Memory element based on planar hall effect
FIELD: electric engineering, possible use in new generation of computers, informational communication systems, intelligent sensors, bio-passports, control systems.
SUBSTANCE: memory element based on planar Hall effect is made on a substrate, on which positioned serially are dielectric layer, recording ferromagnetic film, consisting of first protective layer, ferromagnetic nanostructure with light magnetization axis, directed along the length of film and second protective layer, first isolating layer, record conductor, second isolating layer, and contains a reading cross-shaped magnetic structure based on planar Hall effect on dielectric layer, which structure consists of third protective layer, magnetic nanostructure and fourth protective layer, and also of third isolating layer, positioned on record conductor, fourth isolating layer, positioned above record conductor, on top of which the reading conductor is positioned, mounted above the cross-shaped reading structure based on planar Hall effect and along recording ferromagnetic film.
EFFECT: reduced error of measurements, increased trustworthiness of accumulation and processing of information.
The invention relates to computer technology and can be used in many technical fields, for example in the new generation computers, information communication systems, intelligent sensors, biopassport, control systems.
Known memory element completed a multilayer structure on anisotropic magnetoresistive effect with control circuits and pads based on two-layer FeNiCo film (Patent RF №2081460, M CL5G11C 11/15 from 18.04.94).
The disadvantage of the memory element is the low value of the useful signal, since the maximum change of the electrical resistance due to the anisotropic magnetoresistive effect, is less than 2.5%. This means a small amount of signal reading and complicates the semiconductor control circuit created on the same substrate with the storage element.
The closest technical solution is a memory element on cenventional magnetoresistive effect (Patent RF №2066484, G11 11/15 from 12.07.94), the main element of which is a multilayer magnetoresistive strip and the conductors of the write-read separated by insulating layers. The memory element has a high value of the magnetoresistive effect (about 20%).
The disadvantage of such storage elements are technologies is their difficulty in obtaining multi-layered storage structure on cenventional magnetoresistive effect.
The technical result of the invention is the simplification of the manufacture of the memory element, reducing errors and increasing accuracy when collecting and processing information. The memory element on the planar Hall effect due to the high value effect provides greater signal value read, which simplifies the manufacture of the amplifiers of the read signal and the manufacture of multilayer structure, the memory element.
The technical result is achieved in that the memory element on the planar Hall effect includes a substrate on which are successively arranged in the dielectric layer, a storage ferromagnetic film consisting of a first protective layer, a ferromagnetic nanostructures with the axis of easy magnetization directed along the length of the film and the second protective layer, the first insulating layer, conductor recording, the second insulating layer and on the dielectric layer - reading cross-shaped magnetic structure on the planar Hall effect, consisting of the third protective layer, a magnetic nanostructures and the fourth protective layer, the third insulating layer, located on the guide entries, the fourth insulating layer located above the conductor tracks, it is the conductor read above read cruciform structure is Urai on the planar Hall effect and along the storage ferromagnetic film.
The invention is illustrated in the drawing, in which figure 1 presents graphs of the transverse resistance Rxyfor a structure having a composition of, for example, Co0,45Fe0,45Zra 0.1/α-Si, made in the form of the hall cross with a total thickness equal to 4.7 nm, and the thickness of the substrate α-Si bsequal to 1.7 nm, under the application of a constant magnetic field of 10 e along the current direction depending on an external magnetic field (curve 1) and opposite current (curve 2), the magnetic field parallel to the plane of the structure and perpendicular to the current. In magnetic transition metals and their alloys during the flow of electric current takes place a phenomenon called the planar Hall effect. The physical meaning of this effect is that if the magnetic moment of the metal is oriented in the sample plane at some angle ϕ to the flowing current Ixthen in the transverse to the Ixdirection occurs voltage VPHplanar Hall effect, depending on the angle ϕ. In the case of a single domain films expression for VPHcan be written in the form:
where b is the thickness of the ferromagnetic film ρIIand ρ⊥- the resistivity of this film in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetization vector. From (1) it follows that planar eff the CT Hall is inversely proportional to the film thickness and therefore has a greater value in thin films. The presence of the EMF of the planar Hall effect due to a change in magnetoresistance cross-shaped nanostructures, and the magnitude of the effect is determined by the ratio of the change of this resistance to the resistance in the absence of a magnetic field. Register transverse resistance Rxy=Uy/Ixwhen changing the external magnetic field H applied perpendicular to the current and lying in the plane of the ferromagnetic nanostructures. When the application of a constant magnetic field h=10 e along the current film part is subjected to application in this direction. Changing the direction of the magnetizing field h on the opposite leads to the mirror to change the type of dependence of the resistance on the magnetic field strength. Thus, depending on the direction of the magnetization vector of the magnetic nanostructures relative to the current parallel or antiparallel values of Rxywhen the same values and directions of external readout fields will be different. Cm. 1, where 1 and 2 according to Rxyfrom N correspond to opposite directions of the magnetization vector of the magnetic nanostructures. The asymmetry of the curves at H=0 is due to inaccurate setting of the cross, to which is applied the voltage along the magnetic field. The change of direction of the magnetic field H does not change the dependencies. Cree is s in figure 1 show this cruciform structure, in which a magnetic field is produced electromotive planar Hall effect, responds differently to the direction of the external magnetic field applied along the long side of the structure, i.e. it can distinguish between "0" and "1"recorded in the ferromagnetic film above it.
