Uninterrupted method for dyeing polymeric materials at applying ultrasound

FIELD: dye-finishing production.

SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with delivering dyeing composition heated up to about 35-40°C into the tank with ultrasound emitter at frequency being 104-106 Hz followed by the impact upon it for the period of about 1-5 min; guiding it into the tank for dyeing supplied with ultrasound emitter at frequency ranged 104-106 Hz with a substrate located in it, which was pre-subjected for ultrasound impact in this tank in the mentioned frequency range; availability of a substrate in the mentioned activated dyeing composition at excessive pressure of about 0.5-1.0 atm for the period of about 3-15 min followed by washing with water subjected to ultrasound impact in the tank for water activation in frequencies ranged 104-106 Hz followed by drying. Waster water should be guided into the tank for water purification supplied with ultrasound emitter at frequency being 104-106 Hz at excessive pressure ranged 2.5-5.0 atm with subsequent return of the purified water into the cycle of dyeing process. The innovation provides intensification of dyeing process and shortened expenses of dyestuff and supplementary substances.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

5 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of physics and can be used in industry for dyeing of objects of different materials: fabric, leather, plastic, wood, metal, etc. and also for the purification and recycling of wastewater enterprises in the interests of efficiency and ecological safety of production; for water treatment and disinfection of drinking water - in the interests of public health, etc.

The technical result of the proposed method is effective and quality dyeing of any materials, reduction of paint consumption and time of dyeing, as well as in effective treatment and recycling of wastewater enterprises in a relatively straightforward manner with minimal financial and time expenses.

A device that implements a method of dyeing using ultrasound, operates as follows.

From the tank clean water in the conduit, within which are several inserts with varying along the length of the diameter from minimum to maximum by means of a pump, a tank for preparation of the dye. In places the "narrowing" - maximum diameter of the insertion conduit, due to the acceleration of the water pressure drops, and the resulting negative pressure promotes the formation and growth of cavitation bubbles. In the places of "expansion" is the minimum diameter of the TSA is Cai, as a result of inhibition of water pressure increases and the cavitation bubbles collapse.

Simultaneously, the capacity for making dye from the tank is fed with paint, on the basis of the given proportion. Using the first drum inside the tank is uniform mixing of clean water and paint to avoid the ingress of particles of dry paint on the object dyeing and education unevenly colored spots. Then the prepared dye solution for 10...15 min, heated to a temperature of 35...40°With steam open for a certain time, the first valve on the steam line and ensuring the flow of steam from the reservoir into the tank for preparation of the dye. Simultaneously with the generator of acoustic signals and power amplifier is shaping and amplification to the required level of acoustic signals at a frequency of Ωand through the emitter - their radiation on the surface of the object dyeing; using a generator of electromagnetic signals and power amplifier is shaping and amplification to the required level of electromagnetic signals at a frequency f, and with the emitter - their radiation on the surface of the object dyeing.

Next heated to a temperature of 35...40°With the dye comes in a container for exposure to ultra the Vuk. Simultaneously, by means of the ultrasonic generator and power amplifier is shaping and amplification to the required signal level at the frequency ω1a ultrasonic emitter his continuous radiation.

Then prepared above, the dye enters the tank for dyeing, which is located inside the object dyeing, pre-processed acoustic and electromagnetic waves in a special container. With the second drum, inside of this capacity, ensures uniform mixing of the dye, using the first device in the tank creates excessive static pressure of at least 0.5 ATM, and the second valve is provided by the flow of steam through the steam line from the tank in this capacity and is prepared by the above described method of the dye with the object dyeing finally heated to a temperature of 95...100°C. Simultaneously, using the first multi-channel ultrasonic generator and the first multi-channel amplifier is the formation and strengthening to the required level, and by using multiple ultrasonic emitters radiation of ultrasonic signal frequency ω2.

After dyeing, the waste water conduit from the tank to krashen what I entered in the acoustic hydrocyclone. With the help of a special device inside the hydrocyclone is created intense hydrodynamic flow, and using a second device - excessive static pressure of not less than 2.5 ATM. Simultaneously, using the second multi-channel ultrasonic signal generator and the second multi-channel power amplifier are formed and amplified to the required level, and by using multiple ultrasonic transducers located outside of the hydrocyclone at the same angular distance from each other, the continuous radiation of intense ultrasonic waves at a frequency of ω3. And the object is removed from the dyeing vessel for dyeing and placed in a container for subsequent drying.

