Apparatus for irrigation of hothouses, greenhouses and garden plots

FIELD: irrigation systems for automatic irrigation of plants on restricted areas.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has accumulation reservoir with bottom opening closed with valve, auxiliary reservoir, two float valves, one of said valves being designed for feeding water to accumulation reservoir and other valve serving for cutting-off said feeding process. Valve floats are positioned within auxiliary reservoir positioned lower than bottom of accumulating reservoir and connected through flexible pipelines to hermetically sealed reservoirs having porous bottoms and embedded in soil. Drawing of water by soil through said bottoms results in reduction of water level within auxiliary reservoir. Float valves are opened and water is delivered through one of said valves into accumulating reservoir. On reaching of predetermined water filling level, discharge opening valve is opened and water is delivered into low-pressure irrigation system and through other float valve into auxiliary reservoir. Increase in water level within accumulation reservoir cuts-off feeding of water into this reservoir. During operation of high-pressure irrigation system, functioning of apparatus is regulated by filling of accumulation reservoir to certain small volume and stabilized by means of detachable reservoir adapted to be mounted on accumulation reservoir and having horizontal partition walls.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation of apparatus.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to irrigation systems and can be used to implement automatic irrigation limited - greenhouses and gardens.

It is known device [1], which contains the cumulative water tank, fitted with a venting hole is blocked by a valve, and the exhaust manifold, an auxiliary vessel, the position of which can be adjusted in height, connected by a flexible pipe to the exhaust pipe of the storage tank, a pipe for supplying water into this tank through the float valve, the float which is located in the auxiliary tank, and the outlet is connected with a storage capacity of Flex with a device for accurately controlling the flow of water (for example, a valve on the end), sealed vessels with porous bottoms that are installed in the area of the proposed irrigation at the specified depth and United flexible pipelines with an auxiliary capacity. On the outlet pipe from the storage tank after accession to the flexible pipe connecting the exhaust manifold with a specified capacity, installed the adjusting valve, and flexible conduits connecting the auxiliary airtight container vessels with porous bottoms, screw clamps changed the I passage sections of these pipelines.

The disadvantage of the described device is the difficulty in operation, which consists in the fact that to keep off the supply of water in the collection tank after filling by means of a float valve installed on the applicable pipeline, it is necessary to provide the desired difference in water levels in storage and auxiliary tanks. This operation depends on the hydraulic resistance of the irrigation system and irrigation norms, which should vary depending on the vegetative development of plants. This operation is done by trial and requires a considerable investment of time, which reduces the effectiveness of the device.

The closest (prototype) is a device [2], which contains the cumulative water tank, an auxiliary tank connected with flexible pipelines, located them screw clamps, pressure vessels with porous bottoms (tensiometers)installed in the soil in the area of the proposed irrigation at the specified depth, the pipe for supplying water in the collection container via installed on it a float valve, the float which is located in the auxiliary tank, and the outlet is connected with a storage capacity of the pipeline. Fitted with a valve exhaust manifold attached to issue the SKN device storage capacity, differs in that it is equipped with a float valve, the outlet of which is connected by a pipe to the exhaust pipe of the storage tank in place to location on it valve, and the outlet pipe with the auxiliary tank, which is the specified float valve, when this auxiliary tank is located below the storage capacitor.

The disadvantage of the described device is the difficulty of controlling the time of irrigation is carried out using high-pressure systems (e.g., irrigation). In the known device the time required for such irrigation is determined by filling a predetermined volume in the accumulation tank. Water for filling comes from the water supply through the valve. The consumption of water to a considerable extent may vary due to various reasons (non-uniform separation of water from the network by other users in the operation of the pump and so on). Changing the flow rate of the incoming water lead to the change of the time of expiration through the valve and, consequently, to change the time of the sprinkling. Additionally, the valve through which the water passes, it is impossible to adjust to the necessary low consumption and, consequently, to provide the desired expiration time of water through it.

The purpose of the invention is improving the efficiency and reliability of the work is s device.

