Mode of formation of a cumulative jet and an injector for formation of a cumulative jet with a single ring flame shell

FIELD: the invention refers to the technology of using a cumulative jet.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of formation of at least one cumulative jet includes feeding of at least one gas jet out of at least one nozzle with a converging/diverging configuration located in an injector having a face surface of the injector. At that the face surface of the injector has openings located along the circumference around at least one nozzle, moreover the indicated at least one gas jet has a supersonic speed when it is formed at the output from the face surface of the injector and remains supersonic on a distance coming to at least 20d, where d- the diameter of the output opening of the indicated at least one nozzle. Feeding of fuel from the first group of openings located along the circumference and feeding of an oxidizing agent from the second group of openings located along the circumference. Incineration of fuel and the oxidizing agent fed from the first and the second groups of openings located along the mentioned circumference for formation of a flame shell around at least one gas jet. A great number of gas jets are fed from the injector. The fuel and the oxidizing agents are fed from the first group of openings and from the second group of openings correspondingly alternate with each other on the circumference along which they are located. At least one gas jet, the fuel and the oxidizing agent are fed from the injector directly into the space for injection without passing the zone of recycling formed with the extender of the injector. At least one gas jet passes at a prescribed distance coming at least to 20d, where d- is the diameter of the output opening of the nozzle from which exits a gas jet keeping the diameter of the mentioned gas jet in essence constant.

EFFECT: the invention allows make an arrangement with the aid of which it is possible to form effective cumulative gas jets without need in an extender in the injector or in any other element for forming recycling zone for gases fed from the injector.

9 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates in General to technology use cumulative jet.

Recent significant advances in the creation of a gas burner for cutting based on the development of application technology of cumulative jets as disclosed, for example, in U.S. patent No. 5814125, issued in the name of Anderson, and others, and in U.S. patent No. 6171544, issued in the name of Anderson, and others When using this technology, one or more high-speed gas streams produced from one or more nozzles of the injector support in cumulative state on a relatively large plot of its length by formation of a flame envelope around and along the high-speed gas jet (gas jets). Flaming shell is generated by the combustion of fuel and oxidant produced from two groups of holes, respectively, along the two circles on the injector (the inner circle and outer circle)around the nozzle (nozzles), from which (of which) manufacture of high-speed gas jet (jet). Usually the fuel to create a flame shell injected from holes located along the inner circumference, and an oxidizer to create a flaming shell served from vents located along the outer circumference. Extension, located on the perimeter of the injector forms a protected zone of recirculation, to whom that serves high-speed gas jet (jet) from the nozzle (nozzles) and a liquid stream by creating a flaming shell of flame out of the holes. In this zone, the recirculation can provide some recirculation fed streams, creating better conditions for ignition and increased stability flaming shell, thereby improving the cumulativeness, and therefore, increasing the length of high-speed gas jets (jets). Cumulative jet (jet) can be used to deliver a gas to a liquid, such as molten metal, with a relatively large distance above the liquid surface. One very important application of this technology is the use of a cumulative jet is blowing oxygen in the process of steel production, for example, in electric arc furnaces and basic oxygen furnace.

Use extension tube for recirculation, while an improvement over previously known systems use a cumulative jet, creates certain problems associated with the design of the injector and its service life due to the need for water cooling of the strip. These problems are particularly significant when the system of cumulative jets used in very harsh environmental conditions, for example, in the oxygen Converter.

In accordance with the present invention is a device through which the can is about to form effective cumulative gas stream without the need for extension of the injector or other item to create a zone of recirculation gases, supplied from the injector.

The above and other objectives which will become apparent to experts in this field when reading the present description, solve by the present invention, one aspect of which is:

A method of creating at least one cumulative gas stream, including:

(A) feeding at least one gas stream from the at least one nozzle placed in the injector having a face surface of the injector, and the end surface of the injector with openings spaced along the circumference, placed around at least one nozzle;

(C) the supply of fuel from the first group of holes arranged along said circumference, and the oxidizer from the second group of holes arranged along said circumference;

(C) the combustion of fuel and oxidant supplied from the first and second groups of holes arranged along said circle, to create a flame envelope around at least one gas jet.

Another aspect of the invention is:

Injector to create a cumulative jet containing:

(A) an injector comprising a face surface of the injector and at least one nozzle having an aperture in the end surface of the injector;

(C) a group of holes arranged dolgokrilest on the end surface of the injector, placed around openings (holes) of the nozzle;

(C) means for supplying fuel to the first group of holes arranged along said circle, and means for supplying oxidant to the second group of holes arranged along said circumference.

The term "end surface of the injector" here understand the surface of the injector, bordering space for injection.

