Method for mine tunnel excavation without cut rock removal to day surface

FIELD: tunnel construction, particularly devices to construct hydroelectric power plant floodgates and to build motor roads and rail roads in mountains.

SUBSTANCE: method involves creating conditions favorable for chemical reaction between chemical element oxides basically constituting rock and graphite for rock fusion. For this rock is heated up to high temperature at face by thermal electric arc energy transmission through metal front tunneling machine wall. Electric arc is generated between electrodes inside discharge chambers arranged on inner surface of front tunneling machine wall. Electric current is supplied to electrodes via graphite mass moving through electrically-insulated pipes. Graphite is forced via electrodes and introduced into face through nozzles connected to front tunneling machine wall.

EFFECT: possibility to regulate electric current power and graphite mass to select necessary excavation regimes.

 

The invention relates to the field of construction of mining tunnels, in particular to the sinking of their continuous section without drilling and blasting method development of the face in strong rocks.

The prior art.

The main trend in the development of engineering construction in the late 20th century was the creation of new, higher performance, samples of mining and tunneling machinery and equipment intended for the operations of the tunnel excavation mining method using drilling and blasting method development of the face. But this method cannot significantly reduce the time of sinking due to the fact that the inevitable interruptions associated with the laying of explosive charges, evacuation equipment and people from the affected area, as well as removal of gases from the face after blasting charges. For example, in the construction of the tunnel of the Inguri hydroelectric power station in Georgia) with a length of 15 km and a cross-section of 82 square meters per month went from 107 to 131 meters. This rate of penetration of the tunnel is too small to resolve urgent problems, such as the salvation dam Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station, where at the beginning of the 21st century revealed the destruction of the water boards under the influence of the mass of water discharged from the reservoir in the lower reach during periods of heavy floods. The project facilities shall be placed additional waterways, which will ensure the passage of water from the reservoir into the lower reach, bypassing the damaged water plate, designed a seven-year period of operations. This means that seven floods will pass through the dam with water damaged stove and no one will be able to guarantee its stability, and in the case of a breakthrough of water through the dam is formed such water shaft, which will cause catastrophic destruction in the city of Abakan, located downstream of the Yenisei river, as well as in many other settlements on the banks of the Krasnoyarsk water reservoir up to the dam of the Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station. The developers of the project for construction of additional spillway at the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power even in this extreme situation did not consider it appropriate to use the method of destruction of rocks by laser radiation, which is set forth in the description of the author's certificate SU 958654, 3 IS 37/16 from 15.09.80, published 15.09.82, in Bulletin of the USSR State Committee on matters of inventions and discoveries No. 34. The authors of this invention argue that when heated by laser radiation the surface of the rock to a temperature at which it is possible reactions between compounds that are part of the breed, and compounds of halogen in gaseous form volatile compounds of elements in the rocks of the compounds of Halogens. In that case, if the breed is a large number of connections, the breed can be processed concurrently by multiple types of gaseous halogen compounds of different chemical composition. The advisability of entering compounds of Halogens in the slaughter of the authors of the other inventions described in the description of the author's certificate SU 1645509, 5 IS 37/16, 37/18 from 04.05.88, which published 30.04.91, Bulletin No. 16, explicitly point to the fact that most of the halogen compounds are poisonous. However, the danger of education in the face of monosilane did not prevent the authors of the latest inventions to recommend after heating rocks by laser radiation entry of hydrogen into the reaction zone, previously freed from oxygen by inert gas. As follows from the above, by the beginning of the 21st century has not yet developed a reliable and safe way of tunneling in hard rock formations, the use of which would allow for the construction of underground facilities within the specified time frame.

Disclosure of the invention.