This goal is achieved by the fact that the device containing the cumulative water tank, auxiliary tank installed below the bottom of the storage tank, connected by means of flexible pipes, provided with screw clamps, pressure vessels with porous bottoms installed in the soil to supply water in the accumulation tank through installed on it a float valve, the exhaust manifold with the installed valve attached to the exhaust device of the storage tank, the float valve, the inlet of which is connected to the exhaust pipe of the storage tank in place to location on it valve, and the outlet pipe with the auxiliary tank, which is the specified float valve is provided with an additional vessel, cumulative installed on a tank having a horizontal partition (bottom) with holes, and the exhaust pipe of the lower wall (bottom) set the device for the precise regulation of flow, for example a screw clamp.

Figure 1 shows a diagram of a device designed for operation with low-pressure irrigation systems; figure 2 shows a diagram of a device designed to work with high-pressure irrigation systems (vessel stabilization time work is s); figure 3 - piping with valves and auxiliary capacity.

The device consists of the accumulation tank 1 mounted on the base 2. In the bottom of the tank has a vent with a saddle, which is the exhaust valve 3. To the valve attached metal rod 4 passing through the guide sleeve 6 mounted on the bracket 5. By the end thrust 4 is attached to the flexible rod 7. The other end of the traction bar 7 is attached to the float 8 so that the length of the rod 7 can be adjusted. To the upper part of the float 8 is attached a flexible retaining rod 9, the upper end of which is fixed on the fixed bearing 10, is made known and rigidly connected with storage capacity. The length of this thrust is such that the float 8 cannot fall below the positions shown in figure 1 by the dotted line, i.e. does not reach the upper end of thrust 4. To the outlet attached to the exhaust manifold 11 is installed on the valve 32. Next to storage capacity is the auxiliary capacitance 13, located at a height below the bottom of the storage tank. Water supply to the device is done through the pipeline 14 is installed on the valve 15. This pipeline is attached float (ball) valve 16, the float 17 which is placed in the auxiliary tank 13. To the output pipe float valve 16 also is Dinan pipe 18, the other end of which is omitted in the accumulation tank 1. The pipe 18 is attached to the outlet 19 with a shut-off valve 20. The pipe 18 is installed a device for coarse regulation of water flow, for example, the valve 21. In the auxiliary capacitance 13 is a float 22 other optional float valve 26, the inlet of which is connected to the pipe 11 in place until the location of the valve 32 and the exhaust pipe connected to the pipe 27, the end of which is omitted in the auxiliary tank 13. This capacity attached flexible pipes 23, which have their other ends attached to the sealed vessels 24 with porous bottoms (tensiometers). Such vessels are used as humidity sensors. These vessels are tightly installed in the soil in the irrigation zone to a predetermined depth corresponding to full or partial depth of the location of the root system of plants. Figure 1 is conventionally shown 2 vessel 24, although the number can be anything. When this auxiliary tank 13 should be a corresponding number of sockets for the connection of the pipes 23. These pipelines are installed screw terminals for regulating the cross section of the piping 23. To exclude the ingress of atmospheric moisture in the auxiliary tank 13 above it has a removable Osirak 29. To the auxiliary capacitance 13, if necessary, can be connected through pipes 30 with the valves 31 additional auxiliary tank 28.

At the top of the storage tank 1 is mounted on the supports 33 a removable receptacle 34 (2), inside of which there are horizontal partitions (bottom) 35. The number of partitions depends on the uneven flow of water coming from the valve 21. On each of these partitions has a hole. On the bottom wall (bottom) hole has an outlet, provided with a device for precise flow control (for example, a screw clamp 36). The height of the supports 33 to provide access for the regulation of this clip by hand and to monitor the operation of the exhaust valve 3.

The device operates as follows. Under furrow irrigation, the inlets, the subsurface fermentation and other low-pressure way from the accumulation tank 1 remove the vessel 34, attach the pipe 11 to the irrigation system and fully open the valve 32. Then with the adjustment of the length of deep draught 7 determine the volume of water in the accumulation tank 1, which must be submitted in the irrigation system. This amount should correspond to the irrigation norm. After this well-known way is filled with water in the auxiliary tank 13, the tank 28, the flexible pipe is the wires 23 and the vessels 24, pre-installed in the soil. Screw clamps 25 installed on the piping 23, must be open. The air inside these nodes must go. Container 13 and 28 are set below the level of the bottom of the tank 1 at a small height above the ground. The floats 17 and 22 of the valves 16 and 26 should be free to lie in the auxiliary tank 13, and both valves must be in the Closed position. First piping 23 should be horizontal to the water under their own weight from the auxiliary tank 13 through the piping 23 filled in the vessel 24.

