and drawings), and to any stage or any new combination of stages of the method or process described in this work.

1. A method of obtaining a water dispersion, which includes a step of mixing the first phase, the first-immiscible material, the first polymeric material and second polymeric material, and

(a) (1) of the first polymeric material contains a repeating monomer with the formula

where a and b are the same or different, selected from aromatic and heteroaromatic groups which may be substituted, and at least one of them contains a relatively polar atom or group, a R1and R2independently contain relatively non-polar atoms or groups; or

(2) the first polymeric material obtained and the and can be obtained through the formation of compounds with the General formula

where a, b, R1and R2are as described above, in an aqueous solvent, and the reaction of groups=With the specified connection between the first polymeric material;

(b) a second polymeric material includes a functional group capable of reacting with the first polymeric material to form covalent bonds between the first and second polymeric materials;

(C) the ratio of the weight of the first polymeric material to the weight of the first phase is less than or equal 0,0025; and

(g) the ratio of the weight of the second polymeric material to the weight of the first phase of less than or equal to a 0.035 and

(d) the first phase contains water.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the groups a and b are independently selected from five - or six-membered aromatic and heteroaromatic groups which may be substituted.

3. The method according to claim 1, wherein a and b represent different groups.

4. The method according to claim 1, wherein the group a represents an aromatic group which may be substituted, and the group represents a heteroaromatic group which may be substituted.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the groups a and b do not contain only atoms of carbon and hydrogen.

6. The method according to claim 1, Otley is audica fact, that at least one of the groups a or b includes a functional group which can be subjected to the condensation reaction.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that one of the groups a or b contains a Deputy, which contains the carbonyl or acetyl group.

8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the other of the groups a or b contains a Deputy who represents an alkyl group.

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that a represents a group substituted formyl group or a substituted group of a General formula

where x is an integer from 1 to 6, and each R3independently is alkyl or phenyl group, or together they form alkalinity group.

10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that In is an optional substituted heteroaromatic group, substituted by heteroatom-hydrogen atom, or alkyl, or aranceles group.

11. The method according to claim 1, wherein R1and R2independently selected from a hydrogen atom or an alkyl group which may be substituted.

12. The method according to claim 1, wherein R1and R2represent the same atoms or groups.

13. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the second polymeric material contains a functional group capable the ing to react with the first polymeric material in the condensation reaction, so between the first and second polymeric materials of the formed covalent bond.

14. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the second polymeric material includes a functional group selected from an alcohol, carboxylic acid, carboxylic acid derivative and amine groups.

15. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the second polymeric material is a polyvinyl polymer.

16. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the second polymeric material is optional substituted polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate or polyalkyleneglycols.

17. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the reaction of the first and second polymeric materials is formed of a third polymeric material and the third polymeric material includes a group with the formula

where R1, R2and are such as described above, And1represents the balance of the group As described above, after the reaction of the first and second polymeric materials, Y represents the remainder of the second polymeric material after the above reaction, comprising first and second polymeric materials, and X represents a connecting atom or group between the remnants of the first and second polymeric materials.

18. The method according to claim 1, wherein the first phase contains water.

<> 19. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of the weight of the first polymeric material to the weight of the first phase is less than or equal 0,0020 and is at least 0,00005.

20. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of the weight of the first polymeric material to the weight of the first phase is at least 0,00010 and less than or equal 0,0015.

21. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of the weight of the second polymeric material to the weight of the first phase is less than or equal 0,030 and is at least 0.001 in.

22. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of the weight of the second polymeric material to the weight of the first phase is less than or equal 0,020 and is at least 0,005.

23. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of the weight of the second polymeric material to the weight of the first polymeric material is in the range from 10 to 100.

24. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of the weight of the second polymeric material to the weight of the first polymer material is at least 20 and less than 90.

25. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of the weight of the third polymer material, which is formed in the reaction between the first and second polymeric material to the weight of the first phase is less than or equal 0,0375.

26. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mass ratio of the first material to the weight of the first polymer material finds the I in the range from 200 to 3200.

27. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mass ratio of the first material to the weight of the first polymer material is at least 350 and less than or equal to 2000.

28. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of the mass of the first material to the weight of the second polymeric material is in the range from 5 to 80.

29. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mass % of the first phase in contact with the first material and the first and second polymeric materials in this way is at least 10 wt.% and less than or equal to 80 wt.%.

30. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mass % of the first phase in contact with the first material and the first and second polymeric materials in this way is at least 10 wt.% and less than or equal to 80 wt.%; mass % of the first material in contact with the first phase and the first and second polymeric materials in this way is at least 20 wt.% and less than or equal to 85 wt.%; the mass percentage of the first polymer material in contact with the first phase, the first material and the second polymeric material, in this way is, at least at 0.020 wt.% and less than or equal to 0.1 wt.%; and the mass % of the second polymer material in contact with the first phase, the first material and the first polymeric material is at least 1 wt.% imense or equal to 3 wt.%.

31. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the first material is an oil.

32. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixture after the formation of the third polymeric material is treated in order to remove from it water.

33. The method according to claim 1, wherein the first polymeric material is the same as described in (a) (1).

34. A method of obtaining a variance, which includes a step of mixing the first phase that is not miscible first material, the first polymeric material and second polymeric material, and (a) the ratio of the weight of the second polymeric material to the weight of the first polymeric material is in the range from 10 to 100; or (b) the ratio of the mass of the first material to the weight of the first polymeric material is in the range from 200 to 3200; and the ratio of the mass of the first material to the weight of the second polymeric material is in the range from 8 to 80,

in which (b) (1) of the first polymeric material contains a repeating monomer with the formula

where a and b are the same or different, selected from aromatic and heteroaromatic groups which may be substituted, and at least one of them contains a relatively polar atom or group, and R1and R2independently contain relatively non-polar atoms or groups; or

(2) the first polymeric material obtained or can be obtained through the formation of compounds with the General formula

where a, b, R1and R2are as described above, in an aqueous solvent, and the reaction of groups=With the specified connection between the first polymeric material;

(g) a second polymeric material includes a functional group capable of reacting with the first polymeric material to form covalent bonds between the first and second polymeric materials;

(d) the first phase contains water.

35. The method of obtaining a dispersion containing the first phase and the first material is not miscible with it, including the mixing of the first phase and the first material with:

(a) a first polymeric material and second polymeric material, and through reaction of the first and second polymeric materials is formed of a third polymeric material; or

(b) a third polymeric material containing a group with the formula

where a1represents the balance of the group As described below, Y represents the remainder of the second polymeric material, and X is a connecting atom or group between the remnants of the groups a and Y;

both materials (a) and (b) the ratio of the masses of the third polymeric material to the weight of the first phase is less than or equal 0,0375;

where the first polymeric material contains a repeating monomer with the formula

or the first polymeric material obtained or can be obtained through the formation of compounds with the General formula

in aqueous solvent, and the reaction of groups=With the specified connection between the first polymeric material;

where a and b are the same or different, selected from aromatic and heteroaromatic groups which may be substituted, and at least one of them contains a relatively polar atom or group, a R1and R2independently contain relatively non-polar atoms or groups;

the first phase contains water.

36. Dispersion, including the first phase that is not miscible first material, the first polymeric material and second polymeric material, and

(a) the ratio of the weight of the first polymeric material to the weight of the first phase is less than or equal 0,0025, and the ratio of the weight of the second polymeric material to the weight of the first phase is less than or equal 0,035; or

(b) the ratio of the weight of the second polymeric material to the weight of the first polymeric material is in the range from 10 to 100; or

(C) the ratio of the mass of the first material to the Assos first polymeric material is in the range from 200 to 3200, and the ratio of the mass of the first material to the weight of the second polymeric material is in the range from 8 to 80,

thus

(g) (1) of the first polymeric material contains a repeating monomer with the formula

where a and b are the same or different, selected from aromatic and heteroaromatic groups which may be substituted, and at least one of them contains a relatively polar atom or group, a R1and R2independently contain relatively non-polar atoms or groups; or

(2) the first polymeric material obtained or can be obtained through the formation of compounds with the General formula

where a, b, R1and R2are as described above, in an aqueous solvent, and the reaction of groups=With the specified connection between the first polymeric material;

(d) a second polymeric material includes a functional group capable of reacting with the first polymeric material to form covalent bonds between the first and second polymeric materials;

(e) the first phase contains water.

37. A dispersion consisting of a first phase that is not miscible first material and the third polymeric material, in which the cancel group with the formula

where a1represents the balance of the group As described below, Y represents the remainder of the second polymeric material, and X is a connecting atom or group between the remnants of the groups Y and a1;

moreover, the ratio of the masses of the third polymeric material to the weight of the first phase is less than or equal 0,0375;

thus

(a) (1) of the first polymeric material contains a repeating monomer with the formula

where a and b are the same or different, selected from aromatic and heteroaromatic groups which may be substituted, and at least one of them contains a relatively polar atom or group, a R1and R2independently contain relatively non-polar atoms or groups; or

(2) the first polymeric material obtained or can be obtained through the formation of compounds with the General formula

where a, b, R1and R2are as described above, in an aqueous solvent, and the reaction of groups=With the specified connection between the first polymeric material;

(b) the first phase contains water.



 

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