Coherent transponder of phase synchronization

FIELD: invention refers to the field of astronomical and astrophysical explorations.

SUBSTANCE: coherent transponder of phase synchronization has a radio receiving set, a radio transmitting set, an airborne standard of frequency (H-maser) and also a logic and commutation block. The radio transmitting so as the radio receiving set consists of two half-sets. The radio receiving set has a radio receiver module of the amplifier of a very high frequency, a preliminary amplifier of intermediate frequencies, a block of phase automatic adjustment of the frequency, the amplifier of the reference signal 2▾ and the secondary source of feeding.▾- nominal frequency. The coherent transponder of the phase synchronization provides transformation of the input signal in diapason 961▾ into an answer signal in the diapason 1120▾ used for synchronization of the airborne thermostating controlled generator. For reducing the drift of the phase of the answer signal the system of transformations of frequencies is built on the principle of complete matching of tracts of multiplying of the radio transmitting set and the heterodynes of the radio receiving set.

EFFECT: phase synchronization of the airborne scientific cosmic apparatus on a weak signal on the whole extension of the high-apogeal orbit of the flight.

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The invention relates to the field of astronomical and astrophysical research and can be used in studies of near and far space, for example, spacecraft, which is an integral part of the ground-space interferometers.

From the inventor's certificate SU 1768979 known interferometric system for determining the relative coordinates of the spacecraft. The system includes two spatially separated receiving channel. Each of the two receiving channels includes a set of equipment forming device for receiving and processing information. Device for receiving and processing information includes the transponder phase synchronization, containing the receiver, the amplitude limiter, a set of filter blocks and blocks of signal processing, in addition, the device for receiving and processing information includes connected to the transponder phase synchronization frequency standard. When working interferometric system signals radiated by the two spacecraft, are receiving antenna and fed to the transponder phase synchronization of each of the two receiving channels. In addition to the signals from the spacecraft in the transponder receives the signal from the frequency standard. Processed in the transponder signals are received at the processing center DL is information about the relative position of the spacecraft. The device receiving and processing, part of the famous inventor's certificate SU 1768979 interferometric system is selected as the closest analogue of the invention.

The device known from the inventor's certificate SU 1768979 will not provide images and information about the angular displacement of astronomical objects, in addition, the known device does not provide the required accuracy of definition of coordinates when extrabloc basis between spacecraft and ground stations tracking and management.

The present invention is to provide output on-Board oven controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (UG) coherent input request signal generated from terrestrial hydrogen frequency standard H-maser.

The fact that in the process of on-Board equipment signal frequency on-Board oven controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (UG) is changed relative to the nominal frequency 2(frequency is not stable,(fMr.) is the nominal frequency). The system phase of the automatic frequency control (FAL), which is part of a receiving device of the coherent transponder phase synchronization, Polstra the AET frequency onboard oven controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (UG) to the nominal value frequency 2 .

The proposed device (coherent transponder phase synchronization) will provide phase synchronization of the onboard scientific equipment spacecraft ground-space interferometer from terrestrial hydrogen frequency standard and the determination of the radial velocity of the spacecraft by Doppler frequency shift.

The use of the proposed device in the composition of the ground-space interferometer:

will provide high sensitivity reception path informative channel, which includes coherent transponder phase synchronization;

will allow the ground-based measurements of phase and Doppler offset frequency with varying length and orientation of the base ground-space of a radio on a weak signal.

The result can be solved the following practical tasks:

a phase synchronization of the onboard scientific equipment spacecraft ground-space interferometer from terrestrial hydrogen frequency standard for a weak signal (up to minus 160 dBW) along the entire length vysokoavarijnoj orbit flight of the SPACECRAFT (SC), the radius of perigee 1600 km, the radius of apogee to 350,000 km;

the determination of the radial velocity of the spacecraft by Doppler frequency shift.

Prompted the technical result is achieved by the proposed high-sensitivity radio receiver included in the transponder phase synchronization and external on-Board hydrogen frequency standard (H-maser).

Coherent transponder phase synchronization is part of the highly informative radio (VIRK) and is located on Board the spacecraft. It includes a radio receiver for receiving a request signal frequency 961with ground tracking stations and transmitting device for transmitting the response signal frequency 1120from the spacecraft to the ground station tracking, where(fMr.) is the nominal frequency.

As the frequency standard used above ground hydrogen frequency standard (H-maser) and can be used highly stable H-maser, located on Board the spacecraft used instead managed from ground-based H-maser oscillator (UG). The transponder phase synchronization includes a receiving device that includes a receiver module UHF (amplifier ultra high frequency) low noise temperature, pre-amplifier intermediate frequency (POOPCHE), the intermediate frequency amplifier (if amplifier), the device phase of the automatic frequency control (FAL) (who engages in itself a phase detector (PD) (in block amplifier), loop FAL (PLL2), counters (SC and SC), digital to analog Converter (DAC), a frequency divider by two, the adder (∑), power (US)), power reference signal 2, which includes on-Board oven controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (UG); radio transmitting device.