There is a method of dyeing fabric, which consists in applying paint and clean water not containing impurities and suspended solids in the tank, diluting with pure water in a predetermined proportion (for example, 1:10, etc. and the preparation of dye, heated dye to a temperature of 95...100°and the flow of dye into the tank for painting, in which pre-placed object dyeing fabric, finding within a specified time (for example, 1 hour etc)defined physico-chemical characteristics of the paint and the object dyeing, dye and object dyeing in the capacity for dyeing, subsequent drying of the object cu is the decisions and discharge of waste water (waste dye) into the container for temporary storage, the acquisition of object dyeing of a given color, as well as the removal and disposal of waste water /B. I. Stepanov introduction to the chemistry and technology of organic dyes. - M.: Chemistry, 1977, 488 S./.

The main disadvantages of the method are:

1. Limited scope due to the inability dyeing even certain types of tissue.

2. Low quality dyeing because of incomplete rastvorennoi paint, resulting in stains on fabrics and additional paint consumption.

3. Low quality dyeing due to partial penetration of the dye into the fabric, resulting in a loss of paint on the fabric after some time.

4. Low efficiency of dyeing due to the duration of the dyeing process and the use of a large number of colors.

5. The need to use new water to prepare the dye.

6. Low ecological culture dyeing due to the storage of wastewater in the factory before their removal and subsequent disposal and other

There is a method of dyeing fabric, which consists in applying paint and clean water in the tank, diluting with pure water in specified proportions, the addition of surface-active substances (surfactants) and the preparation of dye, heated dye to a temperature of 95...100°and submission of dye in the tank for dyeing, in which pre-placed object dyeing-fabric, finding within a specified time determined physico-chemical characteristics of paints, surfactants and object dyeing, dye-surfactant and object dyeing vessel for dyeing, subsequent drying fabric and discharge of waste water into the container for temporary storage, the acquisition of object dyeing of a given color, as well as the removal and disposal of waste water / Safonov V.V. Modern trends in chemical technology of textile materials /Textiles, No. 5, 2002, p.39-42/.

The main disadvantages of the method are:

1. Limited scope due to the inability dyeing of all types of tissue.

2. Insufficient quality dyeing due to incomplete penetration of the dye-surfactant into the fabric, resulting in uneven dyeing of fabrics and loss of paint on the fabric after some time.

3. Low efficiency of dyeing due to the duration of the dyeing process and the use of a large number of colors.

4. The need to use clean water to prepare the dye.

5. Low ecological culture dyeing due to the storage of wastewater in the factory before their removal and subsequent disposal.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed is a method of dyeing using ultrasound, selected as a JV is soba-prototype dyeing, consisting of ink mass m1and net water volume V1in the tank, diluting with pure water in specified proportions, their mechanical stirring and cooking dye, pre-heating for 15...20 min of dye to a temperature of 35...40°With, the supply of pre-heated dye in a container with ultrasonic radiator, exposed for 3...5 min of intense ultrasound on the dye, the change of physico-chemical properties of the dye under the influence of nonlinear effects - cavitation and others, the final heating for time t1dye to a temperature of 95...100°With, the supply of dye in the tank for dyeing, in which pre-placed object dyeing fabric, finding within a specified time determined physico-chemical characteristics of the dye and fabric, dye and object of dyeing fabric in the capacity for dyeing, subsequent drying fabric and discharge of waste water into the container for temporary storage, purchasing fabric of a given color, as well as the removal and disposal of waste water / rubanik CENTURIES, Aristov A.A. Dyeing textile materials using ultrasonic vibrations. - Proceedings of the international conference "Ultrasonic technological processes", Severodvinsk, 2000, 56-59 C./.

The main disadvantages of the method-proto the IPA are:

1. Limited scope due to the inability dyeing even certain types of fabrics, as well as other objects (for example, leather, plastic and so on).

2. Insufficient quality dyeing due to incomplete penetration of the dye into the fabric, resulting in uneven dyeing of fabrics and loss of paint on the fabric after some time.

3. Low efficiency of dyeing due to the duration of the dyeing process and the use of a large number of colors.

4. The constant need to use pure water to prepare the dye.

5. Low ecological culture dyeing due to the storage of wastewater in the factory before their removal and subsequent disposal of other company and others

The problem is solved by the invention is to develop a method free from the above drawback.

The technical result of the proposed method is effective and quality dyeing of any materials in the reduction of paint consumption and time of dyeing, and effective cleaning and disinfection of waste waters and their subsequent use as a circulating water for the preparation of dye.