The memory element on the planar Hall effect works as follows.
The memory element includes (2) substrate 1 with a dielectric layer 2, which is read cruciform magnetic structure consisting of the third protective layer 3, the readout magnetic nanostructures 4 and the fourth protective layer 5. Above is the third insulating layer 6, on which is formed a storage ferromagnetic film consisting of a first protective layer 7, a magnetic nanostructures 8 and the second protective layer 9. Above is the first insulating layer 10, on which the conductor entry 11, closed the fourth insulating layer 12. Finish the design of the memory element Hall effect guide reading information 13 and the second insulating layer 14. Recording information on a storage ferromagnetic film is conducted while applying pulses of current in the conductors entries 11 and read 13 creating peremagnichivanie ferromagnetic film of the magnetic field. The thus recorded information is detected by the polarity of the current, fed into the conductor entry 11, and the current in the reading guide 13 is required to reduce the magnetization reversal of the ferromagnetic film, i.e. the current in the conductor, recording 11. After the expiration of the current pulse the magnetization vector of the ferromagnetic nanostructures 8 ferromagnetic recording film is directed along the axis of easy magnetization of the film in the direction corresponding to the state "0" or "1". At the edges of the ferromagnetic recording film create a magnetic demagnetizing field acting on the readout cross-like structure on the planar Hall effect and directed opposite to the magnetization of the recording film. The direction of these demagnetizing fields define recorded on the ferromagnetic film information, and the value of Nrdetermine the expression
where Msthe saturation magnetization of ferromagnetic nanostructures storage strips, b is the thickness of the nanostructures, and l is the length of the strips. For FeNiCo nanostructures Ms=1000 HS its thickness can be b=20 nm and length l=20 μm. For these values of (2) implies that Nr=12 e, i.e. satisfies the conditions for reading cruciform structure in figure 2.
When reading the information in the guide reading 13 serves a pulse of current that creates a magnetic field pop the rivers reader cruciform structure and ferromagnetic recording film. The current reading should be possible to obtain a large signal read, and on the other hand, should not lead to the reversal magnetization of ferromagnetic recording film, i.e. the loss of information and the need rewriting it after read operations. From figure 1 it is seen that when applying a magnetic field of 20 V resistance change (signal) for state "0" and "1" is 5 and 1% respectively. That is, when reading a "0" there will be a reduction of the signal by 5%, and when reading the state of "1" will result in an increase of the signal at 1%. These values are at least twice higher than in the anisotropic magnetoresistive effect. In addition, when using storage elements on anisotropic magnetoresistive effect use design with a total area of writing and reading, not to make full use of all the effect sizes are due to the impossibility of a complete magnetization reversal, which would lead to the destruction of information when reading.
Thus, the proposed storage element on the Hall effect can be produced in the domestic processing equipment and has a substantially greater value of the planar Hall effect in comparison with the storage element with an anisotropic magnetoresistive effect, which simplifies the requirements for usilitel the m signal reading. The use of the memory element on the planar Hall effect technology simplifies the manufacture of the memory element and allows several times to improve the signal-to read, to reduce the error and improve the accuracy when collecting and processing information.