The output of the receiver module UHF (amplifier high frequency) is connected to the input of pre-amplifier intermediate frequency (POOPCHE).

The pre-amp output intermediate frequency (POOPCHE) is connected to the input of the intermediate frequency amplifier (if amplifier).

The outputs of the intermediate frequency amplifier (if amplifier) connected to the device phase of the automatic frequency control (FAL). Namely, the first output amplifier (output of the comparator (COMP 2)) is connected to the input of the frequency divider by 2, the second output amplifier (amplifier output (US)) is connected to the input of digital to analogue Converter (DAC); the third output of the amplifier (output of the phase detector (PD)) is connected to the input of PLL (loop FAL), essentially representing the integrator. Also from the outputs of the intermediate frequency amplifier (if amplifier) remove telemetry output power (PI) (output amplifier, telemetry capture and control of the coherent detector capture).

The first output of the phase automatic frequency FAL) is connected to the first amplifier input reference signal 2 namely to the first input of the on-Board temperature-controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (UG). From the second output of the phase of the automatic frequency control (FAL), namely from the output of the amplifier (US), remove telemetry the detuning of the signal frequency.

The second input of the control generator (UG) (included in the amplifier reference signal 2) is connected to the output of the secondary power supply (hvps) SFC block (transponder phase synchronization). The output of the controlled oscillator (UG) connected to the first input key to switch modes. The second input key mode switch is connected to the output of the hydrogen frequency standard (H-maser), located on Board the spacecraft (SC). The output of the key switch is connected to the input of the power amplifier (PA 10), the first output of which is connected to the input of the power amplifier (PA 11) through the key. The second amplifier output (US) is connected to the Comparators (COMP and COMP) pre-amplifier intermediate frequency (POOPCHE) and intermediate frequency amplifier (if amplifier), respectively. The third output of the amplifier (US) is connected to the input of the transmitting device transmitting the response signal from the spacecraft to the ground station tracking, namely the phase detector (PD).

The radio transmission device otvet the signal from the spacecraft to the ground station tracking is connected with a receiver module UHF (amplifier ultra high frequency), since forming unit frequency transmitter at 1120used as a heterodyne receiver module UHF. The radio transmission device response signal from the spacecraft to the ground station tracking is connected to the input of the antenna switch (AP), which carries out switching of the transmitting terminal device (only two of the terminal). As with any radio transmitting device transmitting the response signal from the spacecraft to the ground station tracking, namely the output of the amplitude detector (ED), removed telemetry output power (Po).

The invention is illustrated in the drawing, which shows a block diagram of a device.

Coherent transponder phase synchronization includes a radio receiver 1 for receiving a request signal from the ground station tracking, transmitting device 2 to transmit the response signal from the spacecraft to the ground station tracking. Structural diagram of the coherent transponder phase synchronization based on the principle of full alignment paths multiplying a transmitting device and a heterodyne receiver.

Coherent transponder PLL converts the input signal in the range 961 in response to the output signal in the range of 1120used to synchronize the on-Board temperature-controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator frequency (UT) 47 ground with hydrogen frequency standard (H-maser), and is also used for measurements of ballistic parameters of the spacecraft (speed, acceleration, coordinates (accurate to 1 cm). To reduce the drift phase of the response signal frequency 1120diagram of frequency transformations coherent transponder phase synchronization is made with series-connected three frequency converters (radio UHF module (amplifier ultra high frequency) 3 and advanced intermediate frequency amplifier 4, the intermediate frequency amplifier 5) and a device (circuit) phase automatic adjustment of the carrier frequency (FAL) 6 on the principle of full alignment paths multiplying the transmitting device and the local oscillator of the radio receiver.

The receiver module UHF (amplifier ultra high frequency) 3 includes a waveguide switch terminal 8, a low noise amplifier (LNA) 9, band-pass filter (F1) 10, a mixer (CM1) 11, a band-pass filter (F2) 12, an amplifier (US) 13.

The input receiver module UHF 3 is connected with the receiving and transmitting and Tannoy SPACECRAFT). Input receiver module UHF 3 is a waveguide switch terminal 8, the output of which is connected to a low noise amplifier (LNA) 9. Waveguide switch terminal 8 is also connected to the logic unit and switching (FLARE), which is a functional command on the switch terminal. The output of a low noise amplifier (LNA) 9 is connected to the input of a bandpass filter (F1) 10. The output of bandpass filter (F1) 10 is connected to the mixer (CM1) 11, the output of which is connected to the input of a bandpass filter (F2) 12. The output of bandpass filter (F2) 12 connected to the first input of the amplifier (US) 13. The second input of the mixer (CM1) 11 is connected to the first output of the power sensor (DM2) 66 transmitting device 2. From the first output of the power sensor (DM2) 66 on the mixer (CM1) 11 is supplied reference signal frequency 1120.

Pre-amplifier intermediate frequency (POOPCHE) 4 includes a mixer (CM2) 14, an amplifier (US) 18, a band-pass filter (PF) 21, an amplifier (US) 24, a comparator (COMP 1) 25, a phase detector (PD) 23, a programmable frequency divider (:75) 20, the peak controller (Pic) 17, a loop FAL (PLL1) 22, a controllable oscillator (UG) 19, resistive power divider (R, DM) 16, an amplifier (US) 15.