According to the proposed invention is a continuous method of dyeing of polymeric materials using ultrasound, is

feed the estimated computational method the number of dye, water and excipients depending on the nature of the substrate in the tank for the preparation of the dyeing composition with mechanical stirring and heating it to a temperature of 35-40°C

applying the dyeing composition in a container with an ultrasonic emitter with a frequency of 104-106Hz

the impact within 1-5 minutes in the specified frequency range depending on the nature of the dye providing activation of the dyeing composition,

with the subsequent direction of the dyeing composition in the tank for dyeing, equipped with an ultrasonic transmitter with a frequency of 104-106Hz with her placed in a substrate previously subjected in this capacity by ultrasound in the specified frequency range, ensuring the preservation of the structure of the material, the presence of the substrate in the specified activated dye composition at a gauge pressure of 0.5-1.0 atmosphere within 3-15 minutes, rinsing the dyed substrate with water, subjected to the capacity to activate water by ultrasound in the frequency range 104-106Hz and further washed direction of the painted substrate on a stage of drying, and wastewater - in capacity for water purification, equipped with an ultrasonic transmitter with a frequency of 104-106Hz at a gauge pressure of 2.5 to 5.0 atmospheres, followed in what surasena purified water in the cycle of the dyeing process.

Figure 1 and 2 shows a structural diagram of a device that implements a method of dyeing using ultrasound.

The device includes: an object dyeing (I): l0before dyeing, l1during dyeing, l2after dyeing, as well as consistently functionally United: capacity (2) for pure water, the conduit (3) for pure water, inside of which there are several (at least two) of the inserts (4) changing the length of the insert diameter from minimum: ˜5% of the internal diameter of the conduit, to the maximum: ˜95% of the internal diameter of the conduit, a pump (5) for pure water; capacity (6) for the preparation of the dye, which is located inside the first drum (7) for mixing dye, while the second input capacitance (6) from the reservoir (8) is the paint, and from the tank (9) via a steam line (10) and the first valve (11) is fed with steam; capacity (12) for exposure to ultrasound at a frequency of ω1the dye, which is located inside the ultrasonic emitter (13) on the frequency ω1; capacity (14) for dyeing, which is located inside the second drum (15) for mixing the dye, and outside at the same angular distance from each other, there are several (at least 2) ultrasonic emitters (16) on the frequency ω2the first device (17) to create a redundant article is political pressure not less than 0.5 ATM and the second valve (18) steam (10); the water conduit (19) for wastewater, acoustic hydrocyclone (20), which is located inside the device (21) to generate a hydrodynamic flow and the device (22) for output of purified water, and outside at the same angular distance from each other, there are several (at least 2) ultrasonic emitters (23) on the frequency ω3the second device (24) to generate excessive static pressure of not less than 2.5 MPa and a removable storage device (25) for removing sludge from waste water; water (26) for treated wastewater, the connecting device (22) for output of treated wastewater and capacity (2) for pure water. While working surfaces of all ultrasonic transducers located outside the vessel (14) for dyeing and hydrocyclone (20), fully in contact with the liquid environment: food coloring in the tank (14) and waste water in the hydrocyclone (20).

The device comprises a container (27) for pre-treatment of the object dyeing (1), which is located inside the radiator (28) of the acoustic waves at the frequency Ω and the emitter (29) of electromagnetic waves at the frequency f.

The device also contains sequentially electrically connected: ultrasonic generator (30) of the signals at the frequency ω1the amplifier (31) signals at a frequency of ω1and ultrasonic emitter (13) on the frequency ω1; the first mnogo the national (by number of channels power amplifier and emitters) ultrasonic generator (32) signals at a frequency of ω 2multichannel (according to the number of emitters) power amplifier (33) signals at a frequency of ω2and ultrasonic emitters (16) on the frequency ω2; the second multi-channel (number of channels power amplifier and emitters) ultrasonic generator (34) signals at a frequency of ω3multichannel (according to the number of emitters) power amplifier (35) signals at a frequency of ω3and ultrasonic emitters (23) on the frequency ω3; generator (36) of the acoustic signals at the frequency Ω, a power amplifier (37) signals at a frequency of Ω and the emitter (28) of the acoustic waves at the frequency Ωand the generator (38) electromagnetic signals at a frequency f, the power amplifier (39) signals at the frequency f and the emitter (29) of electromagnetic waves at the frequency f.

In addition, the device comprises a receptacle (40) for the subsequent drying of the object dyeing (l2and the third valve (41)located on the steam line (10), through which the receptacle (40) from the tank (9) is fed with steam.