The term "cumulative jet here understand gas jet formed by the gas flow from the nozzle, which has the speed and instant profile along the length of at least part 20d, where d is the diameter of the outlet nozzle, similar speed and instant profile of the jet at its exit from the nozzle.

Another way of describing the cumulative jet: this is a gas jet, the diameter of which does not change or does not change at all in the distance of at least 20d.

The term "length", when used in relation to cumulative gas stream, they understand the distance from the nozzle from which gas serves to the designated point of collision cumulative gas jet or to the place where the gas stream ceases to be cumulative.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 shows the end surface of one preferred variant of the injector;

figure 2 - cut one preferred variant of the injector, an end surface, which can be used to implement the present invention.

Figure 3 shows a variant of the invention, represented in figure 1 and 2, in operation, where the same numbers of positions denoted by the same elements.

Below the invention is described in detail with reference to the drawings.

Figure 1-3 gas, indicated by arrow 1, passes through at least one nozzle 2, preferably the nozzle with a convergent/divergent configuration, and then from the injector 3 through coplowe hole or holes 4 on the end surface 6 of the injector for education cumulative gas jet or jets 5 in the space 7 for injection. Usually the velocity of the gas jets (jets) 5 is within 213,4-914,4 m/s (700-3000 m/s). Preferably the velocity of the gas jets (jets) 5 is supersonic when it is formed at the exit end surface of the injector and remains supersonic at the distance of at least 20d.

Although the drawings shows a variant in which use four cumulative gas jets supplied from the injector through four nozzles, respectively, the number of gas jets supplied from the injector through the respective nozzles, in practice, according to the present from which briteney can be from 1 to 6. Preferably the space for injection, which serves cumulative gas jet, is a furnace for melting metal, such as steel-making furnace. Most preferably, when using multiple nozzles, each nozzle was rejected at an angle one relative to another and in the direction from the Central axis of the injector.

As a gas for formation of a cumulative jet or jets according to the present invention can use any efficient gas. Among such gases can be called oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, helium, steam and hydrocarbon. In addition, as a gas according to the present invention can be used a mixture containing two or more gases, for example air.

The circle 20, along which there are holes located on the end surface of the injector around the orifice of the nozzle or nozzles 4. Circle 20 preferably has a diameter within 38,1-406.4 mm (1.5 to 16 inches). Usually along the circumference 20 place from 12 to 48 holes. Each hole is preferably round with a diameter in the range of 1.27-12.7 mm (0.05 to 0.5 inch). Most preferably, as shown in the drawings, so that the holes along the circumference, in the recess, or groove 21 on the end surface 6 of the injector. Typically, the recess 21 of them is no depth in the range of 1.27-50.8 mm (0.05 to 2.0 inches), and the width is in the range of 1.27-12.7 mm (0.05 to 0.5 inch).

Fuel is fed to the first group of holes 22 on the circle 20 and the oxidant serves the second group of holes 23 on the circle 20. Preferably, as shown in figure 1, to the first group of holes 22 alternated with the second group of holes 23 in the circumferential direction 20 so that around each hole 22 for supplying fuel was two holes 23, which serves the oxidant, with each side of the hole for the fuel pump, and around each hole 23 for supplying oxidant was two holes 22 for supplying fuel to each side of this hole for supplying oxidant. The fuel and oxidizer supplied from the injector 3 through corresponding holes in the space 7 for injection. The rate of fuel and oxidant supplied through holes in the circumference, may be lower than the speed of sound, but preferably it is equal to the speed of sound. When fuel and oxidant at the speed of sound is improved separating foreign substances from entering and reduced clogging of the holes, which is especially important when the invention is used in harsh environments, such as in furnaces. If desirable, the speed of the supplied fuel and oxidant may be supersonic and be more than 1 and up to 2 Meters

Fuel supplied from the holes 22, predpochtite the flax is a gaseous fuel, and can be any fuel, such as methane or natural gas. The oxidant supplied from the holes 23 may be air or air enriched with oxygen, with the oxygen concentration greater than the concentration of oxygen in the air, or commercially supplied oxygen in which the oxygen concentration is at least 90 mol.%. Preferably, the oxidizer was gas with the concentration of the oxygen component of at least 25 mol.%.

The fuel and the oxidant exiting the injector form a gaseous envelope around the gas jets (jets) 5, which burns with formation of a flaming shell 24 surrounding gas jets (jets) 5 in space for injection, for example, the furnace for melting metal. Fiery sheath 24 gas flows around 5 serves to prevent entrainment of ambient gas in the gas flow, thus holding the speed gas flows from a significant reduction and keeping the diameter of the gas flows from a substantial increase, at least on the distance of 20d from the corresponding outlet nozzle. This means that a fiery sheath 24 is used to create and maintain a gas flow 5 in the form of cumulative jets on the distance of at least 20d from the corresponding outlet nozzle.