The first input of the mixer (CM2) 14 is connected to the output of the amplifier (US) 13 included receiver module UHF 3. Second input of the MCA is of icela (CM2) 14 connected to the output of the amplifier (US) 15, an input connected to the first output of a resistive power splitter (R, DM) 16. The second output resistive power splitter (R, DM) 16 connected to the first input of the programmable frequency divider (:75) 20. Input resistive power splitter (R, DM) 16 is connected to the output of the controlled oscillator (UG) 19. The input of the control generator (UG) 19 is connected to the output of the loop FAL (PLL1) 22. Input loop FAL (PLL1) 22 is connected to the output of the phase detector (PD) 23, a first input connected to the output of the comparator (COMP 1) 25 and the second output of the programmable frequency divider (:75) 20. The input of the comparator (COMP 1) 25 is connected with the second output of the amplifier (US)included in the amplifier reference signal 27. The second input of the frequency divider (:75) 20 connected to the output of the peak controller (Pie) 17.

The intermediate frequency amplifier (if amplifier) 5 includes a mixer (SMX) 26, an amplifier (US) 28, a band-pass filter (FL) 29, an amplifier (US) 31, a phase detector (PD) 34, a frequency divider by two 35, a comparator (COMP 2) 30, a comparator (COMP 3) 36, band-pass filter (PF) 27, an amplifier (US) 37, an amplifier (US) 38, a DC amplifier (UPT) 33, the amplitude detector (AD1) 32.

The first input of the mixer (CM3) 26 is connected to the output of the amplifier (US) 24 of the composition of the pre-amplifier intermediate frequency 4. The second input of the mixer (CM3) 26 is connected to the output Polozova what about the filter (PF) 27, an input connected to the first output of the comparator (COMP 2) 30. The second output of the comparator (COMP 2) 30 is connected to the input of the frequency divider by two 35 and to the input of frequency divider by two 39 (unit FAP 6). The input of the comparator (COMP 2) 30 is connected with the second output of the amplifier (US) 49, part of the amplifier reference signal 2.

The mixer output (CM3) 26 connected to the first input of the amplifier (US) 28. With the second input of the amplifier (US) 28 is connected to the output of the amplitude detector (AD1) 32. The output of the amplifier (US) 28 is connected to the input of a bandpass filter (F3) 29. The output of bandpass filter (F3) 29 connected to the first input of the amplifier regulates the voltage of the AGC circuit (US) 31. The second input of the amplifier regulating the voltage of the AGC circuit (US) 31 is connected to the output of the amplitude detector (AD1) 32, an input connected to the output of the amplifier regulates the voltage of the AGC circuit (US) 31. The output of the amplitude detector (AD1) 32 is connected with the second input of the amplifier (AS) 28, and with the second input of the amplifier regulating the voltage of the AGC circuit (US) 31, and with the input of DC amplifier (UPT) 33. From the output of the DC amplifier (UPT) 33 is removed telemetry input power (TM RI). The amplifier output regulating voltage AGC (US) 31 is also connected to the first input of the phase detector (PD) 34. Second input of the phase detec the ora (FD) is connected to the output of the frequency divider by two 35. The first output of the phase detector (PD) 34 is connected to the input of loop PLL (PLL2) 44, which is part of block phase of the automatic frequency control (FAP) 6, and the second output of the phase detector (PD) 34 is connected to the input of the comparator (COMP 3) 36 and to the input of the amplifier (US) 38. The output of the amplifier (US) 38 control mode "capture" (control of the coherent detector capture). The output of the comparator (COMP 3) 36 is connected to the input of the amplifier (US) 37, with the first output of which is removed telemetry capture. The second amplifier output (US) 37 connected to the first input digital to analogue Converter (DAC) 43 and with the key 40, included in the block 0 of the phase of the automatic frequency control (FAP) 6.

Block phase of the automatic frequency control (FAL) 6 includes a frequency divider by two 39, key (CL) 40 meters (SC 41 and SCH 42), digital to analog Converter (DAC) 43, the adder (Σ) 45, loop PLL (PLL2) 44, an amplifier (US) 46.

The input of the frequency divider by two 39 is connected with the second output of the comparator (COMP 2) 30, a part of the intermediate frequency amplifier (if amplifier) 5. The output of the frequency divider by two 39 connected to the first input key 40. The second input key 40 is connected to the secondary power supply unit of the transponder phase synchronization (SFC) 52. The output of the key 40 is connected to the input of the counter (SC) 41, a first output of which is connected to the input of the of ketchika (SC) 42, and the second output is connected with the second input of the digital to analogue Converter (DAC) 43. The output of the digital to analogue Converter (DAC) 43 is connected with the second input of the adder (Σ) 45. The first input of the adder (Σ) 45 is connected to the output of the loop PLL (PLL2) 44, the input of which is connected to the first output of the phase detector (PD) 34, included in the intermediate frequency amplifier (UPT) 5. The output of the adder (Σ) 45 is connected to the input of the amplifier (US) 46 and to the input side voltage-controlled oscillator (WG) 47, part of the amplifier reference signal 27. From the output of the amplifier (US) 46 is removed telemetry the detuning frequency.