The device operates as follows (figure 1 and 2).

From the tank (2) net water volume V2the conduit (3), inside which there are several inserts (4) variable length diameter from minimum to maximum by means of a pump (5) enters the tank (6) for the preparation of the dye. In places the "narrowing" (maximum is hydrated diameter of insertion) of the conduit (3) due to the acceleration of the water pressure drops, and the resulting negative pressure promotes the formation and growth cavitation bubbles. In the places of "extensions" (minimum diameter of the insert) of the conduit (3) as a result of inhibition of water pressure increases and the cavitation bubbles collapse. The thus treated water in the future will be much more efficient to transfer the dyes in a more dispersed state, which, ultimately, will accelerate not only the diffusion of the dispersed dye molecules, but also their interaction with functional groups present, for example, in macromolecules of polymer fibers. At the same time, capacity (6) for the preparation of the colorant from the reservoir (8) is the paint mass m2on the basis of given proportion (e.g. 1:10 etc). Using the first drum (7)inside the container (6)is uniform mixing of pure water volume V2and paints mass m2to avoid the ingress of particles of dry paint on the object dyeing and education unevenly colored spots. Then the prepared dye solution for 10...15 min, heated to a temperature of 35...40°steam (hot air), opened at a certain time of the first valve (11) on-line (10) and providing a flow of steam from the tank (9) into the container (6) for the preparation of dye.

Simultaneously, with the help and generator (36) of acoustic signals and a power amplifier (37) is the formation and strengthening to the required level of acoustic signals at a frequency of Ω and with the help of the emitter (28) - radiation of acoustic waves at a frequency of Ω on the surface of the object dyeing (10), as well as with the generator (38) electromagnetic signals and a power amplifier (39) is the formation and strengthening to the required level of electromagnetic signals at a frequency f and with the help of the radiator (29) - continuous radiation of electromagnetic waves at the frequency f on the surface of the object dyeing (10). Under the influence of acoustic waves on frequency Ω and electromagnetic waves at the frequency f is the change in physico-chemical surface properties of the object dyeing, which further speeds up the process of dyeing (t2<t1), increases the depth of dyeing, improves the uniformity and strength of the dyeing, and also reduces the mass of the used dye (m2<m1and other

Next heated to a temperature of 35...40°With the dye enters the tank (12). Simultaneously, by means of the ultrasonic generator (30) and power amplifier (31) is the formation and strengthening to the required signal level at the frequency ω1and with the help of ultrasonic transducer (13) is continuous radiation, after filling dye tank (12), intensive ultrasonic waves at a frequency of ω1that is close to the resonant frequency of the KAV is operating bubbles dominant in the dye. This wave causes the dye such nonlinear effects as cavitation, svecokarelian effect, dispersion, etc. While cavitation provides further micro impact, mikropotokami and heat, and svecokarelian effect - intensive penetration of the dye into the smallest pores of the object dyeing (e.g., tissue).

Further prepared above, the dye enters the tank (14) for dyeing, which is located inside the object dyeing (11), pre-processed acoustic and electromagnetic waves in the vessel (27). With the help of the second drum (15)inside the vessel (14)ensures uniform mixing of the dye, using the first device (17) in the container (14) is created excessive static pressure of at least 0.5 ATM, and the second valve (18) is provided by the flow of steam in the steam hose (10) from the tank (9) into the container (14) and cooked above described dye with the object dyeing (11finally heated to a temperature of 95...100°C. Simultaneously, using the first multi-channel (number of emitters) of the ultrasonic generator (32) signals at a frequency of ω2and the first multi-channel amplifier (33) is the formation and strengthening of the required signal level at the frequency ω 2and with the help of several (at least 2) ultrasonic emitters (16)located outside the vessel (14) at the same angular distance from each other, the radiation of the ultrasonic signal at a frequency of ω2. This wave additionally causes the dye such nonlinear effects as cavitation, svecokarelian effect, dispersion, etc. While cavitation additionally provides further micro impact, mikropotokami and heat, and svecokarelian effect - intensive penetration of the dye into the smallest pores of the object dyeing.