The memory element on the planar Hall effect, containing a substrate on which are successively arranged in the dielectric layer, the storage film consisting of a first protective layer, a ferromagnetic nanostructures with the axis of easy magnetization directed along the length of the film and the second protective layer, the first insulating layer, conductor recording, the second insulating layer, wherein the dielectric layer is read cruciform structure on the planar Hall effect, consisting of the third protective layer, a magnetic nanostructures and the fourth protective layer, the third insulating layer, located on the guide entries, the fourth insulating layer located above the guide entries, hosting guide-read-installed on the reader cruciform structure on the planar Hall effect and along the storage ferromagnetic film.
FIELD: magnetic micro- and nano-elements, possible use in indicators of magnetic field and current, memorizing and galvanic elements, galvanic decoupling and spin transistors based on multi-layered nanostructures with magneto-resistive effect.
SUBSTANCE: in multi-layered magneto-resistive nanostructure composed of magnetic nano-islands, consisting of N pairs of alternating layers, each pair containing layers of nano-islands with different values of magnetic reversal field of magnetic materials positioned on dielectric layer and protected by a solid dielectric layer on top. Such a multi-layered magneto-resistive nanostructure consists of nano-islands positioned separately within each layer. Nano-islands of each layer may contact nano-islands of upper and lower layers, with resulting magnetic interaction between them.
EFFECT: production of multi-layered magneto-resistive nanostructure using magnetic nano-islands, having high value of magneto-resistive effect in small magnetic fields and having high reproducibility of magnetic parameters for serial production of nano-elements based on aforementioned structure.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: improved multi-bit magnetic memorizing device with arbitrary selection and methods for functioning and manufacture of such a device.
SUBSTANCE: magnetic memory includes one or more paired cells, each one of which has multilayer magnetic structure. Structure contains magnetic-changeable ferromagnetic layer, ferromagnetic basic layer, having non-changeable magnetization state, and corresponding separating layer which divides ferromagnetic layers. Memory cells are ordered in such a way, that effective remaining magnetization of each cell is not parallel to cell axis which is parallel to its long side. Methods describe functioning process of such a device.
EFFECT: increased data recording density, reduced energy consumption and simplified manufacturing process of memorizing device.
3 cl, 30 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method for controlling ferro-electric or electret memorizing device during reading of data from memory cells of the device, first set of voltage differences is fed to first and second electrode sets. Second set of voltage differences is fed to first and second electrode sets during recording or renewal of data in memory cells. In both aforementioned cases first and second sets of voltage differences correspond to array of potential values set by protocol for feeding voltage impulses, which includes temporal sequences of voltage impulses. During that at least one parameter is determined, which characterizes change of response of memory cells, and this parameter is used to determine at least one correcting factor for voltage impulses. With usage of at least one correcting factor, correction of at least one parameter of impulses being fed is performed. Invention also discloses ferro-electric or electret memorizing device for realization of current method.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
2 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: magnetic microelements and nanostructures, possible use in sensors of magnetic field and current, recording and logical elements, galvanic cross couplings and spin transistors based on multi-layered thin-film nanostructures with anisotropic or gigantic magneto-resistive effect.
SUBSTANCE: multi-layer thin-film magneto-resistive nanostructure contains first protective layer, upon which first magneto-soft film is positioned, separating non-magnetic layer on top of first magneto-soft film, on top of which in turn second magneto-soft film and second protective layer are positioned, between second magneto-soft film and second protective layer a layer of silicon carbide is positioned, while separating non-magnetic layer is thick enough to prevent interaction of exchange between magneto-soft films.
EFFECT: creation of multi-layer thin-film magneto-resistive nanostructure, having various reverse magnetization fields of magnetic layers included in it, having high reproducibility of magnetic parameters and expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: technology for manufacturing ferro-electric memory cells and engineering of ferroelectric memory device.
SUBSTANCE: aforementioned memory device contains ferroelectric memory cells, at least two sets of electrodes, parallel to other electrodes of set, while electrodes of one are set are positioned practically orthogonally to electrodes of closest next set of electrodes. Method for manufacturing aforementioned memory cells in composition of aforementioned memory device includes forming first electrode, containing at least one layer of metal and at least one metal-oxide layer, above first electrode ferroelectric layer is applied, consisting of thin film of ferroelectric polymer, and then onto this ferroelectric layer at least second electrode is applied, contains at least one layer of metal and at least one metal-oxide layer.