A significant advantage of this is th invention is to provide educational opportunities for effective cumulative gas jets through the injector without the use of extension injector. To date, the extension of the injector used for the formation of a protected zone of recirculation near the face of the injector to improve the ignition and combustion gases to create a flaming shell, which was filed in this protected zone of recirculation, thereby improving the cumulativeness of the gas jets. Although this extension of the injector is a very significant improvement compared to previously practiced solutions for education cumulative gas jet, there are problems associated with the use of this extension. According to the present invention, the gases supplied from the injector, pass directly into the space for injection without passing through the protected area, or the recirculation zone formed by extension of the injector, but still achieve better cumulatively jets observed when using the extension tube of the injector.

To evaluate the effectiveness of the invention were tested using a number of different devices with means for feeding gases for formation of a flaming shell. As fuel in the tests used natural gas as an oxidant in the tests used oxygen with a concentration of 99 mol.% called "secondary" oxygen. In each trial, use the Wali injector, containing four nozzle to the gas jets. As gas jets used oxygen with a purity of 99 mol.%, called "main" oxygen. The results are given below and are presented as illustrations and not as restrictive conditions.

The tests were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the invention and a better understanding of the role of the distances between the holes for natural gas and oxidant. The tests were carried out by storing the number of holes for education fiery sheath constant and comprised a total of 16 holes (8 - for natural gas and 8 - oxidant), but changed the distance between the holes by changing the diameter of the holes. The main diameter of the circle, which had a nozzle is kept constant. Determined the effect of annular grooves to increase the stability of the flame. Below the relative magnitude of the gap (AFP) was defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the interval (P) between the holes to the sum of the radii of holes

AFP=P/(Ro+Rt) (where Rois the radius of the holes for the supply of oxidizer; Rtis the radius of the hole for the fuel). For each test fuel and oxidizer served through alternate holes along one ring of holes around the nozzle.

The design and the construction of injectors

Injector No. 1 contained a total of 16 holes. The diameter was 54 mm (2,125 inches). The relative spacing ORP=0,67.

Injector No. 2 contained a total of 16 holes. The diameter of the circle was 82,55 mm (3.25 inches). The relative spacing ORP=1,56.

Injector No. 3 contained a total of 16 holes. The diameter of the circle was 108 mm (4.25 inches). The relative spacing ORP=2,34.

Conditions:

The main flow of oxygen - 1133 N m3/h (40000 H cubic ft./h); the pressure at the feed - 11.6 kg/cm2(165 psi).

Main nozzle - diameter outlet diameter neck 9,65/6,60 mm (0,38/0.26 per inch); the deflection angle outward -

The rate of natural gas - 204,2 m/s at a flow rate 141,6 nm3/h (670 ft/s at a flow rate of 5000 h cubic ft./h);

The speed of the secondary oxygen - 97,5 m/s at a flow rate 113,3 nm3/h (320 ft/s at a flow rate of 4000 h cubic ft./h).

No extension for recycling.

Groove: width - 7,14 mm (0,281 inch); depth of 6.35 mm (0.25 inch).

Injector No. 1. At a constant flow rate of natural gas 141,6 nm3/h (5000 h cubic ft./h) received a cumulative stream of good quality, usually having a length of 508 mm (20 inches), which exceeded the length of the jet with the conventional injector with holes located along the two circles. The flame was stable in a wide range ussoviet the injector design was not tested with the annular groove.

Injector No. 2. Without grooves; the cumulative length of the jet was slightly decreased in comparison with the stream produced by the injector No. 1. When the injector design was complemented by a groove, the cumulative length of the jet increases to more than the result obtained when testing the injector No. 1.

Injector No. 3. Without grooves; the cumulative length of the jet was much shorter. The flame is observed when running in elevated mode, caused the formation of a shorter cumulative jet. Adding grooves caused the stabilization of membranes and resulted in complete recovery of the cumulative length of the jet.

To ensure the possibility of excluding the driving holes intended for education flaming shell injector in BOF conducted tests to determine the feasibility of operating holes in the conditions of a flow with a velocity of sound. Have tested several designs of injectors with holes arranged along the same circle. Openings for natural gas and the secondary oxygen were such sizes that they operated at a speed of 1 M at a flow rate of natural gas and the secondary gas 141,6 and 113,3 nm3/h (5000 and 4000 h cubic ft./h), respectively. Annular grooves of different depths were added to stabilize the flaming shell.

The design engineer is Ktorov

Injector No. 4 contained holes along a circumference, when the total number of holes 32. The diameter of the holes for the supply of natural gas and the secondary oxygen was 2.54 mm (0.10 inch). The diameter of the circle was 50.8 mm (2.0 inches), and the relative spacing AFP - 0.96 inch.