After dyeing, the duration of which is determined by the physico-chemical properties of the dye and the surface of the object dyeing (t2<t1), the conduit (19) waste water from the tank (14) for dyeing enters the acoustic hydrocyclone (20). With the help of the device (21) inside the hydrocyclone (20) is created intense hydrodynamic flow, and using a second device (24) - excessive static pressure of not less than 2.5 ATM. Simultaneously, using the second multi-channel (number of emitters) of the ultrasonic generator (34) signals and the second multi-channel amplifier (35) is formed and amplified to the required level signals at the frequency ω3and with the help of several (at least 2) Ultrazvuk what's emitters (23), located outside of the hydrocyclone (20) at the same angular distance from each other, the continuous radiation of intense ultrasonic waves at a frequency of ω3.

Under the influence of static pressure, intense hydrodynamic fields and intense ultrasonic waves is efficient separation of water from various impurities. As a result of this process, the treated wastewater through the device (22), located inside the hydrocyclone (20), out, enters the conduit (26) for treated wastewater and then enters the tank (2) for pure water, which reduces the subsequent flow of pure water volume V1. While various impurities pressed against the inner walls of the hydrocyclone (20) and moving them down, go on a removable device (25) for removing sludge from the waste water. And the object dyeing (12) is removed from the container (14) for dyeing and placed in a container (40) for the subsequent drying of the object dyeing (l2), the steam which is supplied to the steam pipe (10) from the tank (9) via the third valve (41).

When you do this:

1. The expansion of applications is due to the fact that:

pure water is subjected prior to cavitation effects;

object dyeing exposed to intense acoustic and electromagnetic vanamide dyeing;

object dyeing and dye are subjected to continuous exposure to intense ultrasound during dyeing;

- in capacity for dyeing creates excessive static pressure, etc.

2. High quality dyeing and high efficiency dyeing is achieved due to the fact that:

pure water is subjected prior to cavitation effects;

object dyeing exposed to intense acoustic and electromagnetic waves to dyeing;

object dyeing and dye are subjected to continuous exposure to intense ultrasound during dyeing;

- in capacity for dyeing creates excessive static pressure, etc.

3. No need to use clean water for the preparation of the dye is achieved through tor, that:

- waste water under positive static pressure is exposed to intense ultrasound and hydrodynamic fields;

- reduce consumption of paint, clean water during dyeing and other

4. High ecological culture dyeing is achieved due to the fact that:

- waste water under positive static pressure is exposed to intense ultrasound and hydrodynamic fields;

- reduce consumption of paint, clean water during dyeing;

object dyeing under ergueta the effects of intense acoustic and electromagnetic waves to dyeing;

object dyeing and dye are subjected to continuous exposure to intense ultrasound during dyeing and other

Distinctive features of the proposed method are:

1. Advanced pure water is subjected prior to cavitation effects.

2. An additional object dyeing exposed to intense acoustic waves at a frequency of Ω and electromagnetic waves at the frequency f to dyeing.

3. An additional object of dyeing and dye are subjected to continuous exposure to intense ultrasound at a frequency of ω2during dyeing.

4. Additionally, the capacity for dyeing creates excessive static pressure of at least 0.5 ATM.

5. Advanced waste water under positive static pressure of not less than 2.5 ATM exposed to intense ultrasound at a frequency of ω3and hydrodynamic effects.

6. Reduce paint consumption m1clean water V1and time of dyeing t1.

7. As the object dyeing additionally use other materials (for example, leather, plastic and other).

The presence of the distinctive features of the prototype features allows you to make a conclusion on the conformity of the proposed method the criterion of "novelty".

Analysis of the known technical solutions to detect them in the decree is the main distinguishing features showed the following.

Signs 2 and 7 are new and unknown to their use for dyeing using ultrasound.

Signs 1, 5, 6 are known, but unknown to their use for dyeing using ultrasound.

Signs 3 and 4 are well-known.

Thus, the presence of new significant features, in conjunction with well-known, provides the appearance of the proposed solutions new properties that do not match the properties of the known technical solutions effectively and efficiently to paint any objects (threads, fabrics, plastic and other) and lower consumption of paint and time of dyeing, as well as clean water for preparation of the dye.

In this case, we have a new set of features and their new relationship, and not easy integration of new features and is already known, namely the operations in the proposed sequence and leads to qualitatively new effects. This fact allows to make a conclusion on the conformity of the developed method the criterion of "substantial differences".

An example implementation of the method.

Pilot plant testing of the developed method was carried out in 2005, 2006, with the object of dyeing fabrics used were of different fibers (polyester, polyamide, polypropylene, PVC), plastics is s and other

It is known that the efficiency and quality dyeing of any object (yarn, fabrics and others) largely depend on the physical state of the dye before dyeing and, in particular, the size of the particles / B. I. Stepanov introduction to the chemistry and technology of organic dyes. - M.: Chemistry, 1977, 488 S./.