Amplifier reference signal 27 includes an on-Board temperature-controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (WG) 47, the key mode switch 48, the amplifier (US) 49, the key 50, the amplifier (US)51.

The first input of the on-Board temperature-controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (WG) 47 is connected to the output of the adder (Σ) 45 included in the unit phase of the automatic frequency control (FAP) 6. Second input of the on-Board temperature-controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (WG) 47 is connected to the output of the secondary power supply unit SFC (transponder phase synchronization) 52. The output side of thermos is matirovannogo voltage-controlled crystal oscillator (WG) 47 connected to the first input key mode switch 48. The second input key mode switch 48 is connected to the output of the hydrogen frequency standard (H-maser) 53, located on Board the spacecraft (SC). The output of the key switch 48 is connected to the input of the amplifier (US) 49, the first output of which is connected to the first input key 50. The second amplifier output (US) 49 is connected to the comparator (COMP) 25 pre-amplifier intermediate frequency (POOPCHE) 4 and the comparator (COMP) 30 intermediate frequency amplifier (if amplifier) 5. The third output of the amplifier (US) 49 is connected to the input of the transmitting device transponder phase synchronization (PFE), which is intended for transmitting the response signal from the spacecraft to the ground station tracking, namely to the input of the phase detector (PD) 54. The second input key 50 is connected to the output of the secondary power supply unit SFC (transponder phase synchronization) 52. The output of the key 50 is connected to the input of the amplifier (US) 51. The first amplifier output (US) 51 is connected with the second terminal of the transponder phase synchronization (SFC), and the second output is connected to the system.

Transmitting device block SFC (transponder phase synchronization) 2 is designed to transmit the response signal from the spacecraft to the ground station tracking, includes a phase detector (PD) 54, loop FAL (PLL3) 55, controlled g is nerator (UG) 56, resistive power divider (R, DM) 57, a programmable frequency divider (:280), the peak controller (Pic) 59, amplifier (US) 58, a frequency multiplier for two 61, band-pass filter (F4) 62, an amplifier (US) 63, a power sensor (TM) 64, a power amplifier (PA) 65, a power sensor (DM2) 66, the amplitude detector (ED) 67, a secondary power supply (hvps) 68.

The first input of the phase detector (PD) 54 is connected to the third output of the amplifier (US) 49, part of the amplifier reference signal 27. Second input of the phase detector (PD) 54 connected to the output of the programmable frequency divider (:280) 60. The output of the phase detector (PD) 54 is connected to the input of loop PLL (PLL3) 55. Exit loop PLL (PLL3) 55 is connected to the input of the control generator (UG) 56. The output of the controlled oscillator (UG) 56 is connected to the input of a resistive power splitter (R, DM) 57. The first output of a resistive power splitter (R, DM) 57 connected to the first input of the programmable frequency divider (:280) 60. The second output resistive power splitter (R, DM) 57 is connected to the input of the amplifier (US) 58. Second input of the programmable frequency divider (:280) 60 connected to the output of the peak controller (Pic) 59. The output of the amplifier (US) 58 is connected to the input of the frequency multiplier of two 61. The output of frequency multiplier for two 61 is connected to the input of a bandpass filter (F4) 62. The output of bandpass filter (F4) 62 is connected to whodo is the power amplifier (PA 13) 63, the output of which is connected to the input of the power sensor (TM) 64. The first output of the power sensor (TM) 64 is connected to the input of the power amplifier (PA) 65, and the second output of the power sensor (TM) 64 is connected to the input of the power sensor (DM2) 66. The output of the power amplifier (PA) 65 is connected to the antenna switch (AP) 69, which is connected to the second terminal transmitting device block SFC. The antenna switch (AP) 69 serves a functional command for switching the transmitting terminal device from the FLARE (block logic and switching). The first output of the power sensor (DM2) 66 is connected to a second input of the mixer (CM1) 11 that comprises a receiver module UHF. From the output of the power sensor (DM2) 66 on the mixer (CM1) 11 is supplied reference signal frequency 1120. The second output of the power sensor (DM2) 66 is connected to the input of the amplitude detector (ED) 67, the output of which is removed telemetry output power (Po). Power to the nodes transmitting device is supplied with secondary power source (BEL) 68.

The block logic and switching (FLARE) provides the supply voltage in mains (BS), supply functional teams (FC) on the nodes of coherent transponder phase synchronization (SFC), as well as the readout telemetry and necessary for the subsequent telemetry transmission from aboard the space the ski apparatus on a ground station tracking.

Coherent transponder phase synchronization (SFC) works as follows.

