Method for tracking of delay of range finder code fronts of navigational satellite signals

FIELD: devices used in satellite radio navigation.

SUBSTANCE: the claimed method uses the operation of linear interpolation of two adjacent numbered readouts of the input signal embracing the forecast moment of the next change of the code symbol, the obtained value of the interpolated ordinate is normalized to the estimate of the useful signal amplitude, multiplied by the Gaussian prior probability, and an error signal is obtained according to the criterion of the maximum of the posterior probability density.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of tracking of delay of range finder code fronts of navigational satellite signals with the aid of a theoretically optimal delay discriminator insensitive to the multipath propagation in a digital receiver, multiprogram one inclusive, as well as eliminated uncertainty in the method of interpolation of numbered ordinates of the mixture of the signal with noise by the moment of the forecast delay, eliminated uncertainty in the method of formation of the delay from the prehistory to the current moment of estimation.

2 cl

 

The invention relates to devices used in satellite navigation.

Widespread way of tracking code tracking systems delay (SWD) (see, for example [1]), which actually tracked the temporal position of the center of gravity of the shape under the curve vzaimoobraschennost functions (MCFs). Here calculate its values at three points as the convolution integrals in-phase component of the input signal (I) with advanced (early), nominal (prompt and delayed (late) replicas of the expected code.

The discriminator such CVD generates the error signal in the form

However, such a discriminator is not responding to any optimality criteria and is in fact purely heuristic solution. This fact in relation to the receivers, navigation equipment (EmOC) satellite navigation systems (SNS) was first reported in 1995 Ehekirchen [2], but, although he stated that the optimal (according to theory of statistical radio engineering) discriminator GCC should generate a convolution of the signal with the derivative of a replica at the estimated parameter, proposals for the implementation of such a discriminator he has not led.

The author of this invention Useduring in 1996 [3] proposed a variant implementation of such a theoretically optimal discriminator delay (TODS). However, the proposed implementation conditions which replaces the hardware receiver - you need a separate (for each of the parallel channels tracking satellites) analog generator clock frequency code, voltage controlled (VCO)and a digital to analogue Converter code delay generated in digital circuits SWD in the control voltage (continuous argument δ-functions for these GUNAS). The requirement for formation of continuous arguments ϕfunctions as derivatives of the expected code for fixing ordinate (in analog form) of the envelope of the signal leads to the aforementioned complications receiver. In these ordinates degenerate integrals of convolution of the input signal with δ-functions.

These complicating the implementation COZ when not obvious at the time of its advantages [1] suspended further work in the field TODS.

Only in 2004 was the result (simulation model) [4], showing immunity TODS to the reflections (insensitive to multipath) and the possibility of its realization in digital receivers (including software) with discrete time digitized signals.

This insensitivity is due to the fact that TODS implements the tracking is not the center of gravity of the MCFs, a figure which distort the reflected signals (especially its anterior slope), and the fronts of code symbols, the position of which on the time axis does not move reflected signal is crystals. In more detail this method of tracking delay fronts code and all of its properties are given in [5], which we will adopt for the prototype.

In accordance with the prototype method for tracking a delay of fronts ranging code signals of navigation satellites includes the steps of forming the digitized samples of the input signal mixture noise prediction delay from the time of the original assessment by the time the next expected change of code symbols, the interpolation of the ordinate of the input signal by the time the next change of code symbols used ordinate this as an error signal, and smoothing it in a closed tracking the delay in the circuit. In the model, which were the results of work [5], was used spline approximation.

In this paper we present the 2nd version TODS, in which the replacement of variable in the integral convolution of the estimated parameter - delay τ - changed argument replicas in the argument of the signal S(t-τ). To implement this version COZ derivative τ from the replica, and from the signal itself. When it δfunction formed at the transition point of the code symbols in the envelope of the input signal.

Implementation of the 2nd version TODS would require the use of analog differentiating RC-chains of the signal envelope, which is usually formed in the digital part of the receiver; the. many of the outputs from the chip hardware digital receiver and inputs in the analog differentiation on the RC-circuit. Alternative high clock frequency multi-bit digitizing of analog signals with the formation of the increments of the envelope in the digital receiver (including software) and highlight those that are the same in sign of the derivative of the expected code and similar in magnitude to twice the amplitude of the useful signal. This option was used in the simulation model [5]. In terms of nature, frequency multibit (at least 8) digitizing must be hundreds of MHz, which is quite difficult to implement. The increase in the frequency of digitization allows you to more reliably capture the true race of the increments on the fronts of the change of code symbols. But there may be false positives. For their suppression in the second version TODS applied the criterion of maximum a posteriori probability density (mapw) instead of the criterion of maximum likelihood (MP), which is responsible interpolated ordinate signal in the first version.

For formation evaluation delay criterion maps used Gaussian a priori probability density (GAPW). As the mathematical expectation GAPS used the forecast delay from prehistory to the current point of evaluation, and the variance was estimated by the conventional method and the deviation of these delays from the smoothing of the trend. The simulation results showed a significant increase in the accuracy of the second version TODS through the application of criterion maps compared with the first, where they used the MP criterion.

