Photoelectric automatic collimator

FIELD: measuring devices.

SUBSTANCE: photoelectric autocollimator can be used for measuring value and direction of angular movement of object. Photoelectric autocollimator has radiation source optically connected with mask, light splitter, objective, scanner provided with control voltage source, mark and photoreceiver. It also has registration unit, unit for measuring direction of angular movement of object, first and second units for indication of angular movement of object.

EFFECT: widened functional abilities.

5 dwg

 

The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used to measure angles in Metrology and mechanical engineering.

Closest to the invention is a photoelectric autocollimator, which contains optically coupled to the radiation source, mark, a beam splitter, a lens, and a scanner with a source of control voltage, a mask, a photodetector, a recording unit, and the mark made in the form of a plate with a round hole of small diameter, the mask is installed in the focal plane of the lens in front of the photodetector and is made in the form of two slots located under set, but not equal to π/2, angle, one of which is oriented orthogonal to the scan trajectories of the brand, the photodetector is installed after the beam splitter in the reflected light flux, the registration unit contains the selector pulses, trigger, counter, clock, random access memory, arithmetical and logic unit, a persistent storage device, the decoder and indicator (USSR author's certificate No. 1368633, CL G01 21/22 from 07.08.1986 year).

The disadvantage of this device is the inability to determine the direction of angular displacement of the object.

An object of the invention is to expand the functionality of the device by determining the direction the possible angular displacement of the object.

The technical result is achieved by the structural improvement of the prototype, the essence of which is that the photoelectric autocollimator contains optically coupled to the radiation source, mark, a beam splitter, a lens, and a scanner with a source of control voltage, a mask, a photodetector, a recording unit, and the mark made in the form of a plate with a round hole of small diameter, the mask is installed in focally plane of the lens in front of the photodetector and is made in the form of two slots located under set, but not equal to π/2, angle, one of which is oriented orthogonal to the scan trajectories of the brand, the photodetector is installed after the beam splitter in the reflected light flux, the registration unit includes a selector pulse, trigger, counter, clock, random access memory, arithmetical and logic unit, a persistent storage device, decoder and display, introduced additional unit determining the direction of angular displacement of the object, the first and second indicator of the direction of angular displacement of the object, and first and second outputs of the registration unit are connected respectively with the first and second inputs of the unit to determine the direction of angular displacement, the first and second outputs of which are connected according to the government with inputs of the first and second indicator of the direction of angular displacement of the object, unit determining the direction of angular displacement includes a divider, a threshold device, the element AND-NOT-unit permanent signals, and the first and second input unit determining the direction of angular displacement is connected with the first and the second input of the divider, the output of which is connected to the first input of the threshold device, a second input connected to the output of the generator is constant signals, the output of the threshold device connected to the input element AND IS NOT, first and second output unit determining the direction of angular displacement of the object are respectively output element AND-NOT and the output of the threshold device.

New features with significant differences in the photoelectric autocollimator are: unit determining the direction of angular displacement of the object, the first and second indicator of the direction of angular displacement of the object and the relationships between known and new elements.

Figure 1 shows the structural diagram of the photoelectric autocollimator; figure 2 is an embodiment of the mask; figure 3 - block diagram of the recording unit; figure 4 is a time chart explaining the operation of the autocollimator; figure 5 is a structural block circuit diagram for determining the direction of angular displacement of the object.