The output signal transmitting device 2 can be formed from the onboard oven controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (WG) 47 included in the receiving device 1 coherent transponder phase synchronization (SFC), synchronized with the ground station tracking through terrestrial hydrogen frequency standard (H-maser). The signal from the transmitting device 2 is a pure carrier. To switch modes coherent transponder phase synchronization is the key mode switch 48, which is part of a receiving device 2, namely in the composition of the phase synchronization circuit (specifically, the amplifier reference signal 27).

When using ground-based hydrogen frequency standard (H-maser) signal from a ground-based H-maser is fed to the input of the transmitter ground tracking stations. In the terrestrial transmitter is generated request signal. Request signal to ground receiving-transmitting antenna that transmits the signal on Board the spacecraft at a frequency 961. The signal from the onboard receiving and transmitting antenna. With portofolio-transmitting antenna, the signal arrives at the receiving side device 2, namely, the receiver module UHF (amplifier ultra high frequency) 3.

In fact, the signal from the onboard receiving and transmitting antenna is fed to the input waveguide switch terminal 8, through which the switching terminal a receiving device. Next, the signal is fed to the input of a low noise amplifier (LNA) 9, performs the function of increasing frequency of the input signal. Output low-noise amplifier (LNA) 9 signal fed to the input of a bandpass filter (F1) 10, in which the processing of the radio signal. From the output of bandpass filter (PF) 10 radio signal arrives at the first input of the mixer (CM1) 11, which is part of the frequency Converter receiver module UHF 3. Part of the frequency Converter in addition to the mixer includes a reference frequency generator (local oscillator). The role of frequency in the frequency Converter receiver module UHF 3 performs the processing unit frequency (BFC) transmitting device 2 coherent transponder phase synchronization. In this case, the reference signal is generated at the output of the controlled oscillator (UG) transmitting device 2 and is fed to the second input of the mixer (CM1) 11 that comprises a receiver module UHF 3, from the output of the power sensor (DM2) 66 included in the transmitting device 2, the Le number of transformations in the transmitting device block SFC. In the frequency Converter, the output of the mixer (CM1) 11, is the transfer function of the input signal out of range of the carrier frequency in the range of intermediate frequencies. Moreover, to ensure synchronization of on-Board equipment from ground-based frequency standard (H-maser) frequency reference signal receiving device 1 (frequency Converter) coherent transponder phase synchronization must be a multiple of the carrier frequency (request) signal. It is worth noting that the frequency of the local oscillator is a multiple of an even ratio (1120), and the frequency of the input signal is a multiple of odd ratio (961). This is necessary in order to avoid interference from the local oscillator (UG) 56 on the receiver module UHF 3, as these interferences can cause a shift of the signal phase, which is unacceptable. Similarly arranged and the other two of the frequency Converter. With the mixer output (CM1) 11 signal fed to the input of a bandpass filter (F2) 12, which selects the signal is a multiple of the frequency coefficient 159 (159). From the output of bandpass filter (F2) 12 signal fed to the input of the amplifier (US) 13, amplifying the signal voltage.

Further, the output of the amplifier (US) 13 frequency signal 159comes in pre-gain is tel intermediate frequency (POOPCHE) 4, which increases the frequency of the input signal at the intermediate frequency, namely at the first input of the mixer (CM2) 14. To the second input of the mixer (CM2) 14 from the output of the amplifier (US) 15 receives the reference signal frequency 150. This reference signal is formed as follows. To the second input of pre-amplifier intermediate frequency (POOPCHE) 4, namely at the input of the comparator (COMP 1) 25, receives the analog signal frequency of 2from the second output of the power amplifier (PA 10) 49, part of the amplifier reference signal 27.

From the output of the comparator (COMP 1) 25 frequency signal of 2arrives at the first input of the phase detector (PD) 23. To the second input of the phase detector (PD) 23 receives a signal frequency of 2from the output of the programmable divider (:75) 20. From the output of the phase detector (PD) 23 frequency signal of 2is fed to the input of the loop FAL (PLL1) 22, which represents an integrator, the output of which a control signal is fed to the input of voltage-controlled oscillator (UG) 19 generating signal frequency 150. From the output of voltage-controlled oscillator (UG) 19 signal frequency 150is fed to the input of the resistive deletestudent (R, DM) 16, which divides the signal into two streams (the frequency of each of which 150), one of which is fed to the input of the amplifier (US) 15 and the other at the first input of the programmable frequency divider (:75) 20. To the second input of the programmable frequency divider (:75) 20 receives the signal from the peak controller (Pic) 17, which sets the division ratio of the frequency programmable frequency divider (:75) 20. The fact that the phase detector (PD) 23 compares the phase of the signals from the voltage-controlled oscillator (UG) and voltage controlled oscillator (UG) at a frequency of 2. From the output of the amplifier (US) reference signal frequency 150supplied to the second input of the mixer (CM2) 14. Here, the reference frequency is an even multiple of the coefficient (150), and the frequency of the input signal is a multiple of odd ratio (159). This is necessary, as noted above, in order to avoid interference from the local oscillator to the intermediate frequency amplifier (if amplifier) 5, as these interferences can cause a shift of the signal phase. From the output of the mixer (CM2) 14 signal through the amplifier (US) 18 is fed to the input of bandpass filter (PF) 21, which converts the input signal into a frequency signal 9. From the output of bandpass filter (PF) 21 signal is l frequency 9 through the amp (US) 24 to the input of intermediate frequency amplifier (if amplifier) 5, amplifying the frequency of the input signal at the intermediate frequency, namely at the first input of the mixer (CM3) 26.