Figure 3 digits 3, 2 and 1, respectively denoted by the graphical dependence of the probability (P %) of finding the particle in the dye disperse blue 3, depending on their diameter (D, mm) using traditional dye, i.e. prepared without the use of ultrasound (similar); in the use of ultrasound in the preparation of the dye (prototype method), as well as the use of ultrasound in the preparation of dye and pre-cavitation effects on clean water used for preparation of the dye (a method).

As can be seen from figure 3, the particle size of the dye prepared in the traditional way (similar)is in the range of from a few microns to tens of microns and the average particle size is ˜6.5 microns (graph labeled figure 3 figure 3). This fact is the cause of the excessive ink in the preparation of the dye portion of the dye precipitates and so on), low quality paint (paint is not evenly distributed across the object dyeing, ill hold is provided on its surface and so on), the duration of the dyeing process, etc. However, when implementing the prototype method (graph labeled figure 3 figure 2.) the above disadvantages are eliminated only partially. And only in the process of implementation of the developed method (graph labeled figure 3 figure 1), the above drawbacks are eliminated almost completely. While the bulk of the particles in the dye has a size of from a few μm to ˜5 μm, and the average particle size is ˜2.5 μm.

On figa presents experimentally obtained dependence of the average particle diameter of the disperse dye purple K (d, μm) depending on time (τ, min) influence of ultrasonic oscillations in the tank for exposure to ultrasound at a frequency of ω1the dye (item 12 in figure 1) for the developed method (curve with index 1 on Figo) and the prototype method (curve with index 2 on figa). Here is specified intervals Δτ1for the developed method (Δτ1and the prototype method (Δτ2), within which under the influence of ultrasound decreases the average particle diameter of the colorant from the maximum to the minimum (positive effect), and comes back agglomeration of particles of the dye (negative effect).

In the bottom of figa (curve with index 1), in the developed method, the formation of fine-dispersed suspensions of the dye is carried out within ˜2.5 minutes and more active (more sharp decline curve), while in the prototype method for ˜5 min (curve with index 2). The reverse process (the formation of more coarse suspensions of the dye) of the developed method has only come through ˜8 min, while the method of the prototype after ˜6 minutes in Other words, in the method prototype under the action of ultrasound the formation of fine-dispersed suspensions of the dye enters the reverse process within just one minute, while the developed method for ˜5,5 minutes This circumstance is due to the positive impact of pre-cavitation effects on the pure water used in the preparation of the dye.

On figb shows the graphical dependence of the efficiency of dyeing (E %) from the time of dyeing (T, min) capacity for dyeing (item 14 in figure 1 and 2) for the developed method (curve with index 1 on figb) and the prototype method (curve with index 2 on figb). As can be seen from figb, the developed method, the dyeing process ends ˜ after 40 min, while in the prototype method ˜ after 80 minutes

This positive effect is due to the fact that the East water was subjected to prior to cavitation effects, the object dyeing was subjected to intense acoustic and electromagnetic waves to the dyeing vessel for dyeing was created excessive static pressure, etc.

Figure 5 shows the graphical dependence of the average particle diameter of the disperse dye yellow S (d, μm) depending on the temperature of the dye (t, deg.) concentration, g/l): 10 g/l (10), 15 g/l (K15and 20 g/l (20for the developed method (figa) and the prototype method (figb).

As can be seen from figure 5, the average particle diameter of the colorant in the developed method are much smaller than those of the prototype method with the same concentration of dye in the dye. From a practical point of view this means a significant reduction of paint consumption.

Thus:

1. The expansion of the scope and the possibility of obtaining a deep color on highly hydrophobic fibers such as polypropylene, and hydrophobic and thermoplastic fibers, such as polyvinyl chloride, due to the fact that:

pure water was subjected to prior to cavitation effects;

object dyeing was subjected to intense acoustic and electromagnetic waves to dyeing;

object dyeing and dye were subjected to continuous exposure and the intensive ultrasound during dyeing;

- in capacity for dyeing was created excessive static pressure, etc.

2. High quality dyeing and high efficiency dyeing is achieved due to the fact that:

pure water was subjected to prior to cavitation effects;

object dyeing was subjected to intense acoustic and electromagnetic waves to dyeing;

object dyeing and dye were subjected to continuous exposure to intense ultrasound during dyeing;

- in capacity for dyeing was created excessive static pressure, etc.