The sinking of the mountain tunnel without removal of rocks on the surface based on the application of the laws of interaction of high-temperature carbon in the form of amorphous graphite and a layer of rocks in contact with the external surface of the frontal part of the tunnel complex. Heating of its net assets the t of the tunnel complex is carried out by supplying to the inner surface of the heat energy of the electric arc, light between the electrodes in the discharge chamber mounted on the inner surface of the frontal part of the tunnel system, with the aim of creating conditions for remediation of chemical reactions involving oxides of chemical elements composing the rocks, and carbon, is supplied through the nozzles on the frontal part of the complex is heated to breed. The principle of heating substance layer which is in contact with the surface of metal, receiving heat from the high temperature fluid transported within these structures, described in the invention EN 2217390, 7 SV 5/04 dated January 11, 2002, as a result of chemical interaction of carbon oxides of chemical elements composing the rocks, for example with silicon dioxide, which mainly consists of granite, at the first stage produces carbon monoxide in the gaseous state and the silicon in the molten state, accumulating at the bottom edge of the frontal part of the tunnel complex. Due to the fact that the density of silicon in the molten state is 2650 kg in 1 cubic meter, and the density of silicon dioxide is 2200 pounds 1 cubic meter, the volume of the mass of the substances that accumulate at the lower edge of the frontal surface of the tunnel complex is less than the volume of rock destroyed before its hour of the completion of the tunnel complex. For example, when the frontal surface area of the tunnel system, equal to 75 square meters, weight 1 meter of penetration into the silicon dioxide will be 198750 pounds. To calculate the stoichiometric mixture of the masses of carbon and silicon dioxide, participating in a redox reaction, you can use the chemical formula: SiO2+2C=Si+2CO.

The mass is formed of high-temperature carbon monoxide will be 185500 pounds, and the weight of the molten silicon will be 92750 pounds. The resulting high-temperature carbon monoxide, as a highly active reducing agent, will enter into a chemical reaction with an additional portion of the silicon dioxide whose mass can be calculated based on known chemical formula:

SiO2+2CO=2CO2+Si

185500 kilograms of carbon monoxide formed during the interaction of carbon with silicon dioxide, reacts chemically with a mass of silicon dioxide in 198750 pounds, it is 291500 kilograms of carbon dioxide gas, and at the lower edge of the frontal part of the tunnel complex accumulates 92750 kilograms of molten silicon. Thus, entering into the space between the outer surface of the frontal part of the tunnel complex and related surface rocks in the bottom 79500 kilograms of coal is kind, achieve the destruction of the rock mass, the volume of which was about 180 cubic meters, and the molten silicon, together with the mass of other minerals accumulating at the lower edge of the frontal part of the tunnel complex will occupy half the volume, i.e. the cross-sectional area of the formed tunnel will be equal to half the cross sectional area of the head part of the tunnel complex. In the process of moving complex molten silicon will pass under the lower edge of the frontal part under the middle part of the housing complex, forming a Lodge under all the rest of the building. The cross-sectional area of the tunnel, formed after the flowing of the molten silicon under the lower edge of the frontal part of the tunnel complex will be 37.5 per square meter, and the rest of 37.5 per square meter of cross-sectional area of penetration will be busy with silicon in the molten state, i.e. the cross-sectional area of the formed tunnel will be 50 percent of the cross sectional area of the head part of the tunnel complex. The consumption of carbon in the form of amorphous graphite will be 442 kilograms per cubic meter destroyed hard rocks in the mine. In cases where the frontal part of the tunnel system not in contact with granite, and other mountain on what od the calculation for the carbon carried out on the basis of the respective chemical formulas. For example, if necessary, calculate the carbon to fracture calcite first determine the mass of carbon dioxide formed by thermal decomposition of calcite at a temperature of about 1000 degrees Celsius. It is known that the mass of carbon dioxide is 44% of the mass of calcite exposed to thermal decomposition, and calcium oxide remains 56 percent of the mass of calcite. When the density of calcite 2930 pounds 1 cubic meter of its mass before the frontal part of the tunnel complex at depth of penetration at 1 meter will be 219750 pounds, and the weight of the resulting carbon dioxide will be 96690 pounds. Based on the chemical formula, which sets the mass ratio of carbon and carbon dioxide in the recovery process 96690 kilograms of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, determines that the need for carbon will be 26370 pounds, it is 123060 pounds of carbon monoxide, which at high temperature shows reducing properties, entering into a chemical reaction with calcium oxide by weight 123060 pounds, accumulated at the lower edge of the frontal part of the tunnel complex in the process of thermal decomposition 219750 kilograms of calcite. Due to the fact that when restoring 123060 pounds of calcium oxide flow rate of carbon monoxide is only 61530 pounds, that is half of its mass, which is obtained by chemical interaction 26370 kilograms of carbon 96690 kilograms of carbon dioxide, the second half of the mass of carbon monoxide restores additionally 123060 kg of calcium oxide formed during thermal decomposition 219750 kilograms of calcite without entering amorphous graphite in the face. This produces gaseous carbon dioxide mass 96690 pounds and calcium in the molten state mass 87900 pounds. Thus, when the flow 26370 kilograms of carbon in the form of amorphous graphite is destroyed 439500 kilograms of calcite, which was held in slaughter volume of 150 cubic meters, and the amount of calcium mass 175800 pounds accumulating at the lower edge of the frontal part of the tunnel complex is 114 cubic meters. Taking into account the previously calculated ratio of the cross-sectional area of the tunnel and the cross-sectional area of the melt, which can accumulate under the bottom middle part of the tunnel complex of 50 percent and 50 percent of the cross-sectional area of the shaft determines that the tunnel complex would need to move forward 3 meters, that is 1 meter farther than the actual depth of penetration in calcite. To the resulting tunnel had the same cross-sectional area at the sinking of calc is the which was received with sinking granite, carry out the movement of the tunnel system repeatedly until it stops in the mass of calcite, not Uspenskoe decompose, and is heated to a temperature of 1000 degrees Celsius without entering in the face of carbon to before the frontal part of the tunnel complex was accumulated not pure calcium and a mixture of molten calcium, having a density of 1540 pounds in 1 cubic meter, and calcium oxide, having a density of 3400 kg in 1 cubic meter. For example, when the excavation of each meter of the face resulting from thermal decomposition of calcite 123060 pounds of calcium oxide is recovered only one-tenth of it, the weight of the formed molten calcium will be 7460 kg, and the total volume of the mixture is not restored, the calcium oxide with the molten calcium will be about 37 cubic meters, which ensures the preservation of a given cross-section of the tunnel. The consumption of carbon on the promotion of the tunnel complex in calcite at 1 meter will be only 720 kilograms or 10 pounds per 1 cubic meter of calcite.