To the second input of the mixer (CM3) 26 is supplied reference signal frequency 10from the output of bandpass filter (PF) 27, to which input signal frequency of 2from the first output of the comparator (COMP 2) 30. The lo signal to a second input of the mixer is formed as the fifth harmonic of the reference frequency 2highlighted in the bandpass filter (PF) 27 at a frequency of 10. On the filter input signal type "meander" from the first output of the comparator (COMP 2) 30 with a sufficient level 5-th harmonic. The comparator (COMP 2) 30 generates signal type "meander" and converts the analog signal into a digital signal in TTL format. Analog signal frequency of 2to the input of the comparator (COMP 2) 30 from the second amplifier output (US) 49, part of the amplifier reference signal 27. From the second output of the comparator (COMP 2) 30 digital signal with frequency 2to the input of the frequency divider by two 35 and to the input of the frequency divider by two 39 included in the unit phase machine the standard tuning frequency (FAL) 6. From the output of the mixer (CM3) 26 the converted signal to the input of the amplifier (AS) 28, to the second input of which is applied the output signal of the amplitude detector (AD1) 32, and then to the input of a bandpass filter (F3) 29, where it is converted into a signal of a frequency of 1. From the output of bandpass filter (FZ) 29 signal of 1to the input of the amplifier (US) 31 regulating voltage circuit automatic gain control (AGC), to the second input of which receives the output signal of the amplitude detector (AD1) 32. Amplifier (US) 28, a band-pass filter (F3) 29, an amplifier (US) 31, amplitude detector (AD1) 32 and a DC amplifier (UPT) 33 form a scheme of automatic gain control (AGC). The fact that at the input of a receiving device 1 coherent transponder phase synchronization (PFC) power input signal low (-60 to -130 dBm)and at the input of the phase detector (PD) 34 should be sufficient signal strength. The AGC circuit must provide at the input of the phase detector (PD) 34 required level value of the input signal. Accordingly, AGC dynamic range should be approximately equal to 70 dB. The output voltage of the AGC circuit is used as the control input signal level. Telemetry input power (TM RI) is supplied to the logic block and commutes and (FLARE) after DC amplifier (UPT) 33. Voltage telemetry TM RIproportional to the voltage of the AGC circuit (automatic gain control) and, accordingly, the level of the input signal. In fact, at the output of the intermediate frequency amplifier (if amplifier) 5 check: there is a signal or no signal at the output of the AGC circuit (automatic gain control), and if the signal is there, what is the level of the input signal.

A carrier signal frequency of 1from the output of the amplifier (US) 31 is supplied to the first input of the phase detector (PD) 34 (essentially multiplier signals), consisting of two phase detectors, shifted relative to each other by 90°. To the second input of the phase detector (PD) 34, essentially quadrature phase detector receives the reference signal frequency of 1generated onboard temperature-controlled a voltage controlled crystal oscillator (WG) 47 and the input of the phase detector (PD) 34 through an amplifier (US) 49, a comparator (COMP 2) 30 and a frequency divider by two 35. Two input signal frequency of 1are compared in phase. In fact, the frequency of the onboard oven controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (WG) 47 is compared with the frequency of terrestrial hydrogen frequency standard (H-maser), and when the frequency mismatch parameter performs the I adjustment on-Board oven controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (UG) (UG) 47. Since the phase detector (PD) 34 consists of two phase detectors, shifted in phase by 90° relative to each other, and outputs two. With the first phase (FD) 34 signal received at the input of loop PLL (PLL2) 44 included in the unit phase of the automatic frequency control (FAP) and represents the integrator. The second output of the phase detector (PD) 34 is connected to the input of the comparator (COMP 3) 36, which is a comparison circuit constant levels of the input signals in the capture and input of the amplifier (US) 38, the output of which is control "capture". In fact, the comparison circuit constant (COMP 3) 36 is stopping the search frequency of a carrier signal. As soon as the carrier signal is found, the search stops. From the output of the comparator (COMP 3) 36 via the amplifier (US) 37 is fed to the input digital to analogue Converter (DAC) 43 included in the unit phase of the automatic frequency control (FAL) 6. From the output of the amplifier (US) 37 is removed telemetry capture of a carrier signal (TM capture). If the input signal is not, the indicator is zero (0)if the input signal is captured, the indicator unit (1). Telemetry data received in block logic and switching (GLARE), through which through-Board receiving-transmitting antenna of SPACECRAFT (spacecraft) come to accept is-transmitting antenna of the ground station tracking.

Obtaining at the output side oven controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (WG) 47 coherent signal input request signal generated from terrestrial hydrogen frequency standard H-maser, a device is provided, the phase of the automatic frequency control (FAP) 6.