Photoelectric autocollimator contains the associated optical source 1 in the tion, mark 2, a beam splitter 3, a lens 4, and the scanner 5 source 6 control voltage, the mask 7, the photodetector 8, block 9 of the Desk, the object 10, block 11 determine the direction of angular displacement of the object, the first 12 and second 13 indicator of the direction of movement of the object, and the mark 2 is made in the form of a plate with a round hole of small diameter, the mask 7 is installed in the focal plane of the lens in front of the photodetector 8 and is made in the form of two slots located under set, but not equal to π/2, angle, one of which is oriented orthogonal trajectory of the scanning mark 2. The photodetector 8 is installed after the beam splitter 3 in the reflected light flux, block 9 register contains a selector 14 pulses, the trigger 15, a counter 16, the generator 17 clock pulses, random access memory 18, arithmetical and logic unit 19, a persistent storage device 20, a decoder 21 and the led 22 of the magnitude of the angular displacement of the object, while the output of the counter 16 and the output of the operational storage device 17 are respectively first and second outputs of block 9 of the Desk, which are connected respectively with the first and second inputs of the block 11 determine the direction of angular displacement, which contains the divider 23, a threshold device 24 element AND-NOT 25 unit 26 of constant signals. PE is the first and the second input unit 11 to determine the direction of angular displacement is connected with the first and the second input of the divider 23, the output of which is connected to the first input of the threshold device 24, a second input connected to the output of the generator 26 of constant signals, the output of the threshold device 24 is connected to the input element AND 25, the first and the second output unit 11 to determine the direction of angular displacement of the object, respectively, are the output element AND 25 and the output of the threshold device 24.

In the autocollimator as emitter can be used with incandescent lamp. Mark can be made in the form of an opaque plate with a round hole of small diameter, as the beam splitter used a rectangular prism or a plane-parallel plate, and as a scanner - tooth voltage generator, which is loaded on the piezoelectric element. The photodetector can be made in the form of a photodiode, as the selector pulses, in the simplest case, can be used a threshold device on the comparator CCS, as trigger - chip K155TV1, counter - chip CIE. Operating the memory device, arithmetical and logic unit and the decoder are performed on a single-chip Central processing element KRIK, a persistent storage device - on-a-chip CH and the led - on led matrix.

Photoelectric autocollimator is ledouxnebria.

The beam of light from a source 1 of radiation (figure 1) passes through the hole mark 2 and the beam splitter 3 is directed to the lens 4. Reflected from the object 10, the light passes through the lens 4, a beam splitter 3 and is collected in the focal plane of the lens 4 on the mask 7. Thus, the mask 7 is obtained target image 2 corresponding to the luminous point. The output signal from source 6 control voltage is supplied to the unit 9 registration (figa) and the scanner 5, which provides translational movement grade 2, respectively, and its image on the mask 7, in a linear fashion (figure 2 position And, figb). When passing beam slits I and II during a forward stroke of the scan (TpH) formed two light pulse, the intervals between which is equal to τ1(pigv).

When you rotate the object 10 at some angle αthat must be measured, the light beam will move across the mask as shown in figure 2 (position), and the time interval between pulses becomes equal to τ2(figure 4 d).

Known measurement equation corners of the autocollimators is:

where α- the measured angle;

f is the focal length of the lens;

d - linear offset of the target image relative to the original position.

In the proposed autocollimator (2)

where θ - the angle between the cracks.

In addition,

where γ- the coupling coefficient between the linear displacement of the lines a and b and the difference between the pulse durations τ1and τ2

Substituting (3) into (2) and (1), we obtain the equation of the angle measurement of the proposed autocollimator:

where k is the conversion factor.

From the expression (4) shows that by changing the angle αwe can vary the sensitivity of the autocollimator.

The recording unit (3) works as follows. The pulses from the photodetector are selector 14 pulses and fed to the counting input of the trigger 15, which generates pulses with a duration τ12) (figd, e), during which the counter 16 is a clock pulse generator 17 clock pulses. The clock pulses are set to "0" will trigger 15, excluding from its output signal 3 pulses from the photocurrent during reverse scan (TOh). The output of counter 16 is formed of a binary code corresponding to the duration of τ12).