In addition, in the prototype (simulation method) signal amplitude was taken equal to 1. In real receivers it is changing in a fairly wide range, and to correct signal errors in the first version of the method should be supplemented by the operation of normalizing the digitized samples of the signal by the amount of the assessment of the current amplitude (in the second version of the signal amplitude was taken into account in the selection of the increments).

The disadvantages of the prototype the following:

1 - the uncertainty in the interpolation method digitized ordinate mixture signal with noise to the predicted time delay;

2 - uncertainty in the method of forming the delay from prehistory to the current point of evaluation;

3 - lower the accuracy easy to implement the first version of the method in comparison with the second, but more complicated;

4 - no rating operations interpolated ordinate required for correct signal errors.

The primary object of the present invention is to eliminate these disadvantages of the prototype in the way of tracking delayed fronts ranging code signals of navigation satellites with the consequences of the overall implementation TODS, insensitive to multipath in a digital receiver (including software).

This task is solved in that a method of tracking delay fronts ranging code signals of navigation satellites, including the operations of forming the digitized samples of the input signal mixture noise prediction delay from the time of the original assessment by the time the next expected change of code symbols, the interpolation of the ordinate of the input signal by the time the next shift code symbols, you can use this output as the error signal and smoothing it in a closed tracking delay in the loop is entered, the operation of the linear interpolation of two adjacent digitized samples of the input signal, covering the predicted time of the next change of the character code, and the obtained value is interpolated ordinate normalized to the amplitude estimation of the useful signal, multiplied by a Gaussian a priori probability density (GAPW) and receive the error signal according to the criterion of maximum a posteriori probability density (mapw), the mathematical expectation GAPS get the forecast delay using the phase shift of the carrier by the time the expected change of the character code, and the dispersion receive as recurrently smoothed her assessment of the historical process tracking delay.

In the invention features the use of the work as the basis for a more simple implementation - the first version TODS, but to improve its accuracy due to the formation of the error signal according to the criterion maps. This prompted the error signal obtained in the first version TODS as interpolated normalized value of the ordinate of the input signal that meets the criteria MP, again multiply GAPS used in the second version TODS.

Recent studies have shown that the implementation of the MP evaluation of the error signal enough linear interpolation between two adjacent samples of the signal, covering the predicted delay to the time of this delay.

To address the first of these disadvantages of the prototype features such linear interpolation.

To address the second disadvantage of the prototype is proposed to form the prediction of the delay at the time of the next evaluation (expected change character code) by adding the increment of the distance obtained in the tracking system carrier (SSN) as the phase shift from the previous estimate of the delay code to the time of the next expected, multiplied by the length of the radio waves.

The solution of the third disadvantage of the above - criterion maps in the first version TODS instead of the MP criterion.

As the mathematical expectation GAPS encouraged to use the forecast delay as described above (to eliminate the second defects in the TKA prototype). The variance GAPW to use it recurrently precise estimation of variances of estimates of delays in prehistory from the smoothed raids phase of the carrier of their trend.

To address the fourth disadvantage of the prototype is proposed to introduce a normalization operation interpolated output signal on an assessment of its amplitude. This assessment form recurrent smoothing of digitized samples of a mixture of signal and noise with signs symbols traced code (1 correspond to the samples with the sign "+", 0 with the sign "-").

This method and all of its operations can easily be implemented in software, the satellite navigation receiver.

Sources of information

1. Global Positioning System. Theory and Application, vol.1. Paul Zaitzman. Editor-in-Chief. Published by American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Inc. Fifth Printing Copyright 1996.

2. Ehekirchen. Integrated equipment users of space-based radio navigation systems. Navigation-95. Proceedings of the International conference. Planning global navigation Russia. 26-30 July 1996, t.ii, S.(8-70)-(8-76).

3. Useduring. Fully hardware digital signal receiver GPS/GLONASS// 2nd international conference on satellite communications. Moscow, 1996 Report, vol. 1, s-287 (Proc. of the 2-nd ICSC, Moscow, 1996. vol.1, pp.283-287).

4. Useduring. Principles for improving noise immunity in satellite navigation receiver new generation. Report. Proc. of the si reports II scientific-technical conference "Radiooptions technologies in engineering" September 13-17, 2004, Sochi, Russia, s.

5. Useduring. The possibility of building a NAP QUO with centimeter level accuracy absolute positioning. Proceedings of the Institute of applied astronomy RAS, VIP, 2005, St. Petersburg, Russia, s-346.

1. The method of tracking delay fronts ranging code signals of navigation satellites, including the operations of forming the digitized samples of the input signal mixture noise prediction delay from the time of the original assessment by the time the next expected change of code symbols, the interpolation of the ordinate of the input signal by the time the next shift code symbols, you can use this output as the error signal and smoothing it in a closed tracking delay circuit, wherein the digitized samples of the input signal select two covering the time of the next change of the character code and calculate their linear interpolation to that point.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the interpolated value of the ordinate normalized to assess the amplitude of the useful signal, multiplied by a Gaussian a priori probability density (GAPW) and receive the error signal according to the criterion of maximum a posteriori probability density (mapw), the mathematical expectation GAPS get the forecast delay using the phase shift of the carrier by the time the expected change C the ox code and the dispersion receive as recurrently smoothed her assessment of the historical process tracking delay.



 

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