3. No need to constantly use clean water to make a dye and high ecological culture dyeing is achieved due to the fact that:

- waste water under positive static pressure was subjected to intense ultrasound and hydrodynamic fields;

- reduced paint consumption, clean water during dyeing and other

object dyeing and dye were subjected to continuous exposure to intense ultrasound during dyeing and other

Continuous dyeing of polymeric materials using ultrasound, in which

applying the estimated computational method the number of dye, water and excipients depending on the nature substr is the capacity for the preparation of the dyeing composition with mechanical stirring and heating it to a temperature of 35-40° With,

applying the dyeing composition in a container with an ultrasonic emitter with a frequency of 104-105Hz

the impact within 1-5 min in the specified frequency range depending on the nature of the dye providing activation of the dyeing composition,

with the subsequent direction of the dyeing composition in the tank for dyeing, equipped with an ultrasonic transmitter with a frequency of 104-106Hz with her placed in a substrate previously subjected in this capacity by ultrasound in the specified frequency range, ensuring the preservation of the structure of the material, the presence of the substrate in the specified activated dye composition at a gauge pressure of 0.5-1.0 ATM for 3-15 min, washing the dyed substrate with water, subjected to the capacity to activate water by ultrasound in the frequency range 104-106Hz and further washed direction of the painted substrate on a stage of drying, and wastewater - in capacity for water purification, equipped with an ultrasonic transmitter with a frequency of 104-106Hz at a gauge pressure of 2.5 to 5.0 ATM with the subsequent return of treated water to the cycle of the dyeing process.



 

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The invention relates to dyeing and finishing production of the textile industry, and in particular to methods of printing fabrics made of cellulose fibers

FIELD: physical method for leather staining.

SUBSTANCE: claimed simplified method includes spraying of dyeing composition, containing (mass %): diphenylamine 0.3-2.0; tetrabromomethan 5.0-10.0; α-naphthol 0.01-0.03; and balance: methyl methacrylate-based varnish, onto the leather face, followed by ultraviolet exposure with wave-length of 300-400 nm at 25-300C for 0.5-1.0 min. Ferrocene and/or indole may be added in dyeing composition to complete color variety.

EFFECT: leather with improved hydrophobicity and physicochemical resistance.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: production of painted optically transparent polymeric films used in microelectronics, quantum electronics and opto-electronics.

SUBSTANCE: method for adding dye to polymers comprises steps of drawing polymer in adsorption-active liquid medium containing dissolved dye; further drying of polymer and annealing it; using as polymer non-oriented polymeric film of amorphous polymer; annealing polymer in temperature range beginning from temperature of polymer vitrifying till temperature of chemical decomposition of polymer with dye. Polymer is dried and annealed without holding it in tensioned state in direction of drawing.

EFFECT: possibility of realizing simplified process for producing optically transparent painted polymeric films.

4 ex

FIELD: polymer materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of modifying polymer materials and can be used in technology of finishing polymer materials. Invention provides process and composition for dyeing and texturing polymer surface, which resides in that polymer surface, preferably based on polyethylene-polyamine-hardened dian epoxide resin, is coated with composition of exothermic mixture of organic compound powders containing bensenesulfonic acid chloroamide sodium salt trihydrate (chloramine B) and 8-hydroxyquinoline taken in molar ratio (0.25-3.0):1, respectively. Mixture is then locally initiated and components react in a mode of wave self-propagating high-temperature synthesis.

EFFECT: reduced polymer surface modification time, avoided use of organic solvents, simplified equipment, and enabled obtaining homogenous or spectrum-gradient intensive color, resistant to light and atmospheric effects.

5 cl, 2 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: dye-finishing production.

SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with delivering dyeing composition heated up to about 35-40°C into the tank with ultrasound emitter at frequency being 104-106 Hz followed by the impact upon it for the period of about 1-5 min; guiding it into the tank for dyeing supplied with ultrasound emitter at frequency ranged 104-106 Hz with a substrate located in it, which was pre-subjected for ultrasound impact in this tank in the mentioned frequency range; availability of a substrate in the mentioned activated dyeing composition at excessive pressure of about 0.5-1.0 atm for the period of about 3-15 min followed by washing with water subjected to ultrasound impact in the tank for water activation in frequencies ranged 104-106 Hz followed by drying. Waster water should be guided into the tank for water purification supplied with ultrasound emitter at frequency being 104-106 Hz at excessive pressure ranged 2.5-5.0 atm with subsequent return of the purified water into the cycle of dyeing process. The innovation provides intensification of dyeing process and shortened expenses of dyestuff and supplementary substances.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