The output voltage of the quadrature phase detector (PD) 34 is determined by the phase difference of the signals of surface hydrogen frequency standard (H-maser) and on-Board oven controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (WG) 47. The higher the phase difference of the input signals, the higher the value of the DC voltage produced by the phase detector (PD) 34.

From the second output of the comparator (COMP 2), representing an analog-to-digital Converter, a digital signal with frequency 2to the input of the frequency divider by two 39 included in the unit phase of the automatic frequency control (FAL) 6. And from the output of the frequency divider by two 39 signal of 1goes through the key 40 on the counters SC 41 and SCH 42, the task of which is to divide the signal to a low frequency (LF), because the period of the sawtooth voltage at the DAC output T=2...3 seconds. Here, the counters are required for the formation period of the sawtooth voltage at the DAC output and for ensuring that the Oia smooth sawtooth voltage at the DAC output. Outputs of the counters, the signal received at the input of digital to analogue Converter (DAC) 43. To another input of the DAC 43 from the output of the comparator (COMP 3) 36, included in the intermediate frequency amplifier (if amplifier) 5, through an amplifier (US) 37 signal "capture". When the input of the DAC 43 receives the signal "capture" - the work of the DAC stops. Simultaneously, the signal capture comes with a key (CL) 40, which is closed. Thus the signal frequency of 1not available at the counters SC and SC.

Digital to analog Converter (DAC) 43 converts the digital signal into an analog signal and transmits it to the second input of the adder (Σ) 45. The output voltage of the phase detector (PD) 34, captured from the first output, loop through the file (phase automatic frequency) (PLL2) 44 affects the adder (Σ) 45. The adder (Σ) 45 generates a control signal (control voltage). From the output of the adder (Σ) 45 control signal is supplied to the first input of the on-Board temperature-controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (WG) 47, part of the amplifier reference signal 27. This control signal changes the reactivity insertion in the circuit controlled oscillator (WG) 47, and hence the frequency of the controlled oscillator (WG) 47, bringing it to the frequency on the roadways frequency standard (H-maser).

From the output of the adder (Σ) 45 the signal at the input of the amplifier (US) 46, the output of which take readings telemetry detuning frequency, essentially removed the level value of the control voltage supplied to the onboard oven controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (WG) 47.

Side oven controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (WG) 47 generates a signal with frequency 2that through the key switch 48 is fed to the input of the amplifier (US) 49. From the first amplifier output CONDITION (US) 49 through the key 50 and the amplifier (US)51 frequency signal of 2supplied to the second terminal of the coherent transponder phase synchronization (UIF) 7 and on the system of the SPACECRAFT as a whole. From the second amplifier output (US) 49 signal frequency of 2served on a receiving device 1, namely the pre-amplifier intermediate frequency (POOPCHE) 4 and the intermediate frequency amplifier (if amplifier) 5. From the third amplifier output (US) 49 signal frequency of 2served on a radio transmitting device 2.

A feedback signal is generated in the coherent transponder phase synchronization through wireless device 2 through the onboard receiving and transmitting antenna) is transmitted to the receiver before the expansion of the antenna ground tracking stations.

The signal frequency of 2from the output of the amplifier (US) 49 is supplied to the first input of the phase detector (PD) 54, to the second input of which the signal frequency of 2from the output of the programmable frequency divider (:280) 60. A phase detector (PD) 54 produces a DC voltage is input to the loop FAL (PLL3) 55, through which the impact on the voltage controlled oscillator (UG) 56, namely the adjustment of the generator from the onboard oven controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (WG) 47 (either from highly stable hydrogen frequency standard (H-maser) 53, located on Board the spacecraft). Power on-Board oven controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (WG) 47 is supplied with the output of the secondary power supply unit SFC 52.

Voltage controlled oscillator (UG) 56 produces a signal frequency 560that is fed to the input of a resistive power splitter (R, DM) 57, which divides the input power. The signal frequency 560with the first resistive power splitter (R, DM) 57 is fed to the input of programmable divider (:280) 60, which is divided to a signal frequency of 2because this cha is the Thoth compares the input signals of the phase detector (PD) 54. Peak controller (Pic) 59 sets the division ratio of the programmable frequency divider (:280) 60. From the second output resistive power splitter (R, DM) 57 frequency signal 560comes through the amp (US) 58 to the input of the frequency multiplier frequency multiplier of two (x2) 61. Frequency signal 1120from the output of the frequency multiplier of two (x2) 61 to the input of the power amplifier (PA) 65 through the filter (F4) 62, an amplifier (US) 63 and the power sensor (TM) 64. The power sensor (TM) 64 detects the signal power at the input of the power amplifier (PA) 65. The second output of the power sensor (DM) 66 is connected to the power sensor (DM2) 66, one end of which is connected to the amplitude detector (ED) 67, and the other input of the mixer (CM1) 11 that comprises a receiver module UHF 3. From the output of the power sensor (DM2) 66 to the input of the mixer (CM1) 11 signal frequency 1120as the reference signal. From the output of the amplitude detector (ED) 67 is removed telemetry output power (TM Robasically it checks the signal level at the output radio transmitting devices. Secondary power supply (hvps) 68 supplies power to the nodes transmitting device.