Code duration τ1is memorized in the memory device 15 and after measurements are completed in conjunction with code duration τ2fed to the input of arithmetical-logical the disorder 19. In addition, the input of arithmetical-logical unit 19 receives data from the permanent storage device 20 stores data of the conversion coefficient k in the expression (4) and the programme of work arithmetical-logical unit 19. Fixing the initial angular position of the object is determined by the moment of writing code in memory device 18 and can be set by the operator or automatically. After measurements are completed arithmetical and logic unit 19 solves the equation (4), and the calculation result is easy to be interpreted by the decoder 21 and displayed on the display 22.

Unit 11 determine the direction of angular displacement of the object (figure 5) is as follows.

The output signal of the counter 16 and the output of the operational storage device 18 receives the first and second inputs of the divider 23, the output of which is received at the first input of the threshold device 24, to the second input of which receives the signal with the output of the generator 26 of constant signals.

If the relationthen the output of the threshold device 24 no signal, with the output element AND IS NOT 25 the signal at the first indicator of the direction of angular displacement of the object.

If the relationthe output signal from the threshold device 24 reaches directly the NGOs on the second indicator of the direction of angular displacement of the object.

Thus, in addition to the magnitude of the angular displacement of the object is determined by the direction of movement, by comparing the time interval of movement of the light spot relative to the slits in the first moment of measurement and the next.

Sources of information

1. USSR author's certificate No. 1368633, CL G01B 21/22, (prototype).

Photoelectric autocollimator contains optically coupled to the radiation source, mark, a beam splitter, a lens, and a scanner with a source of control voltage, a mask, a photodetector, a recording unit, and the mark made in the form of a plate with a round hole of small diameter, the mask is installed in the focal plane of the lens in front of the photodetector and is made in the form of two slots located under set, but not equal to π/2 angles, one of which is oriented orthogonal to the scan trajectories of the brand, the photodetector is installed after the beam splitter in the reflected light flux, the light beam from the radiation source passes through the opening of the brand and the beam splitter is directed to the lens, the reflected light from the object passes through the lens, a beam splitter and collected in the focal plane of the lens on the mask on which the image of the brand, the corresponding luminous point, the signal output from the source of control voltage p is given in the registration unit and the scanner, which provides translational movement of the brand, the registration unit includes a selector pulse, trigger, counter, clock, random access memory, arithmetical and logic unit, a persistent storage device, decoder and display, and the pulses from the photodetector are selector pulses and fed to the counting input of the trigger, which generates pulses with a duration τ12), during which the counter is filled with a clock pulse generator of clock pulses, the clock pulses are set to "0" trigger, excluding from its output pulses from the photocurrent during reverse scanning, the output of the counter is generated binary code corresponding to the duration of τ12code duration τ1is memorized in the memory device and after measurements are completed in conjunction with code duration τ2fed to the input of arithmetical-logical unit, in addition to arithmetical-logical unit receives data from the permanent storage device, stores information about the conversion coefficient k in the expression α=k(τ21) and programme of work arithmetical-logical unit, the fixation of the initial angular floor is the position of the object is determined by the moment of writing code in a memory device and can be set by the operator or automatically, after measurements are completed arithmetical-logical device solves the equation α=k(τ21and the calculation result is easy to be interpreted by the decoder and displayed on the display, characterized in that it has the power to determine the direction of angular displacement of the object, the first and second indicators of the direction of angular displacement of the object, and first and second outputs of the registration unit are connected respectively with the first and second inputs of the unit to determine the direction of angular displacement, the first and second outputs of which are connected respectively to the inputs of the first and second indicators of the direction of angular displacement of the object block determining the direction of angular displacement includes a divider, a threshold device, the element AND-NOT-unit permanent signals, and first and second inputs of the block to determine the direction of angular displacement connected with the first and second inputs of the divider, the output of which is connected to the first input of the threshold device, a second input connected to the output of the generator is constant signals, the output of the threshold device is connected to the input element AND IS NOT, first and second outputs of the block to determine the direction of angular displacement of the object are respectively output element AND-NOT and the output of the threshold device.



 

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