EFFECT: high surface density of cells, possible application of upper electrodes without damage to ferro-electric memory material.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: technology for magnetization reversal of magnetic layer with planar magnetization.
SUBSTANCE: external magnetic field is applied to magnetic layer in such a way, that magnetization vector performs precessions around this external magnetic field. Effect from external magnetic field is stopped until magnetization orientation coincides with direction of external magnetic field. Magnetization reversal is finalized as a result of fading precession of magnetization around de-magnetizing layer and field of magnetic anisotropy of subject magnetic layer.
EFFECT: accelerated process of magnetization reversal, possible use in device for magnetization reversal of magnetic carrier, magnetic recording system and in memorizing device on magnetic carrier.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: technologies for storing data in energy-independent ferroelectric memory with variable selection.
SUBSTANCE: each method includes recording multiple identical copies of data to multiple memory zones, first controlling line is read, containing at least first copy of multiple identical copies of data, read data are repeatedly recorded into the same controlling line, read data are transferred to logical memory control contour, reading of whole next controlling line is performed, containing, at least, next copy of multiple identical copies of aforementioned data, data are recorded into same controlling line, from where aforementioned data were read, data are transferred to logical memory control contour, and operations are repeated further until all identical copies of data are transferred to logical memory control contour, errors in binary code are detected, in case of detection of errors corrected data are repeatedly recorded to memory zones where errors were detected.
EFFECT: possible maintenance of integrity of stored data.
2 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: engineering of devices of volumetric data storage.
SUBSTANCE: device has multiple memorizing devices M with matrix addressing, each one of memorizing devices contains two electrode matrices in form of parallel electrode layers, forming controlling buses and data buses, while electrodes of each electrode matrix are made with high position density and isolated from each other by barrier layer with thickness, being a portion of electrodes thickness, while upper surface of one electrode matrix, directed to next electrode matrix, is provided by parallel grooves, directed orthogonally relatively to electrodes and spatially separated from one another by spaces, close to width of electrodes.
EFFECT: high density of data storage.
6 cl, 19 dwg
FIELD: technology for reading information from device with passive matrix addressing, possible use in sensor devices with individually addressed cells on basis of polarized material.
SUBSTANCE: device with passive matrix addressing of individual cells contains electrically polarized material having hysteresis, first and second sets of parallel electrodes, forming controlling buses and data buses, which in overlapping zones within volume of polarized material form cells, containing capacitor-like structures, and also has control means and detection means. Method describes process for reading data from aforementioned device.
EFFECT: prevented obstructing voltages and leak currents during destructive reading of cells, possible parallel reading of several cells.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: engineering of devices, containing functional elements forming a planar set.
SUBSTANCE: in electrode matrix, containing first and second thin-film electrode layers L1, L2 with electrodes ε in form of stripe electric conductors in each layer, electrodes ε are separated from each other only by thin film 6 of electrically insulated material, thickness of which is a small portion of electrodes width and which passes along at least side edges of electrodes, forming isolating walls 6a between them. Electrode layers L1, L2 are subjected to planarization to provide for high level of planarity of layers. In dev, containing one or more electrode matrices EM, electrode layers L1, L2 of each matrix are mutually oriented in such a way, that their electrodes 1, 2 intersect or are positioned mutually perpendicularly. Between electrodes 1,2 in form of whole layer functional environment 3 is held, as a result of which device with matrix addressing is formed (preferably passive), which can be utilized, for example, as device for processing or storing data with matrix addressing, containing individually addressed functional elements 5, in form of logical cells or memory cells respectively. Coefficient of filling for separate layer of functional environment 3 by aforementioned cells is close to 1, while maximal number of cells in device approaches A/f2, where A - surface area of functional environment, held between electrode layers L1, L2, and f - minimal size achievable by technological means.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of addressing and increased recording density of stored data.
3 cl, 30 dwg
FIELD: magnetic materials whose axial symmetry is used for imparting magnetic properties to materials.
SUBSTANCE: memory element has nanomagnetic materials whose axial symmetry is chosen to obtain high residual magnetic induction and respective coercive force. This enlarges body of information stored on information media.
EFFECT: enhanced speed of nonvolatile memory integrated circuits for computers of low power requirement.
4 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: recording devices.
SUBSTANCE: device has electrically polarized dielectric material, being in layer placed between first and second addressing sets with parallel placement of electrodes within limits of each set, controlling buses and data buses, reading means and means for connecting each data bus to associated reading means. Method describes operation of said device. Device for three-dimensional data storage has multiple stacking layers, each of which has one of said energy-independent recording devices.