The best variant embodiment of the invention.

The method of penetration of a mountain tunnel without removal of rocks on the surface will give the greatest effect in the organization of construction works from the entrance portal, with a lower mark over at owner of the World ocean in comparison with the stamp of the output portal, because when you move the tunnel complex at the rise of the conditions for the locking of carbon monoxide in the mine between the frontal part of the tunnel complex and the wall destructible rocks, because the density of carbon monoxide is less than the density of the air, and carbon dioxide. In this embodiment, sinking mountain tunnel all the carbon monoxide formed in the bottom after you enter there carbon in form of graphite, is consumed in the process of its interaction with oxides of chemical elements, of which mainly consists of a mass of rocks, resulting in significantly accelerating the construction of the tunnel. The presence of the descent towards the entrance portal of the tunnel creates favourable conditions for the conclusion on the day surface water after using it as a cooler walls of the tunnel and equipment. Used for supply of electric current to the electrodes in the discharge chamber mass of graphite move on strong tubes having on the inner surface of the dielectric layer, which is designed to prevent leakage of electric current from the mass of graphite in the metal of the pipe wall. When this pipeline to move the mass of the graphite to the electrodes constantly has an angle of incline to the horizontal plane, resulting in the conditions for reliable contact between the graphite particles, h is about reduces the loss of electricity to overcome the resistance of the electric circuit between the power source and tunnel complexes. When moving the tunnel complex on the finished part of the tunnel with the rise in the direction of the face creates favorable conditions for the flowing of the melt at the bottom edge of the frontal part of the tunnel complex in the box under the middle part of the tunnel system.

Industrial applicability of the invention.