Injector No. 5 contained holes along a circumference, when the total number of holes 24. The diameter of the holes for the supply of natural gas and the secondary oxygen was 2,92 mm (0,115 inches). The diameter of the circle was 50.8 mm (2.0 inches), and the relative spacing AFP - 1.28 inches.

Injector No. 6 contained holes along a circumference, when the total number of holes 16. The diameter of the holes for the supply of natural gas and the secondary oxygen amounted to 3.58 mm (0,141 inches). The diameter of the circle was 50.8 mm (2.0 inches), and the relative spacing AFP - 1.79.

Injector No. 7 contained holes along a circumference, when the total number of holes 32. The diameter of the holes for the supply of natural gas and the secondary oxygen was 2.5 mm (0.10 in). The diameter of the circle was 69.85 mm (2.75 inches), and the relative spacing AFP - 1.70.

Conditions

The main flow of oxygen - 1133 nm3/h (40000 h cubic ft./h); [pressure at the feed - 11.6 kg/cm2(165 psi)].

The nozzle had a diameter of output/diameter neck - 9,65/6,60 mm (0,38/0.26 per inch); the deflection angle outward -

- Speed natural gas - 415,74 m/s-1 M (1364 ft./(C) at a flow rate 141,6 nm3/h (@ 5000 h cubic ft./h).

- The speed of the secondary oxygen - 299,3 m/s-1 M (982 ft./(C) at a flow rate 113,3 nm3/h (@ 4000 h cubic ft./h).

Extension was missing.

- Dimensions of the grooves (width and depth) varied.

Injector No. 4. Without grooves; the cumulative length of the jet was small, which was a result of separation flaming shell. Cumulative stream of good quality was obtained when using grooves with widths and depths: 1,25D×1,25D and 1,25D×2D, where D is the diameter of the hole.

Injector No. 5. Without grooves; the injector was difficult to ignite (instability). Cumulative stream of good quality was obtained when using grooves with widths and depths: 1D×1D; 1D×1,5D and 1D×2D.

Injector No. 6. Without grooves; the injector was very difficult to light; length of cumulative jets essentially corresponded to the lengths in the absence of a flaming shell. In the presence of the grooves burning shell stabilized; however, received relatively little cumulative jet, even if a sufficiently deep groove 1D×2D.

Injector No. 7. Without grooves; received poorly cumulative jet. Cumulative jet choir is the better quality was obtained when the dimensions of the grooves 1,25D× 1,25D.

Although the invention is described in detail with reference to certain preferred versions, the specialists in this area should be clear that there are many other variants of the invention, corresponding to the nature and extent of the claims.

1. A method of creating at least one cumulative gas jets, including

(A) feeding at least one gas stream from the at least one nozzle with a convergent/divergent configuration, is placed in the injector having a face surface of the injector, and the end surface of the injector with openings spaced along the circumference around the at least one nozzle, and the specified at least one gas jet is supersonic speed, when it is formed at the exit end surface of the injector and remains supersonic at the distance of at least 20d, where d is the diameter of the outlet specified by at least one nozzle;

(B) the supply of fuel from the first group of holes arranged along the circumference, and the oxidizer from the second group of holes arranged along the circumference;

(C) the combustion of fuel and oxidant supplied from the first and second groups of holes arranged along said circumference, DL is the creation of a flaming shell around at least one gas jet.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein a set of gas jets supplied from the injector.

3. The method according to claim 1, in which the fuel and oxidizer is supplied from the first group of holes and the second holes, respectively, which alternate on the circumference along which they are located.

4. The method according to claim 1, in which at least one gas jet and the fuel and oxidizer supplied from the injector directly into the space for injection without crossing the recirculation zone formed by the extension of the injector.

5. The method according to claim 1, in which at least one gas stream passes at a distance of at least 20 d, where d is the diameter of the outlet nozzle, from which comes out of the gas stream, while maintaining the diameter of the gas jet is essentially constant.

6. Injector to create a cumulative jet containing

(A) an injector comprising a face surface of the injector and at least one nozzle with a convergent/divergent configuration having an aperture in the end surface of the injector;

(B) a group of holes arranged along the circumference on the end surface of the injector around the hole (holes) of the nozzle;

(C) means for supplying fuel to the first group of holes arranged along said circumference, and cf is DSTV to supply oxidant to the second group of holes, along said circumference.

7. Injector to create a cumulative jet according to claim 6, containing multiple nozzles.

8. Injector to create a cumulative jet according to claim 6, in which the holes are placed along the circumference, is made in the groove on the end surface of the injector.

9. Injector to create a cumulative jet according to claim 6, in which the first group of holes is interleaved with the second group of holes.



 

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