From the output of the power amplifier (PA) 65 frequency signal 1120fed to the input of ant is sent to the steering switch (AP) 69, the output of which is connected to the onboard receiving and transmitting antenna. The antenna switch terminal 8 is connected with the second terminal transmitting device 2, and the logic unit and switching (FLARE), which is a functional command on the switch terminal.

In fact, in the transmitting device 2 converts the frequency of the reference signal 2in the signal with the specified frequency 1120.

When using hydrogen frequency standard (H-maser) 53, located on Board the spacecraft, radio receiver 1 coherent transponder phase synchronization is not used, as there is no necessity and possibility control-Board hydrogen frequency standard (H-maser) 53, operates only transmitting device 2. In this case, the hydrogen frequency standard (H-maser) 53 sets the signal through the key mode switch 49 is fed to the amplifier (US) 49, the third output of which the signal frequency of 2is fed to the input of the phase detector (PD) 54 included in the transmitting device 2. Simultaneously, the key mode switch 49 disables the on-Board voltage controlled oscillator (WG) 47.

Response frequency signal 1120 formed from oven controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (WG) 47 or highly stable hydrogen frequency standard (H-maser) 53 located on Board the spacecraft (onboard UG or on-Board H-maser)is transmitted to a ground station tracking (consumer) on channel "Board Ground. For the final signal processing channel of the phase synchronization apparatus of the consumer receives three signals: code predicted Doppler frequency offset request radio link, the code predicted Doppler frequency offset of the receiving radio code and the residual Doppler frequency offset. Request signals are issued during the entire communication session with an interval of 10 MS.

On the ground station is generated request signal. Request signal to ground receiving-transmitting antenna that transmits the signal on Board the spacecraft at a frequency 961. The signal from the onboard receiving and transmitting antenna. Further, this signal undergoes a full cycle of processing described above, then set the return signal, which is transmitted to the ground station tracking (to the consumer). The loop signal is repeated throughout the session.

Thus, during operation of the proposed coherente the transponder phase synchronization will be provided two options for synchronizing the reference signal oscillators space telescope: synchronization on signals from the ground station and the synchronization signals of a highly on-Board hydrogen frequency standard (H-maser) 53. But the basic mode of operation is to synchronize the reference signal oscillators space telescope on signals from the ground station, i.e. work equipment from the onboard oven controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator (WG) 47.

Coherent transponder phase synchronization is on Board the spacecraft and includes a receiving device for receiving a request signal from the ground station tracking and transmitting device for transmitting the response signal from the spacecraft to the ground station tracking, on-Board frequency standard (H-maser), and the block logic and switching, and as a transmitting device and a receiving device consists of two subsets, with a receiving device includes a receiving module amplifier ultra high frequency amplifier intermediate frequency amplifier intermediate frequency, the block phase automatic frequency control amplifier reference signal 2and a secondary power source, where- nominal frequency, the input receiving module amplifier ultra high frequency is connected to the onboard receiving and transmitting antenna spacecraft is through the waveguide switch of subsets a receiving device, the first output of receiving amplifier module ultra high frequency connected to the first input of the pre-amplifier intermediate frequency, the second output of receiving amplifier module ultra high frequency is connected with the second terminal radio receiver, pre-amp output intermediate frequency connected to the first input of the intermediate frequency amplifier, the outputs of the intermediate frequency amplifier connected to the device inputs the phase of the automatic frequency control, the output phase of the automatic frequency control is connected to the first amplifier input reference signal 2while the first amplifier input reference signal 2is logging onboard temperature-controlled voltage-controlled oscillator, the output of which is connected to the first input key mode, the second amplifier input reference signal 2the second input key mode and is connected to the output side of the hydrogen frequency standard (H-maser), and on-Board oven controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator and the key switch modes included in amplifier reference signal 2the third amplifier input reference signal is Ala connected to the secondary power source, the first amplifier output reference signal 2connected to the input of the transmitting device, the second amplifier output reference signal 2connected with the second input of the pre-amplifier intermediate frequency and the second input of the amplifier intermediate frequency part of the radio device includes forming unit frequency, performs the function of a heterodyne radio receiving module ultra high frequency, the output of the transmitting device connected to the transmitting-receiving antenna of the spacecraft through the antenna switch terminal transmitting device, while coherent transponder phase synchronization ensures the conversion of the input signal in the range 961in the response signal in the range of 1120used to synchronize the on-Board temperature-controlled voltage controlled crystal oscillator, and the frequency standard used above ground hydrogen frequency standard (H-maser), through which is formed a request signal and a response signal is generated from the on-Board temperature-controlled controlled oscillator, and to reduce the drift phase of the response signal diagram of frequency transformations with three what reobrazovateli frequency (RF module ultra high frequency, pre-amplifier intermediate frequency amplifier intermediate frequency) and the phase diagram of the automatic frequency control over a carrier constructed according to the principle of full alignment paths multiplication radio transmitters and local oscillators receiving device.



 

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