5 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: textiles, paper.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of dyeing-finishing production, namely to steam-phase dyeing of textile materials or natural suede. Proposed method of dyeing includes generation of unsaturated vapors of dye in process of dye evaporation in combination with thermoplastic polymer with their mass ratio of 1:3-1:5 at the temperature of 250-600°C and pressure of 5-10-4 - 5-10-7 mm of mercury column and simultaneous dyeing in mixture of generated dye vapors and thermoplastic polymer.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to improve extent of dye fixation on material with preservation of material physical and mechanical properties due to elimination of undesirable structural changes of polymer material in process of steam-phase dyeing.

1 cl, 2 tbl, 23 ex

FIELD: textiles, paper.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of polymer materials dyeing technology with application of waves of various physical nature. Device is described for continuous dyeing of polymer materials, including spray-apparatuses for dyeing and reservoirs of ultrasonic, electromagnet-acoustic and hydroacoustic activation of waves, excessive static pressure and intense hydrodynamic field.

EFFECT: proposed device provides for reduction of dyeing composition consumption, reduced time of dyeing, fixation of dye on material and drying, and also efficient treatment of drainage water from suspended matter and colloid particles by a relatively simple method and possibility of its reuse in production.

1 cl, 7 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: described is a method of recording information on polymers through thermal action on a polymer, involving local thermal processing of a polymer at temperature below its glass transition point. The polymer used is a polymer object with a prolate form (film, fibre, tape, pipe, rod), made from plasticised or unplasticised, amorphous or amorphous-crystalline polymer, initially subjected to stretching in a adsorption-active medium from alcohols at temperature below glass transition point of the polymer, and then treated with a solution of non-thermochromic dye selected from a group comprising Rhodamine 6G, methyl green and methylene blue at temperature below glass transition point of the polymer and drying at temperature below glass transition point of the polymer.

EFFECT: invention simplifies the method of recording information on polymers.

6 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: textile, paper, polymer fibre.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to production of heat sensing devices on base of polymers and can be implemented for control over temperature in various industrial processes and in household use. Here is disclosed the procedure for production of heat sensing devices on base of polymers by means of polymer treatment with solution of dye; further polymer is dried at temperature below temperature of glass transition. As polymer there is used a polymer item of elongated shape, such as film, fibre, band, pipe, or rod, fabricated of plasticised or non-plasticised amorphous or amorphous-crystallised polymer drawn into adsorption active medium at temperature below temperature of polymer glass transition. As dye there is used not thermo-chromic dye chosen from a group including Rodamin 6 ZH, Methyl green and Methylene blue; also polymer is treated with dye solution at temperature below temperature of polymer glass forming.

EFFECT: facilitating simplified procedure for production of heat-sensing devices on base of polymers, expands range of implementation, also produced heat-sensing devices with irreversible mode of operation.

6 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: described is a method of making polymer-based temperature sensors by treating a polymer with a dye solution and subsequently carrying out operations over the polymer, which include drawing the polymer in an adsorption-active medium of an alcohol solution of a non-thermochromic dye selected tom a group comprising Rhodamine 6G, Methyl green and Methylene blue, at temperature lower than glass-transition point of the polymer, and drying the polymer at temperature lower than glass-transition point of the polymer. The polymer used is a prolate form polymer product - film, fibre, tape, pipe or rod, made from plasticised or non-plasticised, amorphous or amorphous-crystalline polymer.

EFFECT: invention simplifies the technique of making polymer-based temperature sensors and making temperature sensors whose effect has an irreversible character.

6 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: composition includes a (meth)acrylic oligomer, a photopolymerising (meth)acrylic monomer with more than one (meth)acrylic group, a photoinitiator, a non-ionogenic surfactant and a dying agent - a product of dye application - cation, direct, acid, active or disperse one at nanostructured particles of montmorillonite or montmorillonite modified with cationic surfactant, or a hydrotalcite. To reduce time of irradiation with UV light required for fixation, and to increase stability of dying, the composition may additionally include a coinitiator and a (meth)acrylic polymer, and also a defoaming agent to prevent foaming, when composition components are mixed. To improve dispersion of dyed nanostructured particles, the composition contains a non-ionogenic surfactant.

EFFECT: increased stability of dyed material to physical-chemical effects, reduced time of irradiation with UV light required for strong fixation of dying, and provision of additional colouristic effects by variation of both dye content on particles and content of dyed particles.

3 tbl, 38 ex

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