Next, open the valve 15 to the discharge pipe 14 and close the valve 20. Fully open the valve 21. First, in the absence of water in the accumulation tank discharge valve 3 under the action of its own weight drops into the seat and closes the outlet. If soil moisture is low, due to capillary and molecular forces is the slope of the water from the upper soil layers depth (effect Sousa strength of the soil"), including vessels 24. This effect increases with decreasing soil moisture. The slope of the water occurs through the porous bottom of the vessel 24. The porosity of each of the bottom is such that there is seepage through them only water, but excludes the penetration of air into the vessel 24. It is known that is created when's leadership the e water discharge in the vessel 24 (tensiometers) accurately enough for practical purposes and conforms to the soil moisture range from full field capacity to a moisture content slightly below the lowest capacity. In this range, as it is known, is the growth and development of plants. When the slope decreases, the water level in the auxiliary tank 13. The floats 17 and 22 of the valves 16 and 26 are omitted, and the last pass in the "Open"position. Water from the pipe 14 through valve 16, conduit 18 enters the holding tank 1 and fills it up to the specified level. The float 8 rises and opens the exhaust valve 3. Water from the pipe 11 is supplied to irrigation. In this case, the pipeline 12 through the float valve 26, it enters the auxiliary capacitance 13 and the tank 28. This is achieved due to the low location of these tanks. Water level rises up to the original, and float valves go into the "Closed"position, i.e. stops the flow of water in the accumulation tank 1 via line 18 and in the auxiliary tank 13 through the pipeline 12.

The next cycle starts after due to "Sousa strength of the soil, and also due to its own weight of water, depending on the position of the pipes 23, again will decrease the level in tank 13 and 28. The time of filling of the storage tank 1, i.e. the frequency of watering can be adjusted in the following ways, based on the application of the law of flow through porous media (Darcy law):

1) number of vessels 24, as the volume of water sucked away from capacity the th 13 and 28 is directly proportional to the total area of the bottoms of these vessels;

2) change in the resistance of pipes 23, as consumption of water passing through them will be inversely proportional to the drop of pressure-dependent resistance (this can be done either by raising or lowering any pipe sections 23 relative to the water level in the auxiliary tank 13 and is communicated with the tank 28, or by adjustment of screw terminals 25 installed on the piping 23);

3) change in cross-sectional area of the auxiliary capacitance 13 and the tank 28 by attaching or detaching the tank 28 by means of valves 31 and conduits 30, because this changes the volume, and hence the time of suction of water by means of vessels 24. In addition, you can modify the specified time filling of the storage tank 1 by changing the length of the piping 23 (if there is a set of replacement pipelines), as the number of sucked water is inversely proportional to the path length of the flow;

If you water in the high-pressure irrigation system (sprinkler, drip-pulse irrigation and other), then the operation is performed as follows. The pipe 19 is attached to the irrigation system, the valves 32, 20 and 15 open. Then adjust the water in the irrigation system. This is done by regulating the time of filling some small amount of nakopitel the Noah of the tank 1. This amount is set by regulation traction 7.

Then install the removable vessel 34. The supply (flow) of water roughly regulate by means of valve 21 and accurately - using screw clamp 36. When opening the valve 21 water enters the upper section of the vessel 34, and then through the openings in the partitions (the bottoms) 35 in the lower section. Because the flow of water coming from the valve 21 is changed due to various reasons (uneven separation of water by consumers, interruptions in the operation of the pump and so on), in the absence of vessel 34 that leads to a change in the speed of filling of the storage tank 1. This change in the flow rate in the presence of the vessel 34 will slightly affect the level of water in the accumulation tank 1, as will be compensated by the square walls of the vessel 34.

The change of the level in each downstream section will be larger than in the upstream. This is because the expiration time of the water from any of the cylindrical vessel through the hole at alternating pressure increases with the height of the level in the vessel and decreases with the increase in the area of the outlet openings in the bottom [3].