EFFECT: possible localization of errors, prevention of interferences in non-addressed cells.
3 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for providing possible addressing in device, containing one or more volumetric element, in form of memory cells, display cells, diodes, transistors and/or switching/modulating elements and forming together with said device a portion of two-dimensional or three-dimensional matrix being a component of said device, contains three sets of electric-conductive lines or ribbon electrodes, forming an additional portion of said matrix. Device for storing and/or processing data or receipt and/or processing, and/or displaying of signals contains said means and more than one matrix, while said matrices are made in form of stack, accurately placed on substrate, and device forms a volumetric structure dependently on functional properties of each matrix in a stack.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities.
2 cl, 23 dwg
FIELD: semiconductor memory devices.
SUBSTANCE: device has a lot of memory elements, each of which contains input and output areas, isolating film, channel area, shutter electrode, area for storing electric charges, device also contains large number of periphery circuits, containing reading amplifier, register for storing recorded data of memory elements, register, which preserves the flag, indicating end of record during its check, and circuit, which after recording operation compares value, read from memory cell, to value, fixed by flag at the end of record, and overwrites value indicated by the flag.
EFFECT: higher reliability of operation.
5 cl, 71 dwg
FIELD: memory devices.
SUBSTANCE: first device for comparing phases has signal generator for feeding two or more reading signals with given phases to memory cell, phase-sensitive detector, support signal source, discrimination/logic contour. Second device for comparing phases has signal generator for feeding first periodical signal, applied to second periodically reading signal of lesser frequency, phase-sensitive detector/discriminator. Method describes operation of said devices.
EFFECT: higher reliability.
3 cl, 15 dwg
FIELD: computer science.
SUBSTANCE: memory cell, containing three-layer structure, including two electrodes, between which a functional zone is located, as electrodes metal and/or semiconductor and/or conducting polymer and/or conducting and optically transparent oxide or sulfide are used, and functional zone is made of organic, metal-organic and non-organic materials with different types of active elements built in molecular and/or crystalline structure, and also their combinations with each other and/or clusters on their basis, which change their condition or position under effect from outside electrical field and/or light radiation.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, broader functional capabilities, higher manufacturability.
25 cl, 24 dwg
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has ferroelectric memory cell in form of thin ferroelectric polymer film, two electrodes, while at least one of said electrodes has at least one contact layer, which has conductive polymer in contact with memory cell, and if necessary has second layer in from of metallic film in contact with conductive polymer. Method for manufacturing ferroelectric memory contour includes operations for applying on substrate of first contact layer in from of thin film of conductive polymer and applying thin ferroelectric polymer film on first contact layer and second contact layer on thin ferroelectric polymer film.
EFFECT: increased polarization level of ferro-electric memory cell and decreased field strength.
2 cl, 12 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: data carriers.
SUBSTANCE: device for determining logical state of selected memory cells in memory device with passive matrix addressing is made with possible connection to ferroelectric memory device or forming its portion and contains reading amplifying contours, synchronous amplifier, combined source of shift voltage and signal, active control line driver, multiplexer, a set of routers. Other variant of aforementioned device is additionally equipped with second set of routers. Method describes operation of aforementioned devices.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, broader functional capabilities.
3 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: digital data processing.
SUBSTANCE: device in form of semiconductor memory device has control block with control elements and memory cells, each of which is made with possible connection to system of buses for connection to central processor and has an in-built microprocessor, including registers, made with possible storage of signs of start of data flow name and its end, information about state and mode of in-built microprocessor. Method describes process of data processing in aforementioned recording device.
EFFECT: higher speed of operation.
6 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: technology for recording data, linked with other data.
SUBSTANCE: data production device has module for assigning numeric value, meant for assigning from number of multiple numeric values, stored on data carrier, of numeric value, appropriate for data file, subject for extraction, while numeric value is additional basic n value, where n - integer value higher than one. Device also has module for forming path name, meant for forming name by insertion of symbol, appropriate for numeric value, into each preset position in given formed symbols string, and receiving module, meant for extraction of data file, if in data carrier additional file is present with path name, formed by path name forming module.
EFFECT: decreased data-occupied space in memory.
4 cl, 12 dwg