The described method of drilling a mountain tunnel without removal of rocks on the surface will be widely used in the construction of hydropower plants in the mountains, and also in the construction of tunnels in solid rock because the construction of the tunnel system does not require the involvement of people throughout the time of his work in the tunnel, because of all the running tunnel complex is to regulate the power of the electric current supplied by mass of graphite tubes with electrical insulation of the walls from the power source outside of the tunnel to the electrodes in the discharge chamber of the tunnel complex. Moving the tunnel system deep into the face will be also without the participation of the people through automation mechanisms, constantly presses the body of the tunnel complex to the solid rock in the face. Control of self-propelled units which provide movement of the tunnel complex along the tunnel, carried out by adjusting the electrical power is th current served from a source of supply outside of the tunnel for these units. The supply of electric current to the self-propelled units can be accessed via insulated conductors inside of the pipes that deliver the water designed for cooling the walls of the tunnel and the equipment in it, as well as to create a water curtain over the entire cross-sectional area of the tunnel in the place where the tip of the pipeline, bringing gases from the tunnel to a device for recycling.

Sources of information

1. Inventor's certificate SU 958654 3, AS 37/16 from 15.09.80, published 15.09.82, in Bulletin of the USSR State Committee on matters of inventions and discoveries No. 34.

2. Inventor's certificate SU 1645509, 5 IS 37/16, from 04.05.88, published 30.04.91, Bulletin No. 16.

3. Patent RU 2217390, 7 SV 5/04, 11.01.2002 was published 27.11.2003, in Bulletin No. 33.

The method of penetration of a mountain tunnel without removal of rocks on the surface, including the application of cooling the walls of the tunnel and just sinking equipment, systems remove gases from the tunnel as well as assemblies for movement of the heat-resistant casing tunnel complex under construction along the tunnel, characterized in that the bottom create the conditions for a chemical reaction between oxides of chemical elements, of which mainly ostoic mass of rocks, with carbon in the form of graphite by heating of the external surface of the frontal part of the tunnel system by passing through the metal wall of the frontal part of the complex of thermal energy generated by burning electric arc between the electrodes of refractory metal, inside which move towards the frontal part of the graphite complex that performs the function of a conductor of electric current from a source of supply of the complex to the electrodes placed in the discharge chamber on the inner wall surface of the frontal part of the complex, and after passing through the hollow electrodes are heated in the discharge graphite injected into the bottom through the nozzle in the wall of the frontal part of the tunnel system for performing chemical reactions interaction of oxides elements with carbon or carbon monoxide, resulting from the lower edge of the frontal part of the complex accumulates a melt consisting of metals with impurities of unreacted minerals and occupies half the volume compared to the volume of rock destroyed in the pit in front of the frontal part of the tunnel complex, and gaseous carbon dioxide and other gases trap as their education, take the tubes out of the tunnel and disposed of.



 

Same patents:

Tunneling method // 2259479

FIELD: underground structure building, particularly for forming underground tunnels and collectors.

SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating ground with cutting tool; regulating kentledge pressure in rotor chamber and backfilling annular tubing space. Kentledge pressure is automatically adjusting with that of enclosing ground exerting pressure on shield case by means of membranes. The membranes are installed in shield case and are permanently subjected to actual enclosing ground pressure. Backfilling operation is performed through end part of shield case immediately after shield case movement.

EFFECT: prevention of ground and object deformation in tunnel boring machine movement area, increased backfill layer elasticity and tunnel lining impermeability.

4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has frontal, two side and two conical working tools with rock-destroying tools on outer surfaces, drives, rigidly connected to axes of each working tool, and displacement mechanism, connected to guides, placed at angle relatively to each other, which angle is determined from mathematical expression. Frontal and each of side working tools are made in form of two rotation bodies, having arced forming lines with given value of convexity. Axes of frontal working tool and axes of two conical working tools are rigidly connected to guides, axes of upper rotation body of frontal working tool being displaced relatively to axis of its lower rotation body towards pit-face, and axes of each pair of side working tools are jointly connected to each other and to guides. Frontal working tool may be made in form of several modules.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 4 dwg

The invention relates to a shield tunnel construction and can be used mainly for conducting small diameter tunnels

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used with sinking and redemption mining

Mechanised shield // 2211925
The invention relates to tunnelling, more precisely, to construct using tunneling shields tunnels large extent under the sea or river bottom without excavation provided shallow shield from the bottom of the sea or the river to the arch, the height of which varies from 1 to 10 m, depending on soil type and profile of the bottom

The invention relates to underground construction and can be used in rotary shields when adjusting the rotation of the rotor

The invention relates to underground construction, in particular to a method of laying a pipeline under the natural and artificial obstacles, including under water barriers

The invention relates to underground construction and can be used in the construction of tunnels

The invention relates to the field of underground construction and can be used in the construction of tunnels for different purposes

FIELD: mining, particularly methods or devices for dislodging, particularly by electricity.