In General, this allows certain products to stabilize the flow of water coming into the accumulation tank 1.

Because the flow of water through the clamping screw 36 is small, then the time of filling the can be controlled sufficient for practical purposes accuracy. Then, as in the previous case of irrigation through low-pressure system, pour water into the vessel 24, flexible pipes 23 and container 13 and 28, allowing the air to come out of these nodes. When this float valves 16 and 26 will be in the Closed position. When the suction of soil water from the tank 13 and 28 these valves go into the "Open"position, and is filing for irrigation through the pipe 19. At the same time through the pipe 18 will be filling a predetermined volume of the storage tank 1 within the prescribed time. After completing this volume, the float 8 will raise the valve 3, and the water through the pipes 11 and 12 hits in the vessel 13 and 28. Float valves 16 and 26 will go into Closed position, and watering will stop. When the volume of water from the storage tank 1 is small (when installing small durations), then supply the required amount of water in the auxiliary capacity regulating valve 32, than create the necessary resistance in the pipe 11. This permits operation of the valves 16 and 26. Then the cycle will resume after the extraction of water from the tank 13 and 28. The time between cycles is the same as in the first case, the use of the device for low-pressure irrigation systems.

If the device supplies water for irrigation to the outdoors, Pets possibility of accounting for tmospheric precipitation on the ground. For this purpose it is necessary to remove the protective shield 29. Then the water level in the tank 13 and 28 will be higher due to the falling precipitation. This will result in the rise of the floats 17 and 22, i.e. stops the flow of water through pipelines 14 and 12. If the device works on a protected ground, the impact of precipitation should be excluded by setting the visor 29. During hot weather, in all cases, the water in tank 13 and 28 will evaporate, which will also result in lower water levels in these tanks and to reduce the time between cycles. Thus, the proposed device is universal because it applies to all irrigation systems (high-pressure and low-pressure) in open and protected ground and takes into account all the weather factors.

In the absence of water supply network and when using the device for low-pressure irrigation system it can be powered from any capacity, raised to a certain height (tank etc), pre-fill pump or any other method.

The device is structurally simple, it has no electronics, and it does not require connection to an electrical outlet. This ensures safe operation and does not require skilled care. It can operate autonomously without a human presence that matters, when there is a possibility only occasionally (e.g. once a week) to exercise control over his work. The device is therefore designed for the mass consumer. It allows, if it is made from chemically resistant materials, liquid fertilizer into the soil. The device mainly consists of commercially available parts and components: float valves 16, 26, the exhaust valve 3, used in plumbing flexible and rigid pipelines, valves, etc. as a float 8 can be used a piece of foam. The device monitors the actual soil moisture in a natural condition in the root zone. It is self-regulating because it automatically changes the mode of irrigation depending on soil moisture. The device allows you to adjust the irrigation rate and to change the time between watering.

Sources of information:

1. RF patent № 2137354, CL 01G 27/00, 25/16.

2. RF patent № 2246211, CL A01G 25/16, 27/00.

3. Timbuktu, Sun and other Hydraulics, hydraulic machines and hydraulic actuators. - Mechanical engineering, 1970, p.134 §1.38 "After the through holes and the nozzle at a variable pressure (emptying vessels)".

1. Device for irrigation of greenhouses, greenhouses and garden plots containing cumulative water tank, auxiliary tank, ustanovlennuyu below the bottom of the storage tank, connected by means of flexible pipes, equipped with screw terminals, sealed with Adami with porous bottoms, established in the soil in the area of the proposed irrigation at the specified depth, the pipe for supplying water in the collection container via installed on it a float valve, the exhaust manifold with the installed valve attached to the exhaust device storage capacity, optional float valve, the inlet of which is connected to the exhaust pipe of the storage tank before the valve located therein, and the outlet pipe with the auxiliary tank, which is the additional float valve, characterized in that it is provided with an additional vessel, which is mounted to the storage tank having a horizontal partition, the number of which depends on the uneven flow of the incoming water, with holes, and the exhaust pipe of the lower partition device for precise flow control.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the device for accurate flow rate control is executed in the form of a screw clamp.



 

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