SUBSTANCE: method involves transferring high-voltage pulses with frequency defined by head rotation rate on rotary drilling head. Drilling tool includes serially connected drilling string 9, drilling head 1, high-voltage pulse source 11 arranged directly in drilling tool over drilling head 1 and charging means 12. The charging means 12 is arranged in drilling tool over high-voltage pulse source 11.

EFFECT: increased drilling efficiency due to increased operational drilling tool reliability.

3 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: mining, particularly for mine excavation, well drilling, ore preparation, in geophysics for deposit exploration and probing.

SUBSTANCE: method involves applying pulsed electromagnetic field and elastic stress waves to rock, wherein rock is simultaneously treated with pulsed magnetic field having induction of 0.25-1.5 T, pulse duration of 100-300 microseconds and 1·10-2 - 5·108 Hz frequency, and elastic stress wave. As elastic compression stress waves act on rock magnetic field is created by positive current pulse half-waves. As elastic extension stress waves act on rock magnetic field is created by negative current pulse half-waves. As electric rock resistance decreases up to electric resistance of conductive and semiconductive minerals forming said rock electric current is passed through rock along with following magnetic field induction vector change to provide total rock loosening in treated zone. Magnetic field induction vector is directed orthogonally to elastic stress wave propagation and then the cycle is repeated.

EFFECT: increased degree of crystalline rock weakening due to destruction thereof, inter-crystalline bounds weakening along with decreased power inputs and material consumption.

1 dwg

Electrpulse drill // 2283937

FIELD: well drilling equipment, particularly to drill bores and wells, as well as rock and artificial non-conductive material cutting.

SUBSTANCE: drill comprises body, drilling bit provided with high-voltage current conductor and electrode secured in longitudinal slots thereof by means of insulator. Drilling bit has movable electrode, which projects from drilling bit end and movable electrode travel limiter. Drill body is connected with rotary unit through torque-limiting clutch.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of rock cutting due to increased number of electric discharges, which have been introduced in rock to be cut.

5 cl, 8 dwg

The invention relates to methods and devices for control systems, power equipment using electrohydraulic effect for crushing and grinding of minerals and waste, cleaning of wheels and disinfection of water, more specifically to methods and devices for controlling the charge-discharge cycle in plants using EEG effect

The invention relates to the field of destruction (cutting, drilling) rock and artificial hard materials such as concrete, ceramics, etc

The invention relates to the field of mining and road-building machinery, namely the electromagnetic shock mechanisms, and can be used for the destruction of rocks, branches sludge formations in the ladle for casting metals, the activation of the working bodies of mining machines etc

Subversive device // 2195631
The invention relates to mining, particularly subversive device

The invention relates to the field of mining and construction

The invention relates to techniques for blasting, in particular flameless erosion of rocks

The invention relates to mining and construction, in particular to the destruction of both natural and artificial mineral media by electric impact on destructible object, and includes a description of two embodiments of the method of undermining or destruction of the object, the first of which blow up the substance applied to the surface of exploding object, feature in the substance thin metal wire and serves electrical energy to the wire in a short period of time when said wire is pressed against the surface of the destroyed object

Electrpulse drill // 2283937

FIELD: well drilling equipment, particularly to drill bores and wells, as well as rock and artificial non-conductive material cutting.

SUBSTANCE: drill comprises body, drilling bit provided with high-voltage current conductor and electrode secured in longitudinal slots thereof by means of insulator. Drilling bit has movable electrode, which projects from drilling bit end and movable electrode travel limiter. Drill body is connected with rotary unit through torque-limiting clutch.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of rock cutting due to increased number of electric discharges, which have been introduced in rock to be cut.

5 cl, 8 dwg

Up!